COVID Vaccination and Attendance Policy

Sample Position Paper 2


First Committee of the General Assembly: Disarmament and International Security

I. Assistance to States for Curbing the Illicit Traffic in Small Arms and Collecting Them

We firmly believe in the importance of working to curb the illicit traffic in small arms and providing assistance to those states in need. Moreover, we wish to stress the need for the full cooperation of the international community in these matters. Recognizing the need for increased global awareness concerning the issue of illicit trafficking of small arms, we express our hope that United Nations Conference on the Illicit trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in its full aspects will produce a meaningful action plan that will include a time table for: implementation of concrete measures that will actually reduce the role of small arms and light weapons in circulation around the world, prevent problematic transfers, promote transparency and openness, reduce the role of small arms and light research in undermining human security through exacerbating armed conflict, impede activity in gross violation of human rights and destabilizing societies. We believe that the following issues should be the action plan at the conference: supply-side measures, demand-side measures, the promotion of responsibility and restraint with regard to the production and transfer of small arms, development of agreed upon norms for the security and management of the stockpiles of all arms, and the elaboration of the universal norm that calling for the destruction of all small arms that States have confiscated.

We also believe in the importance of controlling ammunition for small arms and would like to this area approached as a possible solution to the problem. As the Minister of Foreign Affairs, Lloyd Axworthy, has said, “Small arms are ubiquitous, but they are useless without ammunition. We should consider how we might track, control or mark ammunition as one way of controlling the lethal effect of these weapons sometimes it is too late to stop the supply of the weapons themselves; but if you stop the supply of bullets, you stop the killing.” We also wish to stress the utmost importance of increased transparency in the trafficking of small arms.

The implementation of these things is essential to the promotion of unity on a global scale.

II. The Relationship Between Disarmament and Development

We firmly assert that the most practical and viable way by which the issue of nuclear disarmament should be addressed is by a continuous step-by-step process to reduce and eliminate nuclear weapons through steadily advocating national, bilateral, and multilateral measures. We believe that these measures include the support and strengthening of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and the signing and ratifying of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). We also stress the importance of such measures as the Geneva Convention, the Conference on Disarmament and such bilateral treaties as START, START II and continuing negotiations on START III. We believe that treaties such as the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty and the Ottawa Treaty on landmines are also of the utmost importance. The examples above illustrate the international community’s effort to begin disarmament, and we applaud these efforts. We further support United Nations’ action in General Assembly (GA) Resolution 53/77 and GA Resolution 54/54. In the words of Lord Axworthy, “Our responsibility to defend our citizens begins not with the development of new weapons systems, but by dismantling the old ones: by ratifying the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, by joining the 104 state parties to the Ottawa Treaty, and by implementing the national non-proliferation norms and disarmament obligations embodied in the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.” Through the enforcement of the NPT, CTBT, and ABM and Ottawa Treaties and the continued effort to accomplish other agreements, the international community can someday achieve the UN’s ultimate goal of turning swords into ploughshares.

We affirm the connection between the disarmament of weapons and development of nations. Through money formerly spent on the increasing and stockpiling of weapons, funding can be available for education, agriculture, and health care. Through the dedicated achievement and implementation of arms control and disarmament programs, global growth and stability are secured for the future.

Fourth Committee of the General Assembly: Special Political and Decolonization

I. Report of the Special Committee to Investigate Israeli Practices Affecting the Human Rights of the Palestinian People and Other Arabs of the Occupied Territories

Our stance on the Middle East conflict is, and will continue to be, the pursuit of a peaceful solution in the region. In the past fifty years, we have sent personnel and funds to aid in the Middle East peace process, and it will continue to do so until peace is achieved. We are increasing its efforts and forming human security centers such as the Regional Human Security Centre in Jordan. We believe that the basic human security of the Palestinian refugees is a vital issue before the United Nations, and therefore encourages all of Member States to aid in the fulfillment of that security. We realize the role of sovereignty regarding international cooperation within a state’s borders, however we strongly support the General Assembly Resolution 54/79, which outlines the need for humanitarian aid to the Palestinian refugees and demands their human rights not be violated by the occupying Power.

Groups such as the United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) have continued to strive to bring humanitarian aid to the refugees. However, recent reports indicate that the humanitarian conditions in the refugee camps are getting worse, and frustrations are growing. The camps are overcrowded to unsanitary levels, the school system is grossly inadequate, and disease rampant. Basic infrastructure in the camps is poor, since, for example, there are no sewer systems and in some cases no roads. We encourage the international community to support the increase of humanitarian aid and financial commitments to these suffering refugees. As the Minister of Foreign Affairs Lloyd Axworthy, affirms: “Peace begins and ends with people.” We join our North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) allies in supporting the Palestinian Authority’s postponement of its declaration of sovereign statehood. The lives and the well being of the refugees in the occupied territories depend on the timely, effective, and equitable negotiations of the parties involved in an overall peace settlement.

II. Participation of Volunteer “White Helmets” in Activities of the UN in the Field of Humanitarian Relief, Rehabilitation, and Technical Cooperation for Development

Since its inception in 1995, the United Nations Volunteers/White Helmet Initiative (UNV/WHI) has become a vital tool of the United Nations in the world arena. We recognize the importance of the UNV/WHI and has demonstrated its commitment by continually supporting the UNV/WHI with both personnel and financial contributions. Along with the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, we continue to demonstrate our commitment to stability and security. We believe that all of its fellow member nations of the 4th committee should make this same recognition and abide by their pledges of financial and personnel support. We call on the GA 4th to adopt a resolution to hold accountable member states that fail to fulfill their promises of aid of either personnel or financial contributions.

We recognize that the host country must show full cooperation with the volunteers and that the host country’s sovereign borders should be respected. Moreover, we ask that regional organizations also be used so that an increase in understanding between cultures, political views, and economic status can be achieved. Furthermore, we support General Assembly Resolutions 54/98 and 52/171, which call for Member States to use the Special Voluntary Fund as a window to finance the UNV in their respective countries.

Fifth Committee of the General Assembly: Administrative and Budget

I. Financing of United Nations Interim Administrative Mission in Kosovo

We firmly believe that the success of UNMIK and the full implementation of Security Council Resolution 1244 depend first on ensuring “human security” for all residents of Kosovo. Human security can be progressively improved by continuing to send clear messages to the local communities that violence will not be tolerated by the international community and by supporting, at the community level, social and economic reconstruction efforts that are reweaving the fabric of normal life after the devastation and violence brought about by the Government in Belgrade. Moreover, we further support Resolution 1244 in community rehabilitation such as rebuilding schools and hospitals. We advocate the training of local health professionals in such fields as nursing and obstetrics, and the improvement in the ability of regional health offices to promote and protect good health and prevent disease among the people of Kosovo. The development of a major education program is also a priority for us. The program would include teacher training, replacement of destroyed or damaged school materials, and access to quality education for children and youth, particularly girls.

We believe that continuing to ensure the successful return of refugees depends on developing the already mentioned areas of social and physical security.

II. Natural Disaster Mitigation

We firmly support improving the ability of the United Nations to respond to natural disasters and complex emergencies in the most timely, effective, appropriate, and well-organized manner. Furthermore, we reaffirm the need for development of early warning systems and increased cooperation and communication between all actors both in and outside the government as stated in General Assembly Resolution 54/233. Advances in science and technology during the past decade have demonstrated that improved early warning can mitigate the effects of many disasters. We welcome the efforts of the Disaster Response Program, which utilizes technology to reduce the detrimental effects of natural disasters. We emphasize the need for improved cooperation and communication between existing multilateral, regional, and local partners working in the areas of disaster response.

We urge all Member States to increase cooperation and communication in using already established non-governmental organizations, which draw upon extensive experience and established information networks and systems for distributing goods. Furthermore, we encourage partnership between non-governmental organizations, local communities, and the private sector in order to achieve sustainable development.

Sixth Committee of the General Assembly: Legal

I. Establishment of the International Criminal Court

We emphasize the need for the establishment of an International Criminal Court (ICC), which will provide the best means for the security of human rights worldwide without impeding upon the sovereignty of other nations. A nation’s sovereignty will remain unhindered once the ICC is established due to the principle of “complementarity,” which allows states to handle their own criminal matters unless they are unwilling or unable, at which point jurisdiction is given to the ICC. For this reason, we affirm that the International Criminal Court both upholds jurisdiction and preserves justice. We applaud the efforts of the Security Council in its Resolution 827 in forming other international criminal tribunals in war ravaged areas like International Criminal Tribunals in Rwanda and the former Yugoslavia, in its attempt to bring war criminals to justice.

Although criminal tribunals are effective, they fall short in providing a permanent and consistent foundation of security for the international community. We align ourselves with the Secretary-General of the United Nations, Kofi Annan, when he says: “In the prospect of an international criminal court lies the promise of universal justice.” We urge all nations, international organizations, and NGOs to support the formation of the ICC, and to make their support widely known by persuading all members of the international community to also agree to the ICC.

II. Protocols Additional to the Geneva Convention Relating to the Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict

In our ongoing efforts to promote human security, we support the ratification of the protocols additional to the Geneva Convention relating to the protection of civilians in armed conflict. We understand that the protocols do not prohibit the use of nuclear weapons. We also understand that we are not to be bound by the prohibition in using military insignia or emblems in order to favor or impede military operations. Finally, we define “deployment” to mean any movement towards a place in which an attack will be launched. These reservations are made to show clearly how we are resolved to protect civilians during times of armed conflict. We concur with the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) in their belief to strengthen their partnership serving the victims of armed conflict. Additionally, we agree with the words of Cornelio Sommaruga, president of the ICRC, that the international community must “continue despite all obstacles to defend the interests of victims, all victims.” We conclude that the ratification of the additional protocols to the Geneva Convention will bring international cooperation in times of armed conflict.

We express concern for grave breaches of the protocols in the past and recalls General Assembly Resolution L/3097, which articulates that concern. As a reaction to these violations, we urge not only all Member States but also several international organizations to clearly support and ratify the protocols.

Economic and Social Council

I. The Review of the Declaration and Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development

We approach population issues guided by the recognition that they are integral to our citizens’ security and the stability of the international community. We recognize that population growth is a challenge to human security and to peace at the regional and international level. We concur with the global community, as decided at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), that investing in people and enabling them to realize their full potential is key to ensuring sustainable and balanced population growth and social and economic growth within the context of sustainable development. The ICPD Programme of Action (POA) affirms that slowing down population growth is one important factor in improving the quality of life in countries where there is an imbalance between demographic rates and social, economic, and environmental goals, while fully respecting human rights. We have succeeded in doing this by showing a significant decrease in birth rates from 372,453 births in 1995-1996 to 333,954 births in 1999-2000. We seek to ensure that population-related issues are addressed internationally in an integrated manner, within an overall sustainable development framework, and in a way that reflects and compliments domestic efforts in these areas.

We remain fully committed to meeting the goals set out in Cairo. The Special Session provides an excellent initial opportunity for both government and civil society to take stock of the progress made at all levels, to draw on lessons learned, to propose new strategies where necessary, and to deal with gaps in implementation. In cooperation with like-minded partners, we will work to ensure that the Special Session produces focused and measurable outputs to help move the population and development agenda forward.

II. Conservation of Biological Diversity

We recognize that biodiversity conservation will depend on building partnerships with other nations. The establishment of a consistent framework for sharing knowledge, technologies, and the benefits of biological resources is one of the key results of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). We believe that ultimately all nations will benefit from the conservation and sustainable use of the earth’s biodiversity. Our nation was the first developed country to ratify the CBD. If the global community fails to recognize the link between biodiversity loss and human well being, future generations will suffer significant ecological, economic, and social costs. The CBD provides opportunities for us to re examine our relationship with nature, create new global partnerships, harmonize its national activities, and develop new economic opportunities. The conservation of biodiversity and sustainable use of biological resources must be pursued in tandem with social and economic goals. To safeguard the earth’s natural legacy, national decisions made today must consider the needs of both current and future generations.

We have taken many steps to meet the obligations that we agreed to at the CBD. Preserving biological diversity means keeping the web of life whole for the future. It means learning more and using resources wisely. Although this is not a simple commitment, we believe it is a vitally important one.

III. Death Penalty and Human Rights

Our government believes that the protection of human rights and human security is vital to achieving equality among the international community. Being committed to the protection of human rights, we abolished the death penalty for all “ordinary” crimes in 1976 and for all crimes in 1998. In support of ECOSOC Resolution 1996/15, we reemphasize the call to all “member states in which the death penalty has not been abolished to effectively apply the safeguards guaranteeing protection of the rights of those facing the death penalty, in which it is stated that capital punishment may be imposed for only the most serious crimes, it being understood that their scope should not go beyond intentional crimes with lethal or other extremely grave consequences.”

We note that bringing about the abolition of the death penalty requires political leadership, leadership that will be exercised in the defense of human rights. Article three of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states: ” Everyone has the right to life, liberty, and the security of person.” We firmly support this principle and believe it should be respected throughout the international community. We express our hope that the respect of human rights includes the abolition of the death penalty.

IV. Strengthening the Cooperation between World Bank and the Economic and Social Council

Our government recognizes that cooperation between the World Bank and ECOSOC is important to the international community in regards to the effectiveness of both institutions. We recognize that in this dynamic and challenging world innovative thinking about the institutional arrangements between governments and individuals is necessary. We believe that the cooperation between these two institutions will help subsidize financial costs of organizing separate conventions; will eliminate the duplication of work; and will reduce the implementation of inefficient policies that are developed. We note that collaboration between the World Bank and ECOSOC could help the United Nations respond to the challenges of long term development and peace building in the international system; such an approach would need to be built around specific needs and clearly identified objectives. We are committed to providing a framework for the flow of information between the two institutions in order to better serve the countries affected by their decisions.

World Bank President James D. Wolfensohn states that, “We need to build coalitions for change; Coalitions with each other to put an end to the turf battles, wastage, and the duplication.” In regards to that statement Secretary General Kofi Annan responds, “By now we know that peace and prosperity cannot be achieved without partnerships involving governments, international organizations, the business community, and our society. In today’s world, we depend on each other.”

Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS

I. Education Issues and HIV/AIDS

We are convinced that the implementation of female education measures into current educational systems as a complement to and not in place of universal education measures should be actively pursued. As stated in the UNAIDS Report on the Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic,while falling HIV infection rates have been seen in young women of all educational levels, the fall has been most dramatic among the better educated.

Further, we firmly support working to educate those young people who are unable to attend school. As stated in the UNAIDS document Adapting the Education Sector to the Advent of HIV/AIDS, school environments are stagnating. We regret to remind the international community that what marginalized groups have in common is an increased vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. We fully believe, as mentioned in the UNAIDS Report on the Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic,that one useful approach to reducing the vulnerability of these children is to encourage the participation of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), which may have more credibility with certain groups and be able to reach them better. To further this goal, we call upon Member States to collaborate with NGOs in order to identify effective ways of reaching and educating these at-risk groups of children. We firmly assert that by focusing on the education of those groups on the margins of society that the HIV/AIDS pandemic can and will be curbed.

Moreover, we strongly recognize the role of men as significant to curbing unhealthy sexual behavior and to challenging harmful concepts of masculinity. We note further that these aspects of masculinity in society increase both male vulnerability and the likelihood of the infection of sexual partners. As stated in the UN Commission on the Status of Women,we uphold that men must be encouraged to take responsibility in matters relating to sexuality, reproduction, and child rearing. We believe in challenging unhealthy attitudes caused by traditional, societal, and economic pressures placed on men and in educating adolescent boys for a more flexible vision of manhood. We reaffirm that gender inequity is a primary factor in the spread of HIV/AIDS. As the director of the UNAIDS program for Eastern and Southern Africa, Elhadj As Sy, states: “Without addressing behavior, the response to prevention strategies will always be limited.”

II. HIV/AIDS Crisis in Sub-Saharan Africa

We regretfully note that HIV/AIDS is too often seen only as a medical problem, however we concur with Dr. Peter Piot, director of UNAIDS: “AIDS cuts across agencies, disciplines, national boundaries, and has become a full-fledged development crisis.” Therefore, we strongly assert that only by adopting a holistic approach to examining the Sub-Saharan Africa pandemic can the international community be equipped to deal with the broader range of issues which must be addressed by prevention and care efforts. We promote alliances and joint efforts between local, regional, national, international agencies, non-governmental organizations, and grass-root campaigns. We contend all those alliances are necessary to formulate and implement the most effective and wide-reaching programs. While we support the continued research of HIV/AIDS drugs and vaccines, we, in accordance with the UNAIDS Report on the Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic,affirm that prevention and care programs are essential to hindering the deadly speed of the pandemic and to lessening the risk of future outbreaks. Additionally, We strongly advocate global action on the part of Member States to alleviate Official Debt Assistance to Sub-Saharan African countries so that these countries can concentrate more of their resources on HIV/AIDS prevention measures.

Security Council

I. Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict

In the changing nature of conflict, civilians are increasingly becoming targeted, especially in the instances of ethnic warfare. We strongly believe that the United Nations plays a vital role in meeting the threats to human security, and that the protection of civilians in armed conflict is central to the Security Council’s mandate of maintaining international peace and security. As a result of our initiatives to chair open meetings on the topic of protection of civilians in armed conflict, human security is becoming an integral part of the Council’s deliberations, as shown in the adoption of Security Council resolution 1296 on April 19, 2000. This resolution is the culmination and reaffirmation of resolution 1265 (1999), the statement of the Security Council President on the twelfth of February, 1999 (S/PRST/1999/6), and the report of the Secretary-General on September 8, 1999 on the Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict (S/1999/957). Minister Axworthy also states that “the plight of civilians in armed conflict is urgent, growing, and global in the threat it poses to human security. It goes to the core of the Council’s mandate and deserves continued attention. The Council has the responsibility to act vigorously and resolutely. To do otherwise risks diminishing the Council’s standing and opens the way to a more disorderly and less secure world.” We believe that resolution 1296 provides the guidelines necessary for the incorporation of human security concerns.

In order to effectively meet the challenges of protecting civilians in armed conflict, we emphasize the necessity of rapid deployment. We support the broad restructuring of the UN’s Department of Peacekeeping Operations, specifically the concept of the Rapidly Deployable Mission Headquarters (RDMHQ). To supplement the rapid deployment of Peacekeeping forces it is necessary to have civilian experts in the fields of democratic governance, judicial reform, protection of children, media, and human rights available to support peace.

II. Sanctions in Angola

The situation in Angola is a direct and devastating threat to the security of the civilians in that region. The Uni‹o Nacional Para a Independ┬Éncia Total de Angola(UNITA) is responsible for the compromise of human rights that have occurred over the last twenty-five years and for the loss of over one million souls. We believe that the most effective way to end the conflict in Angola is through the use of carefully targeted sanctions. Minister Axworthy states “the purpose of the sanctions against UNITA is to promote a durable political settlement of the three-decades long conflict in Angola by requiring UNITA to comply with the obligations it freely undertook.” We intend to hold firm in its commitments outlined in Security Council resolutions 864 (1993), 1127 (1997), 1173 (1998), and 1295 (2000) and urges all other nation states to also adhere to those agreements. We recognize that the illicit trafficking of rough-cut diamonds out of Angola funds much of UNITA’s militaristic effort. By serving as the Chair of the Angola Sanctions Committee, as well as working with International Ministerial Diamond Conference, we strive to assist in the control of diamond trafficking. We are very pleased with the work of the Panel of Experts, which was established by Security Council resolution 1237 (1999) to collect information on the effectiveness of the Council’s sanctions against UNITA. We would like to see more bodies like this established by the Security Council in order to ensure the effectiveness of today’s sanctions.

We are working towards reforming the sanctions used by the UN in order to ensure their effectiveness. Our government donated 100,000 dollars to assist the independent monitoring mechanism of sanctions in April 2000, furthering the research needed to develop the most effective sanctions. In an address to the Council, Axworthy regarded sanctions as “a potent means to promote peace,” but went on to say, “we need to apply the experience of the past decade of sanctions — good and bad — to ensure that this powerful tool is used correctly, creatively, and coherently so that the result does not diminish, but rather advances, human security.” We intend to see the sanctions used by the UN, not only in Angola but in all sanctioned regions, become carefully targeted tools capable of stopping violence against civilians.

III. The Crisis in the Middle East

In response to the alarming developments in Israel, in the West Bank and Gaza since the 28 September 2000, we believe it is necessary to reaffirm that the resolution of the Arab and Israeli conflict must be based on Security Council resolutions 242 (1967) and 338 (1973). We deplore the loss of lives on both sides and calls on the Israelis and Palestinians to cease all violent actions. We maintain our recognition of the legitimacy of Israel as an independent state and continues to support its security, wellbeing and rights. We do not recognize permanent Israeli control over the territories occupied in 1967 and opposes all unilateral actions intended to predetermine the outcome of negotiations. The rights of the Palestinians must be realized through peace negotiations, and our policy does not exclude the creation of a Palestinian state should the decision be reached by through negotiations. In support of the peace process we have participated in the establishment of a Task FORCE with an emphasis on the special needs of the Palestinians and all refugees.

We applaud the efforts of the international community and the Secretary-General to bring the parties back to the negotiating table. We encourage the Security Council to continue to facilitate these efforts and to advocate dialogue.

Historical Security Council

I. Arab-Israeli Conflict in Occupied Territories

We firmly believe that a solution must be found to terminate the fighting and bloodshed that has plagued the Israeli and Palestinian people. For several hundred years, fighting in and around the Israeli territories has focused on the ancient religious and ethnic tensions between the Arab-Palestinians and the Jewish-Israelis. Since the adoption of Security Council Resolution 242 on November 22, 1967 an agreement to settle this dispute has been reached, and it is the world community’s responsibility to see that such agreement is upheld. In spite of the above mentioned agreement and SC Resolution 338 in 1973, fighting has continued and with the recent uprising of the Intifada in the Israeli occupied Palestinian territories, the world’s attention is once more focused in this volatile region.

On April 20th 1989, we, along with many other world powers adopted General Assembly Resolution 43/233 on the question of Palestine. Within this resolution the atrocities committed against the Palestinian people were condemned and Israel was called to desist immediately from its policies violating the Geneva Convention. The United Nations Organization has continuously been appalled by the unscrupulous violation of the human rights of the Palestinian people and has tried endlessly to resolve the conflict, and in doing so restore the rights promised to the Palestinian people in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

We are deeply saddened by the situation of the continuously abused Palestinian civilians, especially women and children. In light of the recently adopted Convention on the Right of the Child attention must be paid to the worsening conditions in which children in Israeli and Palestinian territories are forced to live. On this matter, we strongly call for the international community to provide protection for the most vulnerable and defenseless civilians involuntarily involved in the conflict. We also urge all involved parties to find a way to put human safety and well being above territorial struggles in order to secure the basic human right for all innocent civilians caught in the crossfire. Above all, we encourage enthusiastic cooperation among all nations in order to expedite the peace process in these regions and to promote improved living conditions for their population.

II. The Struggle with Apartheid in South Africa

We firmly believe that in order to live in a world free from injustice and racial prejudice, we, as the international community must take an active role in the eradication of the political structures in South Africa that have encouraged and nourished apartheid. For decades the white minority in South Africa has exercised an authoritarian regime of discrimination and repression against the non-white population. According to United Nations special Resolution 16, “while the apartheid system in South Africa persists, the peoples of Africa as a whole cannot achieve the fundamental objectives of justice, human dignity, and peace.”

The United Nations has repeatedly called for an end to the apartheid system in South Africa to no avail. For the first time in United Nations history, the body called for complete economic sanctions and an arms embargo to be placed on a member nation. The Special Committee against Apartheid has time and time again reported little or no cooperation on the part of the South African government. Political prisoners have been held for years without trial, and with no glimpse of justice in sight. The basic human rights of the non-white citizens of South Africa have been trampled under the feet of intolerance and prejudice for too long. The United Nations Special Committee against Apartheid has declared apartheid “clearly inconsistent with the Charter of the United Nations, that it constitutes a crime against humanity and an affront to the conscience and dignity of mankind.”

We strongly support the use of meaningful sanctions against the apartheid system in South Africa. Our goal is to see the government of South Africa become a nonracial, representative government. There are three main points to our strategy to achieve the full destruction of the apartheid regime in South Africa. The first is to apply pressure through means of economic sanctions and arms embargoes. Secondly efficient diplomatic dialogue is to be established with the purpose of instituting a government that will comply with the international community standards on human rights. Lastly we urge the provision of educational, financial and humanitarian aid to the innocent victims of apartheid. Apartheid should not be tolerated any further.

III. Political Instability in Latin America

We are deeply saddened by the unacceptable living conditions that the people of Latin America are forced to live with on a daily basis. The political instability in Central America has plagued the Americas for too long of a time, plunging the innocent civilians of the region into conditions of hunger and poverty. While it is understood by all involved parties that the conditions have been brought on by the incessant fighting among political parties vying for power in this region, we call for the international community to unite in an effort to encourage the upholding of the Guatemala City Agreements of 1987. This document, along with the two Joint Declarations made in the last two years, firmly establish the basis for the achievement of peace and security in this region.

Our government deeply regrets the lack of attention paid to the people’s struggle against the continuous violations of basic human rights on the part of the international community. This past November, the UN Security Council decided to postpone any action to appoint supervisory forces along the Nicaraguan/Honduras border. Due in part to the lack of active involvement in this region, the bulk of the responsibility has been placed upon the corresponding regional organizations.

In light of our recent joining of the Organization of American States (OAS), we have pledged to increase its involvement in these disputes that have affected the entire hemisphere. First, we will mount an increased number of trade missions in order to increase our stabilizing economic influence in Latin America. Second, we will increase its contributions in the war against illegal narcotics in the hemisphere. Third, we will lead the fight for debt relief in these impoverished nations. Fourth, we have offered to continue its active contribution of peace-keeping forces in this region. Fifth, we have promised to contribute $100 million in development aid.

IV. The Situation in Kampuchea

We firmly believe that the Kampuchean people have the right to democratically elect their national leaders. In the years since the gross human rights violations carried out by the Khmer Rouge under the leadership of Pol Pot, Kampucheans have lived in continuous political instability and economic uncertainty. The constant violent discord within this region has caused an astounding number of Kampucheans to seek refuge and food outside of their national borders. The innocent people of Kampuchea have suffered greatly for the wrong doings of their government and the friction between the numerous political parties warring for supreme political power.

The United Nations member states, in an exhausting effort to relieve the suffering of the defenseless Kampucheans have adopted General Assembly Resolution 44/22 on November 16, 1989. In doing so, they reiterated their desire that all foreign forces currently occupying this territory should immediately withdraw and allow an impartial administering authority to take control in order to achieve stability in this volatile region. The international community assembled in August of 1989 at the Paris Conference on Cambodia to discuss what further action must be taken. Unfortunately the efforts made to completely understand the historical roots of the conflict has been inefficient and has kept the international community from adopting an acceptable solution to this problem.

Due to our involvement in the Vietnam conflict we believe in our capability to play a pivotal role in the reconstruction of Kampuchean society and political structures. We also believe it imperative that the world community gather in support of the innocent civilians whose lives have been shattered by the preceding decades of instability.

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