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Position Papers by Committee

Position paper for International Atomic Energy Agency


Country:Australia
Topic: Nuclear and radiation safety
Paper text:
From its founding in 1957, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has served to promote peaceful usage of nuclear technology and the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons through acts such as the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). As one of the founding members of IAEA and a major financial contributor to the IAEA’s actions towards promoting nuclear safety, Australia is deeply concerned with promoting peaceful uses of nuclear technology and taking immediate action to prevent future nuclear disasters. In order to prevent such disasters, it is crucial that the IAEA puts forward regulations especially concerning the safe transportation of nuclear technologies, whether being transported nationally or internationally.
The Australian Safeguards and Non-proliferation Office (ASNO), founded in 1974, has put forward multiple legislations regarding the promotion of the NPT. Such actions include Australia’s Uranium Export Policy which states that Australian uranium can only be transported to States for peaceful purposes, in accordance with the NPT, and that both parties must act in account of the standards underlined in the IAEA’s safeguards agreements. Australia is also one of twelve countries that are a part of the Non-Proliferation and Disarmament Initiative (NPDI). As a part of the NPDI, Australia continues to work towards promoting the NPT, as well as working towards making sure that every State provides the utmost transparency with regards to nuclear technology usage.
With the growing demand for radioactive materials throughout the world, there is a pressing need for the IAEA to establish a legislation which outlines clear regulations for the safe transportation of radioactive materials. It should be established within this legislation that in the instance of transporting radioactive materials internationally, both the receiving and supplying parties transport the materials in a way that promotes the overall safety of anyone involved with handling the materials. It should be required that only those specially trained to deal with radioactive materials be in any form of contact with the materials at any point while the materials are in preparation for transport, transportation, or reception. The nation of Australia hopes to work with the IAEA in further research for the safe transportation and peaceful usage of nuclear technology in order to create a world which benefits from nuclear technology without the proliferation of nuclear weapons.
https://www.iaea.org/topics/non-proliferation-treaty https://www.dfat.gov.au/international-relations/security/asno/Pages/australian-safeguards-and- non-proliferation-office-asno https://www.iaea.org/publications/factsheets/iaea-safeguards-overview https://www.dfat.gov.au/international-relations/security/non-proliferation-disarmament-arms- control/policies-agreements-treaties/Pages/australias-uranium-export-policy

Country:Australia
Topic: Nuclear security
Paper text:
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was originally created in 1957, to provide international agreement and guidance in all areas of nuclear safety and security. As a member of the IAEA since the year of its inception and current member of the Board of Governors, Australia is in favor of nuclear security by means of nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament efforts through realistic and progressive approaches. Although both nuclear safety and security aim to minimize the damaging effects of ionization radiation; safety handles the risks of radiation from sources associated with typical usage or potential accidents, while nuclear security works with preventative measures related to international malicious acts connected to radioactive materials. While it is possible for nuclear safety measures to benefit both safety and security, there are also cases where these factors may work against each other. Both the safety standards of the IAEA and the nuclear security guidance insist standards should only be implemented in forms that avoid compromising either safety or security.
Australia, as a signer of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) in 1970 and a strong supporter ever since, does not currently possess or intend to come into the possession of nuclear weapons. Along with extending the NPT indefinitely in 1995, Australia actively supports and advocates for treaties aligned with disarmament and non-proliferation through international cooperation under existing structures. The NPT aims to gain the benefits of supporting health, food security, clean water, and aiding the environment by focusing on dialogues and building common ground. Although the NPT is a cornerstone as one of the most influential treaties, Australia supports proposals and treaties with similar goals; including the Non-Proliferation and Disarmament Initiative (NPDI), Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty (Treaty of Rarotonga), Fissile Material Cut-Off Treaty (FMCT), International Partnership for Nuclear Disarmament Verification (IPNDV). While committed to accomplishing the goal of a world without nuclear weapons, Australia does not support the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons (TPNW) and does not believe the TPNW would eliminate any nuclear weapons or even be a step in the right direction.
It is Australia’s position that resolutions for nuclear security are possible through increased international communication, even so the elimination of nuclear weapons requires incremental and practical steps. Achieving these goals is only possible through communication and common ground, engaging with all states internationally, including those states possessing or relying on nuclear deterrence for security.

Country:Austria
Topic: Nuclear and radiation safety
Paper text:
Austria emphasizes the importance of international cooperation on the topic of nuclear and radiation safety. Safety principles are inevitable for the management of hazardous materials. We believe that cooperation efforts are key to further establishing fundamental nuclear safety standards, such as those rooted in the 1994 Convention on Nuclear Safety. Austria closely aligns with the motives and ideas of the European Union (EU) on the issue. The EU sponsored the IAEA’s implementation of the International School of Nuclear and Radiological Leadership for Safety, and the School has successfully coordinated courses in a handful of countries throughout the world. We believe that more Member States should employ the tools provided by the IAEA, such as the International School of Nuclear and Radiological Safety and the Global Nuclear Safety and Security Network, to further establish fundamental safety standards and international cooperation on the issue of nuclear and radiation safety.
Deputy Director General Massimo Garribba—of the Directorate-General for Energy in the European Commission—acknowledges the value of peer review in the mission of enhancing cooperation in nuclear safety. Austria promotes the implementation of peer review services such as the Integrated Review Service for Radioactive Waste and Spent Fuel Management, Decommissioning and Remediation (ARTEMIS) and the Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS). States such peer review systems. We believe that these systems are responsible for the compliance of EU Member States with IAEA Safety Standards as well as our regional obligations for nuclear safety vested in the European Union Nuclear Safety and Waste Directives. It follows that Austria advocates for the implementation of such peer review systems throughout the international community, as actions taken by Member States positively contribute to global nuclear safety.

Country:Austria
Topic: Nuclear security
Paper text:
Austria looks forward to drafting resolutions that reinforces and expands upon the work done by the IAEA thus far. Documents of particular note to uphold within committee are The Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and UN Convention on the Suppression of Acts of Terrorism. Therefore, resolutions should include mechanisms to encourage states to seek out IAEA training centers. On this matter, Austria is interested in hearing states' ideas on how to effectively encourage and incentivize states to pursue training.
Additionally, Austria looks forward to drafting resolutions that address nuclear security as it pertains to the pressing issue of nuclear terrorism. The debate around the topic of nuclear terrorism should center around the need to expand awareness as it pertains to nuclear security. Awareness is one of the first steps in making sure that terroristic actors are deterred from behaving in the theft, threat of use, or use of nuclear material against any state. Moreover, this would include upholding the statues set forth within the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM). Austria looks to re-emphasize the importance of the CPPNM while also condemning states that have not effectively followed protocols. Furthermore, Austria would like to emphasize that we will not support any resolution that seeks to undermine the work of the IAEA. Our goal as Member States should be to deter states and non-state actors from mishandling nuclear material. The ability to do this effectively lies in the capacity of the IAEA to inspect and determine security threats within countries. Therefore, we look favorably upon resolutions that encourage states to request IAEA observation and advice in determining unsafe practices of the peaceful use of nuclear material and the possible threat of misuse of nuclear material regarding nuclear terrorism

Country:Canada
Topic: Nuclear and radiation safety
Paper text:
Nuclear and radiation safety revolves around the prevention of accidents involving the use of radiation or radioactive substances. This includes the implementation of protections in consumer products, nuclear medicine, and of course, at sites of atomic energy generation. Radiation leaks and accident prevention have come far since the days of the Chernobyl Disaster, as advances in technology continue to create safer nuclear reactors. That said, there are still valid concerns over the safety of nuclear energy, especially as relates to the risks posed by natural disasters and long term nuclear waste management.
Canada has long used nuclear energy to meet the demand for emissions-free energy. As the world shifts away from fossil fuels, we believe that nuclear energy will continue to play an important role in closing the energy gap as sources of renewable energy come online. When weighing the costs and benefits of nuclear power, we must come to the conclusion that embracing the safe development of atomic energy is the best way to combat climate change. The challenges posed by nuclear technology can be managed effectively by the IAEA, and we hope the policies we create at this Special Session will help us to further mitigate those risks.
Advances in reactor design, such as new Generation III reactors, alleviate much of the concern regarding radiation leaks and nuclear disasters. The implementation of passive nuclear safety, systems wherein the fission process is stopped automatically by a cutoff of coolant, are an excellent example of how technology can make nuclear power even safer going into the future. While passive safety technology on the scale of shutting down the entire reactor is fairly new, we believe that further research will yield systems which can reliably stop the fission process without any human intervention. Embracing these developments should be a key part of achieving the IAEA’s mission of encouraging innovation in peaceful nuclear programs.
In addition to embracing new technologies, Canada believes that the safe decommissioning of obsolete nuclear reactors is a cornerstone of responsible nuclear programs. While the IAEA should encourage the expansion of civilian nuclear programs utilizing the latest in safety technology, we must also work retroactively to render old nuclear sites safe for people and the environment. The creation of international standards regarding decommissioning coupled with support from an international team of engineers and scientists would provide Member States with the best resources for completing the decommissioning process.
Finally, the transportation of nuclear materials across borders must be a process closely monitored by the international community. Canada has already taken substantial steps to ensure the safe transport of nuclear materials within our borders, and we believe that these policies can be modified to serve the international community as well. Some examples of Canadian policy regulating this type of transport include regulations on the design, maintenance, and inspection of packaging. Furthermore, licenses are required to transport any type of radioactive material through Canada, and certain types of material (such as plutonium and enriched uranium) must be certified directly by the CNSC. We believe that an expansion of the IAEA would allow similar regulations to be implemented on a global scale, including international licensing of transporters, packaging manufacturers, and others involved in the supply chain.

Country:Canada
Topic: Nuclear security
Paper text:
Nuclear security involves the protection of nuclear material, radioactive substances, and their associated facilities from theft, sabotage, unauthorized access, illegal transfer, and other malicious acts. Historically, nuclear security has been viewed as the sole responsibility of the state hosting the nuclear program. As a result, modern nuclear security protocols vary between nations, and there is no comprehensive global system for tracking, protecting, and managing nuclear materials.
The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) was established in 2000 under the Nuclear Safety and Control Act and sets out detailed requirements regulating the use and transport of nuclear materials within the country. The CNSC is responsible for enforcing Canada’s Nuclear Security Regulations. Nuclear security in Canada is legislated at the federal level, which sets out detailed security requirements for licensed nuclear facilities. The CNSC’s objective is to control the development, production, and use of nuclear materials, as well as the production, possession, and use of nuclear substances, as well as the distribution and use of prescribed equipment and information, so as to prevent unreasonable risks to the environment and to people's health and safety. Nuclear power plants and research facilities are only a couple of the uses that the CNSC regulates nuclear material for. The CNSC also regulates facilities dealing in radionuclides used in chemotherapy, uranium mining facilities and refineries, and radiation sources used in oil exploration and precipitation measuring devices. Additionally, the CNSC licenses the transportation, import, and export of nuclear materials, equipment, technology, and dual-use items. The goal of the organization is to help the nation’s nuclear facilities achieve conformity with the regulations and international obligations Canada has accepted.
Nuclear material poses a great risk to society when it is uncontrolled. Even the idea of nuclear terrorism inflicts great psychological damage to society. Alleviating these concerns and ensuring that no such attack can ever occur should be a primary goal of the IAEA and other involved agencies worldwide. The advent of cyber threats has further broadened our understanding of the need for nuclear security, and it is clear that now more than ever, the world needs a comprehensive plan to address these issues.
A quintessential part of modern nuclear security is cybersecurity. Hacking by malicious actors requires no confrontation with physical security, which has been at the forefront of nuclear security policy since the beginning of the nuclear age. While ensuring physical security meets IAEA standards at sites worldwide is critical, we must also emphasize the role digital security plays in keeping these materials secure. For these reasons, the delegation of Canada would like to see resolutions implemented which aim to bolster digital security at all nuclear sites worldwide in addition to improving physical security standards.

Country:China
Topic: Nuclear and radiation safety
Paper text:
Since the implementation of the National Nuclear Safety Administration, the People's Republic of China has been dedicated to the safety and quality of nuclear facilities. China recognizes the importance of nuclear power, and also recognizes the risks it gives to the environment, health of citizens, and stability of the nation as a whole. In lieu of this, China calls for an end to Japan’s water waste removal from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster, occurring March 11, 2011. We call for more international discussion regarding the dumping of grey level treated water. While the dumping does take place within the regulations of the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter 1972, nearby countries that are reliant on the Pacific Ocean have not been allowed to influence the decision. To do so, we request that nearby countries affected by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear disaster, that of the Republic of Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Russian Federation, and the People’s Republic of China collaborate on remediation. As we continue to increase our production of nuclear power plants, we push for continued cooperation between nations to increase nuclear power plant production. As we have committed to improving the lives of Chinese citizens by increasing the amount of clean energy produced through alternative means, we support that other nations assist in the development of foreign nations. We support the investment of education and professional training for new nuclear reactors to be built in developing nations. Doing so will decrease the environmental effects of traditional energy production, as well as giving developing nations an increased opportunity to grow.

Country:China
Topic: Nuclear security
Paper text:
The People’s Republic of China is dedicated to the proliferation and global expansion of nuclear power throughout the globe. Although with nuclear expansion comes considerable risks to global stability and security. With collaboration with the IAEA and other nations with nuclear power in the world, we believe that nuclear security can be significantly enhanced. Since nuclear power and weapons have been introduced in the 1st half of the 20th century, there have only been a handful of instances where the smuggling of highly enriched uranium has taken place, most of which occurred several decades ago. The collaborative security system that we seek from the other nuclear powers of the world would take extensive preventive measures to ensure that no terrorists’ group or non-state group would ever get hold of any nuclear technologies or highly enriched uranium. Technology sharing between this security pact would be a great way of ensuring that the nations that obtain nuclear technologies can work together to create a more secure network to cultivate a safer world for nuclear power. Because technology and computer systems are so rapidly being improved on a global scale, it’s vital that nations with nuclear power share information pertaining to nuclear security technologies. These efforts will help enshrine the IAEA with efforts to expand nuclear power and technologies globally in order to create more sustainable energy for all nations of the world, and not just the few powerful ones.

Country:Egypt
Topic: Nuclear and radiation safety
Paper text:
As nuclear technology continues to develop globally, ensuring the safe operation of nuclear facilities is essential to protecting both the public and the environment. The effects of nuclear radiation are potent and difficult to control, and as such it is paramount that the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) prioritizes nuclear and radiation safety. The Arab Republic of Egypt continues to collaborate with the IAEA as it develops its nuclear program, implementing specified safety standards and requesting review missions as the planning of the El Dabaa Nuclear Power Plant continues. Egypt is already party to many international legal instruments relating to nuclear and radiation safety, seeking to adopt safe policies as the country moves towards establishing its nuclear program. Egypt remains dedicated to harnessing nuclear energy peacefully and promoting the safe use of nuclear technology. The state continues to prioritize the stability and prosperity of the Middle East and envisions a future where nuclear power plays a large role in the region. Security, safety and continued development are essential to the success of any nuclear program and Egypt continues to pursue those ideals as nuclear research continues.

Country:Egypt
Topic: Nuclear security
Paper text:
Malicious use of nuclear material is a threat to regional and global security. Hence, the protection of nuclear substances and facilities is essential to maintaining a global atmosphere which fosters the peaceful use of nuclear technologies. Policies and treaties such as the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) protect this security, though it is imperative that the interests of non-nuclear-weapon states (NNWS) be protected under these instruments. The IAEA must prioritize the creation of a zone free of weapons of mass destruction in the Middle East (MEWMDFZ) to ensure the nuclear security of the area. Regional nuclear powers create a power imbalance, and the resulting gap in nuclear security is one that Egypt seeks to avoid. The establishment of a MEWMDFZ as outlined in the NPT Resolution 1995/32 on the Middle East would close this gap, allowing for the peaceful coexistence of these Middle Eastern nations. Egypt continues to prioritize the pursuit of peaceful applications of nuclear technology. However, if inaction in the Middle East continues, Egypt reserves the right to review its policies on nonproliferation and disarmament. Pursuit of the implementation of the 1995 NPT Resolution is Egypt’s nuclear security priority, with the goal of ensuring a Middle East free of weapons of mass destruction. The power imbalance created by the presence of nuclear weapons in this region is catastrophic and must be resolved. This resolution is the foundation of future security endeavors, and its implementation would protect the interests of not only Egypt but other Arab states.

Country:Estonia
Topic: Nuclear and radiation safety
Paper text:
As of 2021, there are 441 nuclear reactors in about 30 countries around the world. It is also estimated that 52 nuclear reactors are under construction. In Estonia’s geographic location, there are a total of 15 nuclear reactors and 4 nuclear reactors under construction in the following neighboring Member States: Finland and Russia. While there is data to suggest that a majority of nuclear reactors have been shut down, there is also data to suggest that there has been an increase in capacity in the existing nuclear reactor plants. Because the nuclear reactor incidents at Chernobyl, Mayak, and Fukushima Daiichi are still fresh memories for some Member States, it is imperative that the United Nations (UN) and the Member States closely monitor the existing and newly constructed nuclear reactor plants and implement effective safety protocols if a nuclear accident were to occur.
As noted by the Nuclear Safety Standards (NUSS) developed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Member States are obliged to follow the five basic requirements: governmental regulation of nuclear power plants; safety in nuclear power siting; safety in the design of nuclear power plants; safety in nuclear power plant operations; and quality assurance for the safety of nuclear power plants. However, following the nuclear power plant incident at Fukushima Daiichi, IAEA has amended their nuclear and radiation safety protocol to include provisions such as for the long-term operation of nuclear power plants, plant aging, and risk-informed decision-making processes. The IAEA reported that Estonia has strengthened its regulatory framework such as updating national safety protocols for medical, occupational, and public radiation exposure, and setting clear responsibilities for the inspection of nuclear plant facilities. While Estonia has flirted with the idea of building its own nuclear plant, it will do so in compliance with IAEA’s regulations.
Estonia believes that nuclear and radiation safety must include transparency between the Member States. Therefore, Estonia supports any resolution that will include seismological monitoring, on-site inspection of incidents that have not been satisfactorily explained, on-site monitoring of large non-nuclear power plants, and an International Data Center to process nuclear and radiation activities. We understand that in order to achieve true nuclear and radiation safety, compliance is key. Consequently, Estonia urges its fellow Member States to recollect that prior nuclear incidents could have been prevented, and any foretells of nuclear incidents shall not be ignored.

Country:Estonia
Topic: Nuclear security
Paper text:
According to the Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI), it is estimated that a total of 13,100 nuclear weapons exist in the world and that the majority of nuclear weapons are possessed by the following Member States: the United States and Russia. It is also estimated that 22 countries, who possess nuclear weapons or materials, are potentially vulnerable to theft. Hence, strengthening nuclear security is imperative for ensuring the protection of people and the environment. While the Republic of Estonia acknowledges the fact that individual Member States bear the primary responsibility for nuclear security, international coordination and cooperation are needed in this domain. Therefore, Estonia will continue to strengthen its cooperation with the United State in the field of nuclear security. Furthermore, the Republic of Estonia will continue to recognize the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and the crucial role it plays in strengthening the nuclear nonproliferation regulation while also encouraging the other Member States to follow suit. For instance, following the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty, we urge our fellow neighboring state, Russia to address its violations and accept responsibility. The Republic of Estonia will also adhere to the United Nations (UN) Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy, which encourages the Member States to combat the smuggling of radioactive material and to prevent the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.
In the wake of international insecurity and instability, the Republic of Estonia urges its fellow Member States to acknowledge that no region in the world is immune to the threat of nuclear security. Owing to this, the discussion of nuclear security should no longer revolve around the United States and Russia, but a shift must be made to include a multilateral discussion. Only then can the discussion of nuclear security be productive and inclusive.

Country:France
Topic: Nuclear and radiation safety
Paper text:
France is deeply committed to the safe and strictly regulated usage of nuclear energy and radiation protection. Since the first nuclear plant opened in France in 1964, nuclear power now constitutes 70.6% of domestic electricity originating from nuclear energy as of 2019. France is of the opinion that nuclear energy is one of the energy sources that will dominate the future. However, the 1986 Chernobyl and 2011 Fukushima accidents have made clear the need for all appropriate safeguards to protect against possible radiation contamination. We believe that precautions such as perfecting stress tests, developing comprehensive emergency procedures, and safe disposal of hazardous nuclear waste are a must. France is a signatory to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM) which protects the peaceful use of physical nuclear material used for during international transport, criminalization of nuclear material related crimes, and international cooperation in nuclear material related issues. France remains a firm supporter of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and its’ mandate.

Country:France
Topic: Nuclear security
Paper text:
France firmly believes that the safe storage and maintenance of existing nuclear weapons is one of the highest priorities of the world’s nuclear states, of which France is one of. We believe that a safe world is one in which nuclear weapons never have to be used, however we also believe that our nuclear stockpile is necessary to ensure our sovereignty and preserve our national security. However, the possible threat of entities such as rogue states or non-state actors, of which include terrorist groups, to acquire and use weapons of mass destruction, of which nuclear is among them, remains a grave threat. France has taken part in multiple international initiatives to combat this risk, including the 2002 G7/G8 Global Partnership (GP) Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction to assist countries in securing the production, storage, and protection of nuclear facilities and peaceful nuclear material use and the 2006 Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism (GICNT) to develop optimal methods of detecting and preventing terrorist nuclear or radiological attacks. We also voted in favor of Security Council Resolution 1540 committing all member states to prevent the spread of weapons of mass destruction to non-state actors at any cost.

Country:Germany
Topic: Nuclear and radiation safety
Paper text:
The International Atomic Energy Agency plays a key role in addressing the issue of Nuclear and Radiation Safety with states exercising their duties with regard to safety measures on their territory. Being one of the largest European countries located in the middle of Europe, Germany understands its direct responsibility to maintain effective defences in nuclear installations against potential radiological hazards as a signatory country of the Convention on Nuclear Safety and shows continued support for the IAEA's mission to foster global peace and development. In the wake of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident Germany endeavoured to achieve a full nuclear “phase-out”. By 2022 Germany is set to terminate all of its operating nuclear power plants gearing towards fossil-free energy generation and, therefore, accelerating its alternative energy projects.
Germany makes of all the problems you’re going to discuss. Speeches, tweets will come in handy. Phase-out notwithstanding, Germany remains one of the key contributors to the IAEA. Germany was among the six countries that negotiated the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action for Iran’s nuclear program and financially supported the transparency and control regime mechanism in Iran. Germany is implementing its ENSREG (European Nuclear Safety Regulators Group) Action Plan to review its nuclear safety conditions after the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Accident. Having implemented the Basic Safety Standards Directive 2013/59/Euratom into German law, Germany introduced a new emergency management system between the Federation and the states creating emergency response mechanisms at the federal, regional and local levels; envisioned ten emergency scenarios in Germany, Europe and third countries that contained optimized protection strategies for each of the scenarios. Germany plays a part in modernization of nuclear application laboratories in Austria, created in the 1960s to deliver technical assistance to the IAEA member-states in the areas of food and agriculture, human health, the environment and the development and use of nuclear scientific instruments with an emphasis on sustainability. Germany has a mature legal and regulatory framework for the safety of radioactive waste and spent fuel management.
In support of the safety measures Germany suggests that IAEA should lend more weight to modelling the emergency cases to effectively assess the possible impact of accidental releases of radiation on the environment and the public. Germany firmly supports the MODARIA II program (Modelling and Data for Radiological Impact Assessments) aimed at assessing exposure levels through simulation and urges all of the Member States to join the existing working groups to facilitate the assessment process. With the emergence of innovative reactors (SMRs) and advanced fuels IAEA should assist in and oversee the testing procedures to preclude emergencies and evaluate external hazards (earthquakes, tsunamis, wildfires etc.)
Germany has vast experience implementing decommissioning strategies, especially in matters pertaining to know-hows, financing and social concerns and is willing to convene a scientific conference on decommissioning in order to share best practices, involve less developed countries in the dialogue on decommissioning under the umbrella of IAEA. Germany indicates the significance of IAEA cooperating with cybersecurity specialists to eventually create resilient security systems and adapt professional recommendations into the national legislature, if necessary.

Country:Ghana
Topic: Nuclear and radiation safety
Paper text:
Ghana recognizes the need for safety protocols and continued efforts to reduce the likelihood of catastrophic nuclear accidents. As a member state that has operated a nuclear reactor in Accra for medical and research purposes since 1994, Ghana realizes that preventing accidents goes beyond concerns associated with reactor incidents when fallout crosses state lines. Ghana supports the work that the International Atomic Energy Agency and the associated member states have conducted in the past, such as the IAEA Safeguards Agreement and the Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident. In particular Ghana contends that the spread of information regarding nuclear programs and research through the International Nuclear Library Network is of vital importance to developing member states. As Ghana hopes to have an additional power supplying reactor online in 2030, concerns over modern standards have become an increasingly important issue. Technical assistance from the IAEA continues to be exceptionally valuable in allowing Ghana’s local industry to prepare for future work and helping Ghana to move forward at a pace that would not be possible without this agency. However, despite this overall approval of the IAEA, Ghana wishes for greater low-level outreach from the IAEA. This outreach is important in Ghana’s eyes since the actions of local officials have proven to be very important in the immediate aftermath of accidents. While the organization has proven itself quite capable in establishing new reactors, there remain lingering concerns following the Fukushima incident regarding the ability of the IAEA to work smoothly with local populations in a crisis. Greater focus on connections with groups living near power plants would be beneficial as this provides locals with greater understanding of their role in minimizing the risks of reactors as well as providing them the information they need to make informed political decisions about said reactors.

Country:Ghana
Topic: Nuclear security
Paper text:
The Republic of Ghana acknowledges the potential risks associated with harmful actors working to disrupt the security of nuclear facilities across the globe. While always a topic of concern, recent developments have displayed the need for heightened awareness and action among member states, both alone and in concert with each other. This has had some positive results such as the Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources. Ghana expresses particular concern over the potential of cyberattacks on nuclear facilities and databases. Having developed a cybersecurity ministry in 2018 as part of its Ministry of Communications, Ghana encourages other member states with aspirations to develop nuclear power or who already possess nuclear power to create similar organizations. After the Stuxnet attack in Iran over ten years ago, Ghana is concerned that future remote attacks may be even more sophisticated and harmful. Nonetheless, Ghana continues to support measures to prevent traditional methods of attack or disruption upon nuclear facilities. Ghana supports efforts to secure facilities against in person assaults, but Ghana desires continued exploration of more preventative measures given the potential scale of harm. These desired measures to reduce the potential of weapons theft and traditional attacks include greater focus on training security personnel at sites, increased international attention to internal security, and collaborative intelligence efforts. Ghana also reiterates that one potential solution to the issue of weapons theft is a simple reduction in the number of nuclear weapons in the world. As a signatory to the Non-Proliferation Treaty and having hosted meetings attempting to strengthen said treaty, Ghana continues to urge member states to look into this possibility instead of increasing their stockpiles, echoing the language of UN Security Council Resolution 984. While acknowledging the interests many member states have in national defense, Ghana asks that some consideration be given to the long-term safety of the global community.

Country:Hungary
Topic: Nuclear and radiation safety
Paper text:
There are serious problems of climate change that affect target areas such as renewable energy and resource depletion. The UN is actively addressing both issues of energy and resource depletion by establishing the International Atomic Energy Agency in 1957 in order to establish peaceful and secure uses of nuclear energy. The Sustainable development goals of Sustainable Cities and Communities, and Responsible Consumption and Production (SDG 11-12) provide a basis of ideas on how to address human consumption of energy resources. The demand for international action is necessary because it provides a global plan to address climate change by using renewable energy such as nuclear energy. Currently, nations across the world are leaning towards a nuclear phase-out rather than promoting this form of clean energy. There are currently 447 nuclear reactors operating globally. It is estimated that between 200 to 400 commercial and governmental nuclear reactors will be decommissioned by 2040.
Hungary promotes the use of nuclear energy as it is a safe and green form of energy. Hungary depends on the import of energy into its nation. By choosing nuclear energy, the current four nuclear reactors provide over one-third of domestic energy within Hungary. Instead of going with the current trend of nuclear phase-out, Hungary is building two new reactors at the PAKS-II power plant. Hungary doesn’t only promote the expansion of nuclear energy as it is a clean form of energy, but we also promote the renovation of current and outdated nuclear reactors. By choosing to renovate nuclear reactors, nations will ensure the inclusion of clean forms of energy like nuclear energy and increase the safety of nuclear power plants by modernizing current power plants. Creating incentives for nuclear energy by either building new reactors or modernizing current or decommissioned reactors helps to combat the dramatic effects of climate change, as well as helping to establish cheaper, renewable forms of energy. In conclusion, Hungary calls upon the international community to support the use of nuclear energy, and to support this through actions like modernizing nuclear power plants instead of decommissioning reactors.

Country:Hungary
Topic: Nuclear security
Paper text:
After having possessed nuclear weapons during the Cold War and having lived in fear of nuclear annihilation during the Cold War as a Soviet bloc state. The Nation of Hungary’s stance is that no nation should possess nuclear weapons. Hungary believes that the United Nations should be responsible for regulating the production, deconstruction, and nuclear weapon supply globally. In 1970, many nations around the globe signed the Nuclear Proliferation Treaty in order to regulate nuclear weapons. In 1996, the International Court of Justice declared the use of nuclear weapons to violate international law, thus being illegal. Hungary has supported these efforts to limit the amount of global nuclear access. Hungary stands that many newly nuclearized states pose potential risks in their own areas of influence. As a global community, we should limit the access these nuclear states have to nuclear material, and we should sanction the construction of nuclear weapons in these states. As well, Hungary believes that nuclear states that are in conflict with each other, such as Pakistan and India, should be monitored in order to reduce the possibility that nuclear weapons could be used if conflict were to increase or arise. Despite efforts to limit the ability for aggressive states to grasp nuclear weapons, Hungary believes that the UN and the international community should try harder to arrange nuclear deals that limit nuclear weapons but are beneficial to both parties.

Country:India
Topic: Nuclear and radiation safety
Paper text:
India stands firm with its previous stances on nuclear and radiation safety. We utilize previous legislation such as, The Atomic Energy Act of 1962, which clarifies what fall under nuclear and radiation safety, “atomic energy” means energy released from atomic nuclei as a result of any process, including the fission and fusion processes, and “fissile material” means uranium-233, uranium-235, plutonium or any material containing these substances or any other material that may be declared as such by notification by the Central Government. This means that its stance on nuclear and radiation safety will solely be concerned with issues dealing with atomic energy and uranium-233 and uranium-235. With that being said, nuclear power in India remains our fifth-largest source of power. Any attempts to restrict or harm or production of nuclear power will be frowned upon by our government. Other important regulations regarding nuclear safety that India follows are the Atomic Energy (Radiation Protection) Rules, 2004, the Atomic Energy (Safe Disposal of Radioactive Wastes) Rules, 1987, the Atomic Energy (Factories), Rules, 1996, AERB’s Mission Statement, the Safety Codes, Standards and the Code of Ethics issued by AERB. Each of these outlines our nation’s rules and regulations for nuclear power, and has led to zero issues regarding our nuclear energy. For the purpose of this committee, India would like to see a global standard for nuclear and radiation safety that does not drastically change the regulation already established in our nation.

Country:India
Topic: Nuclear security
Paper text:
India has built its approach to nuclear safety on five key elements: Governance, Institutions, Technology, Nuclear Safety Practice and Culture, and International Cooperation. As it pertains to the governance of nuclear security, India has constructed a governmental framework off of the Atomic Energy Act of 1962, the Rules on Safe Disposal of Radioactive Waste of 1987, and the Radiation Protections of 2004. India has strengthened its nuclear safety policy by adopting the provisions of the National Trade Development and Regulation Act of 1992 and the Weapons of Mass Destruction Act of 2005. India has established several institutions to maintain nuclear security. The Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) functions as an independent nuclear operator within the country. AERB focuses on nuclear safety and security of civilian facilities. Since 2013, the Nuclear Control and Planning Wing (NCPW) has worked under the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) to integrate DAE safeguards into practice. The NCPW takes the lead on international cooperation on nuclear security in collaboration with the Ministry of External affairs. India preserves a safe nuclear culture by mandating all nuclear facilities to devise their own Design Basis Threat (DBT) document. The DBT is based on national guidelines that work to maintain physical protection at nuclear facilities. The Indian DBT accounts for sabotage, thieves, terrorists, and other collusion and is implemented by the Central Industrial Security Force (CISF), paramilitary security force specifically trained to protect the nation’s nuclear plants. India’s approach to nuclear technological safety is two-dimensional. First, India works to implement the latest identification and recognition technology to identify threats and personnel at nuclear facilities. Second, the nation has worked to install technologies that are resistant to sabotage. Internationally, India is a proud member of all 13 anti-terrorism conventions. India applies all anti-terrorism and safety measures possible to its nuclear practices.

Country:Japan
Topic: Nuclear and radiation safety
Paper text:
Nuclear and radiation safety poses a great security risk to the world, with any one mistake leading to nuclear spills. These spills are a result of unsafe operating conditions, lax safety protocols, a lack of research, and more. Any country that uses nuclear energy could have a safety accident; the implications of any one accident can have a global strain on economies, migration issues, and pollution. The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster of 2011 in Japan cost $15 billion in clean-up, $60 billion in refugee compensation, and greatly strained Japan’s trade abilities with other countries. The United Nations, along with the IAEA, has been working on this issue with more research and regulations, such as creating the Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials in 2018, having a stake in the Paris Convention with the Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy, and creating an Action Plan on Nuclear Safety.
Japan is in a unique position since we are one of the most recent countries to have dealt with a nuclear spill, in Fukushima. Since then, Japan has permanently shut down five reactors, working directly with the IAEA experts to make sure we have done so in a safe manner. We also communicate information about what we have learned to member states and the public worldwide. Despite more global communication and efforts shut down plants, there are still powerplants being built and a strong need to decommission nuclear reactors. Japan recommends that the IAEA creates more regulations and safety protocols about both transporting hazardous materials and safely decommissioning reactors. Japan also suggests a better network of research exchange so that countries are encouraged to take steps in a quick, but safe way, learning from the mistakes of others, such as Japan.

Country:Japan
Topic: Nuclear security
Paper text:
Nuclear security is an ongoing threat to the world that never seems to have a perfect solution. Worldwide, we face the threats of nuclear explosions, arms races, underground dealings of materials, terrorism, and insider threats, all while nuclear capabilities are continually expanding. The United Nations has come up with several plans, such as the 2018- 2021 Nuclear Security Plan, the International Convention of the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, and the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and its Amendment Resolution 1540. The international community always continually pushes for peace talks amongst nations and generally discourages the development of nuclear weapons; however, some member states fail to adhere to protocols and there is still a high risk of nuclear terrorism or attacks. There are an estimated 13,080 nuclear warheads worldwide, and a few countries with nuclear capabilities have yet to sign the Non- Proliferation Treaty; some that have do not fully follow it.
Japan is especially concerned about this issue, as we are the only member-state to have suffered from a nuclear attack on our land, in the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945. We have first-hand seen the detrimental effects nuclear attacks have on the environment, economies, and overall well-being of a nation. We hope other member-states will follow our lead of creating a Nuclear Threat Initiative for their country and to do research as we have with the Japan Atomic Energy Institute in the 21st Century. Japan suggests the following steps for the United Nations to take: first, we encourage peer-reviewing amongst nations to reduce risks of insider threats and an overall emphasis in research to be shared amongst member states. Second, Japan encourages more avenues for multilateral peace talks regarding nuclear threats. We see bilateral agreements and solutions all the time, but they often do not last, so Japan proposes finding more ways for the international community to work together as a whole to combat the risk of nuclear weapons.

Country:Kuwait
Topic: Nuclear and radiation safety
Paper text:
While Kuwait has no nuclear power plants in service currently, we would like to keep an eye on any nuclear power advancements in our region. Our nuclear power program, Kuwait National Nuclear Energy Committee (KNNEC), was canceled following the Fukushima disaster in Japan. The national ability to be prepared for nuclear disasters, should they occur, is important to us. Efforts to study nuclear energy were transferred to the Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR) and repurposed to better fit their mandates for research. We look forward to researching nuclear power in the future following the decline of fossil fuel use. The Radiation Protection Commission oversees and takes care of radiation issues and materials. Our nation has had two abortive attempts to establish nuclear power facilities; the first was canceled due to safety concerns arising from the Three Mile Island incident, and the second due to safety concerns arising from the Fukushima disaster (as mentioned above). Kuwait proposes that this committee encourages the growth of well-regulated nuclear power facilities that can serve as a model for nations who have not yet broken into the nuclear power industry. Kuwait also strongly recommends that this committee properly analyzes the risks involved with nuclear power, especially for smaller nations like ours. We also strongly support an international regime to monitor and regulate nuclear power plants to ensure objectivity, and we encourage all nations to take part in the international community in this regard.

Country:Kuwait
Topic: Nuclear security
Paper text:
Kuwait has maintained its promise of the Nonproliferation Treaty and would encourage other member states to maintain the promise of Nonproliferation and encourage non- member states to comply. Kuwait will continue to maintain its cooperation with the IAEA and UN treaties in order to maintain efficient and peaceful means of nuclear energy within the international community and would remind fellow member states of the international disasters that can unfold if nuclear security and peace are not maintained, as seen in the wartime catastrophes such as Nagasaki and Hiroshima, and peacetime catastrophes like Chernobyl and Fukushima. Nuclear Security is of the greatest importance to Kuwait as we believe full security cannot be achieved without cooperation of the international community. We firmly believe that it is the responsibility of all nations to comply with the regulations of the IAEA and other UN regulations in order to maintain international security and safety, specifically in the cross- border trade of nuclear material, such as uranium.

Country:Malaysia
Topic: Nuclear and radiation safety
Paper text:
Nuclear radiation remains a prominent threat to Malaysia and the world with side effects of altered DNA, skin burns, and acute radiation syndrome along with being linked with diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. Even small doses of radiation can cause long- term health issues. Malaysia has taken several initiatives such as passing the Atomic Energy Licensing Act and forming the Atomic Energy Licensing Board to regulate, safeguard, and monitor the ionizing radiation activities in Malaysia. The delegation of Malaysia has also implemented training programs to ensure safety awareness around radiation safety and health, medical x-rays, nuclear science and engineering, and other related fields.
The delegation of Malaysia firmly stands against the unregulated misuse of nuclear radiation that can cause any effect to its citizens. In ongoing efforts to ensure the safe use of nuclear radiation, the delegation is working on advancing proper education on handling nuclear radiation and increasing public awareness around the dangers of radiation. The delegation of Malaysia recognizes the importance of working with other governments and organizations to enforce a set of international regulations to safely monitor the use of nuclear radiation and ensure proper use. Without the proper regulation and safety procedures set in place, nuclear radiation remains a prominent threat that threatens to take out millions, if not billions, or people if mishandled.

Country:Malaysia
Topic: Nuclear security
Paper text:
There has been an alarmingly increased rate of the production of nuclear warheads over the years, with currently over 10,000 warheads positioned around the world that hold the potential to kill billions of people. As a member of the International Committee to Abolish Nuclear Weapons, the delegation of Malaysia recognizes the dangers of such weapons and continues to work towards the disarmament of nuclear weapons around the world.
The delegation of Malaysia has taken several steps in the past several years to abolish nuclear weapons. In accordance with the Treaty of the Prohibition, Malaysia has enforced the prohibition of developing, testing, producing, manufacturing, acquiring, possessing, or stockpiling any nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices in the country of Malaysia. The delegation of Malaysia has also partnered with several other organizations in the International Committee to Abolish Nuclear Weapons to ban the possession and use of nuclear weapons worldwide.
The delegation of Malaysia firmly stands against the production and use of any nuclear weapons for any reason. The delegation stands by the idea that nuclear weapons are unacceptable and believes nuclear weapons to be detrimental to international peace and stability. In ongoing efforts to bring international peace through the disarmament of nuclear weapons, the delegation of Malaysia is working on advancing public awareness and education on the dangers of nuclear weapons.
The delegation recognizes it’s imperative to work with other governments and organizations to spread this information to the international community. The delegation of Malaysia hopes by spreading more awareness to the world, they can partner with other nations to end the manufacturing, possession, and use of any nuclear weapons. The disarmament of nuclear weapons is essential to the stability and promotion of peace on a global scale.

Country:Mexico
Topic: Nuclear and radiation safety
Paper text:
Since the 1986 Chernobyl disaster, international outlooks on nuclear energy and its safety have changed significantly. Mexico has remained cautiously pro-nuclear as international safety measures have been updated and expanded upon. Although clean sources like nuclear and wind are both only 4% of Mexico’s energy, Mexico has set an energy transition law with a target of 35% of electricity to be from clean sources, including nuclear, by 2024. Mexico believes that a collaborative effort is necessary to ensure a safe future for nuclear energy. The Global Nuclear Safety and Security Network launched by the IAEA (which Mexico has ratified) serves as a sufficient and excellent framework for this collaboration. The Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources, approved in 2003 to address the protection and retrieval of nuclear materials, is also an important source to look at when considering additional changes.
Within Mexico, several frameworks exist to address nuclear energy development and safety. The operating utility for Laguna Verde is the state agency Federal Commission of Electricity (CFE). The regulator is the National Commission of Nuclear Security and Safeguards (CNSNS). Both CFE and CNSNS report to the same cabinet level minister in the Ministry of Energy. Mexico has plans to expand the CFE and CNSNS (source) to increase oversight and development of Nuclear energy within the country. Mexico does not believe a bilateral agreement for peaceful nuclear cooperation with the U.S. is necessary as a matter of policy. First, Mexico would like to avoid the potential for special influence from the superpower in a bilateral relationship. Secondly, Mexico views the imposition of the U.S.'s 1978 Nuclear Non- Proliferation Act (NNPA) which originated safeguards and controls (that go beyond Mexico's IAEA obligations), to be unnecessary and stifling of innovation and development within Mexico.

Country:Mexico
Topic: Nuclear security
Paper text:
In 1975, Mexico’s government began plans for the Laguna Verde Nuclear power station, which became operational in 1990. This state-run power plant serves only one client, the National Energy Control Commission. Four years later, in response to the catastrophe at Chernobyl, Mexico ratified the Convention on Nuclear safety. Thanks to strict regulation, the plant has never had any accident, let alone a meltdown, and its success led to its thirty-year renewal in 2020. Globally the situation has been mostly similar. Only four incidents at an INES level above five have ever been recorded, and only two of these were major incidents: Chernobyl and Fukushima. Looking through the incidents, it becomes clear that poor reactor designs and a lack of government oversight correlated with a higher fatality, while stricter oversight prevented even incidents like Fukushima from killing thousands due to the immediate response. Because of this, the Delegation of Mexico encourages the adoption of global safety standards, voluntarily adopted by countries, as well as a move towards Thorium- based nuclear energy, which is far safer than the Uranium and Plutonium models of all currently operational plants.
In recognition of the unique concerns and costs associated with nuclear energy and power, the delegation of Mexico strongly supports continued efforts to combat cyberattacks on nuclear energy facilities and believes that cybersecurity should be a priority for the IAEA’s 2022-2025 Nuclear Security Plan. The delegation of Mexico is also in favor of a government’s complete control over its nuclear power plants to ensure regulation, and is not opposed to confidence-building tactics like peer reviews on its facilities.
As Mexico sees nuclear energy as a viable way forward, it has a higher interest in regulating its nuclear energy plants and cooperating with other nations to secure existing and future nuclear energy plants around the world. Mexico would like to support more international measures to regulate nuclear safety, as long as provisions preventing the infringement of a nation’s sovereignty are included. In addition, Mexico would strongly support non-partisan provisions to protect nuclear energy sources during periods of regime change or civil war.

Country:Mongolia
Topic: Nuclear and radiation safety
Paper text:
The further adaptation and development of nuclear technology is increasing the need for more updated safety regulations and cooperation of the international community. Estimates from the International Energy Agency place the demand for nuclear energy to double by 2050. Mongolia has up to 1.3 tU of unused uranium that will be required as the demand for reactors grows, however this makes the goal of safe transport of nuclear materials crucial to Mongolia. Mongolia's belief in the positive implications of developing nuclear energy fuels our hopes to encourage its safe growth. Therefore, we intend to draft and support resolutions that will outline strict guidelines and safeguards for nuclear technology. As the relevance of nuclear energy increases, our development of nuclear technology needs to follow suit, in turn allowing us to create safer reactors and more energy without putting lives at risk.
Mongolia unconditionally supports stronger safeguards for nuclear energy. We have supported and will continue to support the 2005 Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, the Convention on Nuclear Safety, the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management, the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, and the Revised Small Quantity Protocol. It is our hope that the IAEA will work to develop strong regulations for safely operating nuclear reactors, expand on the so-called peer review of willing states nuclear plants, create thorough safety checks during nuclear material transport guaranteeing that any radioactive substances arrive safely at their intended destination, and expand on current methods of decommissioning active reactors and properly disposing of waste and dangerous material.

Country:Mongolia
Topic: Nuclear security
Paper text:
The greatest single action taken by the United Nations is the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear-Weapons (NPT) of 1970 (Mongolia has signed) and so Mongolia will be willing to cooperate with Member States in many ways to ensure that this treaty is respected by all nations. Mongolia; being a nation locked between two well developed nuclear member states has long advocated for the upholding of IAEA security standards and regulations. In 2015 we took a leading role in resolution GC(64)/RES/15 on the application of Agency safeguards in the Middle East, therefore such discussions are something we value greatly and undertake with the greatest of importance.
Mongolia has a growing uranium mining industry that will play an instrumental part in our future economic and political growth. With relation to the topic of middle eastern states and atomic controls, Mongolia sees parallels with many member states in terms of developing nuclear ambitions and is keen to work with them to construct stronger regulatory standards as well as provide potential trade opportunities with multiple states using IAEA cooperation as a baseline for such endeavors. Mongolia participates in IAEA CONVEX exercises, which have been beneficial in increasing domestic capacity for coordination and response with regards to atomic security therefore Mongolia will aim to promote the expansion of such exercises.

Country:New Zealand
Topic: Nuclear and radiation safety
Paper text:
New Zealand fully recognizes the importance of safeguarding nuclear weapons under the pillars of the IAEA: Developing nuclear safety standards to maintain high level of safety standards to protect human health and the environment against radiation; plus safeguards and verification system under the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty. The IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety encourages the organizations that operate each nuclear power plant carry out the safety assessment to ensure and strengthen safety. For an effective safeguard, IAEA has strengthened the safety framework by adopting protocols when they are needed. Though the IAEA has worked to account and regulate the nuclear material, it has no way to detect every nuclear material, to force member states that don’t allow the guideline or adopt the safety framework. The cases of Iran and North Korea are good examples, which show the IAEA’s limitation. As the country which advocates the full nuclear disarmament, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) and NPT, New Zealand is deeply disturbed of non-compliance. New Zealand encourages the IAEA’s role. In spite of the limitation of safeguards, IAEA has a massive influence on international security. IAEA is the sole responsible authority of the nuclear materials. New Zealand emphasized the powerful authority of the IAEA. By the GA/DIS/3462, New Zealand has encouraged IAEA to enhanced regulatory mechanisms, nuclear safety and security, and technical cooperation with member states. The IAEA has enhanced its action plan in the areas of 1) regulatory effectiveness, 2) operational safety, 3) design safety, and 4) emergency preparedness and response. The strengthened framework with flexibility is also emphasized. The consideration of cultures, conditions, and feedback, flexible, differentiated and specialized safeguards are encouraged. In partnership with other states and organizations is found one method of detecting the nuclear material. New Zealand urges close cooperative relations among member states, IAEA and International Organizations. The implementation of resolution 1540, Security Council increases the size of the group experts to protect nuclear material and weapons from terrorists and non- State actors (SC/10692). The African Union makes the efforts to establish the African Commission on Nuclear Energy to check the observance under the NPT. By working with the IAEA, New Zealand implemented the technical support programs, Radiation Portal Monitor, which detects the radioactive materials. New Zealand calls upon member states to fulfill the obligation.

Country:New Zealand
Topic: Nuclear security
Paper text:
New Zealand reaffirms that significant nuclear supply to non-nuclear weapon states should be based on their acceptance of full scope IAEA safeguards and we urge those suppliers that have not yet adopted the full scope standard to do so without delay. This committee should recommend that member states confirm that an INFCIRC/153 safeguards agreement. Also support the condition for new supply arrangements to non- nuclear weapon states in line with paragraph 12 of the NPTREC Principles and Objectives. Countries, which violate their NPT obligations by their own actions, cut themselves off from the benefits of peaceful nuclear cooperation. NPT parties should refrain from nuclear cooperation with any state called on by the IAEA Board of Governors to rectify violations of its safeguards obligations until the Board determines the state is back in full compliance. NPT parties may wish to consider at the Review Conference adoption of common understandings to apply in the event another NPT party should seek to withdraw. These could be based around affirming existing treaty law. NPT parties could confirm that nuclear materials, equipment, and technology supplied to a state on the basis that they would be used for peaceful purposes would remain subject to peaceful use obligations even if a state withdraws from the NPT. NPT parties might also wish to consider whether notification of NPT withdrawal should trigger automatic consideration by the UN Security Council as proposed recently by the IAEA Director General. Physical protection of nuclear material and nuclear facilities is a key element of national systems of nuclear security. We call on all states yet to do so to accede to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM) and to apply, as appropriate, the physical protection recommendations in IAEA document INFCIRC/225/Rev.4 (Corrected) and in other relevant international instruments. Australia has been an active contributor to work in Vienna on strengthening the CPPNM and urges all member states to progress final negotiations and support a Diplomatic effort so that a well-defined amendment to the Convention may be brought into force at the earliest opportunity

Country:Norway
Topic: Nuclear and radiation safety
Paper text:
Norway commends all nations who have signed and ratified both the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) and the Treaty of the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) and urges the remaining nations whom have not signed or ratified to do so, as it is the next step for ensuring global peace and security. In assurance of this, Norway expresses that it is imperative all nations comply and cooperate with the IAEA, its safeguards, and the Additional Protocol to maintain transparency between nations as they progress and develop various forms of energy and technologies that have potential dual- use applications. Stating this, Norway is deeply concerned of the instability in the Middle East and deplores the actions of several Member States in the region that have been non- compliant to safeguards and have attempted to establish dangerous and secretive State programs. Norway was gravely concerned with the Director General’s 2011 report of Islamic Republic of Iran’s development of a nuclear explosive device and at the time, urged Iran to fully comply with Security Council resolutions. Since this time, Norway applauds Iran and its steps towards the full implementation of the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPoA) as discussed in the 60th IAEA General Conference, as well as by efforts to establish a road-map addressing outstanding issues regarding their nuclear program discussed in GOV/INF/2015/14. To further these efforts, Norway urges cooperation amongst Member States and calls upon the establishment of regional Confidence Building Measures (CBM) in order to take the next steps towards establishing the Middle East Nuclear Weapons Free Zone (NWFZ), as outlined in A/RES/33/64, A/RES/45/52, and most recently A/RES/67/28. In order to further this agenda, as discussed in GC(60)/RES/15, Norway calls upon Member States within the Middle East to establish a regional mechanism to facilitate communication on nuclear activities as relevant to model agreements, as well as to encourage discussion on verification and accountability measures. Such a mechanism would encourage member states to report their nuclear facilities and nuclear technologies in accordance of their comprehensive safeguard agreements (CSAs), and any Additional Protocol that have been or are yet to be brought into force. In respect to peaceful uses of nuclear technologies, Norway suggests alternative, locally sustainable methods, however; Norway encourages all nations in the Middle East with peaceful nuclear programs, as well as those in the global community, to prioritize three basic principles on both a State and regional level; Accountability, Cooperation, and Transparency (ACT). It is paramount all nuclear facilities are adequately accounted for and reported to the IAEA, as well as adequate assurance of material accountability and that site security is satisfactory. Nations within the Middle East must participate within the aforementioned regional mechanism to promote communication and cooperation. Last, transparency of State programs and nuclear research is necessary to further efforts to create an atmosphere of peace in the region

Country:Norway
Topic: Nuclear security
Paper text:
As a non-nuclear weapons state, Norway stands strong behind the vision of a world free of nuclear weapons. Noting with concern the connection between the development of nuclear power and the subsequent acquisition of nuclear weapons, Norway no longer includes nuclear power as a source of energy in its national energy plan. Endorsing the application of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), specifically SDG 7, Norway actively strives to explore alternate forms of sustainable energy. To promote the growth of renewable energy, Norway has created and implemented legislation to provide tax incentives to individuals investing in renewable energy plants. Norway’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs also offers comprehensive programs for funding and financial incentives to both national and international companies with a focus on research and development. In 2012 Norway shut down and began the process of decommissioning the last of its operational nuclear reactors. Regarding research, Norway still possess radioactive sources for advancements in medical, industrial and environmental applications of nuclear technologies. Norway is mindful of the power of education and its role in the future of science and technology. For this reason, Norway incorporated the National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy with the Technological University of Norway to conduct research of a wide variety, from radio-ecology and neutronics related to nuclear energy technology. The university still provides public sector consultancy to the authorities on nuclear emergency preparedness and has aided the Emergency Management Agency mapping radioactive contamination. Norway has funded the Institute for International Studies (IIS) which conducts research on globalization, security, development, and foreign policy. IIS created a policy brief on non-proliferation and disarmament assistance which outlines the specific areas where Norway has the potential to expand on its already well-established expertise. Specific solutions include the establishment of niche chemical and biological non- proliferation education programs. While Norway does not produce nuclear power, respecting the sovereignty of fellow Member States in their decision to embrace nuclear power as a source of energy remains of utmost importance. Norway deeply values the work of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in upholding safety, security and non-proliferation as Member States develop and use nuclear power for energy. Norway is dedicated sponsor to the IAEA’s Nuclear Security Fund (NSF) and aims to continue its support in the future. Recommendations made by the IAEA in their Nuclear Security Series and Code of Conduct are echoed in local legislation to ensure the security of radioactive sources.

Country:Panama
Topic: Nuclear and radiation safety
Paper text:
The IAEA investigated Uruguay and found the country fit all of the standards on Nuclear Safety as set by the IAEA Guidelines, Uruguay on the one hand does not have any nuclear installations in the country. Uruguay’s Main policy on Nuclear safety is RAdiological safety, Emergency Preparedness, and protection of the country in nuclear issues. So while not necessarily using Nuclear Installations, Uruguay does instead try to maintain nuclear safety in the country.

Country:Panama
Topic: Nuclear security
Paper text:
The Nuclear Security Index according to the Nuclear Security Index was ranked 83 of 154, which ranks it among the higher countries in nuclear security. Panama has been tested time and time again and usually does well in Nuclear Security. Uruguay has ratified Treaty after Treaty in the UN in Nuclear Deals. Panama has also had little to no radiological incidents in the nations. Panama has also done research into upgrading Uranium exploration and yellowcake production techniques amongst others in a safe and environmentally friendly way.

Country:Peru
Topic: Nuclear and radiation safety
Paper text:
With nuclear development taking place with the conclusion of the second World War, international communities and nations became increasingly concerned by the negative effects nuclear and radioactive materials might have on their national security. IAEA looks to ensure nations can use nuclear science while at the same time working together to ensure the safe use of such materials. Even besides the potential terrorist and militaristic hazards of such materials, the civilian use of these materials can prove damaging to the public health, if not handled correctly. Ionizing radiation has been shown to in fact affect the atoms of living organisms. Due to that, it can pose health risks from changing and altering cells and damaging the individual's DNA. That of course leads to cancer in the future.
Peru takes the position that nuclear and radiation sciences should be explored further. With that said, there must be safety mechanisms to ensure nuclear weapons don’t get into the wrong hands. In fact, we signed the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons in 1968. We then went on to sign the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test Treaty in 1996. Peru has shown to have a long history of wanting to prevent the abuse of these nuclear and radioactive sciences. We also seek to promote nuclear and radioactive sciences for positive medical research. Doctors, dentists and hospitals use radiation in a variety of ways.

Country:Peru
Topic: Nuclear security
Paper text:
Nuclear weapons, first unleashed during World War Two, have posed a threat to the well-being and security of humanity itself. With the age of terrorism emerging in the past two decades, it has becoming ever more vital to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons. Since if there are more nuclear weapons, there is also a higher possibility it falls in the wrong hands. Nuclear Safety is an issue that has been debated for many years. If you look at the data, if a nuclear weapon went off in a well populated area, it could cause catastrophic death and long term-health effects to those who didn’t instantly perish from the blast.
We insist that the Non-Proliferation movement is the right course of action. In fact, Peru went on to sign the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material to showcase our support for its cause. In 2020, the then-President of Peru, Martin Vizcarra, announced that Peru was getting ready to ratify the treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons that was signed in 2017. This is not the first and not the last treaty and opportunity we have and will take in fighting against the proliferation of nuclear weapons. We support the ban on the manufacturing, development, production and transfer of nuclear weapons by any nation.

Country:Poland
Topic: Nuclear and radiation safety
Paper text:
The State of Poland, as a founding member of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), has continually advocated for nuclear safety. Poland firmly believes in the use of peer review through the IAEA to help enforce strict safety standards. Through the use of our own nuclear research reactor, MARIA, we have improved and strengthened our safety measures. Poland has participated in ARTEMIS reviews, which help with safe management of radioactive waste and control of radioactive discharge into the environment. The State of Poland has also participated in Integrated Safety Assessment of Research Reactors (INSARR) peer review missions to ensure safe operations of our MARIA research reactor. Finally, Poland has hosted Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) missions in 2013 and 2017 which aid in strengthening governmental policy towards regulation. Poland believes that the peer review systems offered by the IAEA are the best ways to further safety practices at nuclear plants. Poland recommends increasing investments into ARTEMIS, INSARR and IRRS missions to strengthen safety regulations. It also recommends expansion of Technical Cooperation (TC) Programmes to help member countries continue to develop safe nuclear capabilities.

Country:Poland
Topic: Nuclear security
Paper text:
The State of Poland, believes that nuclear power is the best path forward to reduce carbon emissions and power the world, as well as improve national sovereignty, as it can reduce reliance on a forein nation for power needs. As it is both such a powerful tool and potential terrorist target, the security of such sites is the utmost important. Poland currently has no nuclear reactors, outside of the nuclear research reactor MARIA, however has large domestic support for them, and has plans for six reactors across two facilities to be built by 2043. As a founding member of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), Poland has long been committed to the idea that nuclear power should only be used as a peaceful tool for energy, and not as an arm of war. Poland is a State Party to all the relevant international legal instruments relating to nuclear security, and additionally puts great emphasis on the work done by the Conference of the Parties to the Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPNNM) and global initiative to combat nuclear terrorism (GICNT). Poland fully believes that both of these initiatives can greatly enhance nuclear security, and help stop nuclear terrorism. In 2016, Poland hosted an International Physical Protection Advisory Service (IPPAS) mission, which has been used to make considerable progress towards upgrading the security at both the MARIA research reactor, and the Radioactive Waste Management Plant ZUOP. As such Poland has proven to the international community that it is committed to the safe and secure use and disposal of nuclear power. Poland believes that nuclear security is a global collective responsibility, and as such, IAEA member states should share their experiences and security practices, and that the establishment of adequate nuclear security systems and measures against threats from malicious acts involving nuclear and other radioactive material needs a sound legal basis in order for the systems to be effective, efficient, consistent and sustainable.

Country:Russian Federation
Topic: Nuclear and radiation safety
Paper text:
Nuclear safety includes preventing, detecting and responding to the theft, sabotage, unauthorized access or illegal transfer or nuclear and radioactive materials. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) uses its mandates to educate and advise regulatory and industry partners, encourage the sharing of best practices and ensure States’ legal and regulatory codes uphold their international commitments as enshrined in various agreements. They are continuing to assess the Member States that are failing to adhere to the best practices, and there are emergent technologies in place to ensure the security or nuclear materials and facilities. While there has yet to be an attack using illicitly acquired nuclear materials, the international community recognizes that an attack can still happen, physically and psychologically.
In 1975, the IAEA published its first version of its Recommendations for the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material. This was followed by the international community’s adoption of the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material. The 1975 Recommendations promoted measures to prevent the unauthorized removal of nuclear material, locate and recover any in the event of its loss and minimize the risk of sabotage to facilities. The Convention promoted legal reforms to prevent the diversion of nuclear material from regulatory control, set standards for the safe transport of nuclear materials and encouraged both information sharing and legal cooperation.
The IAEA worked in parallel to the Security Council and published its first comprehensive plan of action for nuclear security in 2002, which included the creation of the Nuclear Security Fund, a voluntary funding mechanism set up to help Member States implement the 2002 plan. They began regularly publishing these Nuclear Security Plans as a means of highlighting Member States’ priorities, and reviewing the progress achieved during the previous plan. These planning documents don’t include guidelines for prioritizing its nuclear activities, and some nuclear security programs lack baseline performance targets, limiting the IAEA’s ability to measure program outcomes.

Country:Russian Federation
Topic: Nuclear security
Paper text:
Nuclear security in power plants and for weapons is of the highest concern for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Nuclear plants, in particular, are among the most guarded throughout the international community, as any attack to a plant would cause widespread devastation to infrastructure and communities. The IAEA has adopted resolutions and measures for the international community to share knowledge and security protocols to mitigate the theft of materials or the destruction of nuclear plants. As time moves forward, there are also complex threats that are watched, and safety measures are adjusted accordingly, as to keep up to date.
While there have been few attacks and thefts, they are used as examples to mitigate future attacks. With the dangers of the plants and natural disasters getting worse, the IAEA created the Convention of Nuclear Safety to commit contracting parties to maintain high levels of safety by establishing fundamental safety principles. These principles assure the safety of the parties by ensuring safety and regulation, establishing defense protocols to save citizens and mitigate accidents should they occur. The IAEA has also launched the Global Nuclear Safety and Security Network to allow members to share safety and security knowledge to achieve the highest level of nuclear safety and security worldwide. In regard to natural disasters, the IAEA has made action plans. The plan highlighted strengthening of 12 areas, including IAEA safety standards, international legal framework, capacity building, and emergency preparedness and response. Although the action plan has concluded thanks to the elements of the plan being introduced into routine work, it is still addressed and lessons learned from the Fukushima accident remain through the Knowledge Management Portal on Observations and Lessons from the Fukushima Daiichi Accident.

Country:South Africa
Topic: Nuclear and radiation safety
Paper text:
Natural disasters are often referred to as “an act of God” as these types of events are often characterized by being both unpredictable and unpreventable. On March 11, 2011 the earthquake and subsequent tsunami which hit Fukushima, Japan is included under these descriptors. Though there was no one action to prevent these acts of God, the acts of man leave much to be desired. Nuclear disaster which occurred Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima nuclear power plant was in fact predictable and preventable. Though the particulars of when and where a natural disaster will occur can’t be known, we do know these events continue with frequency and with more destruction as the global climate crisis continues. We are committed to learning the lessons Fukushima has taught us. We are committed to collaborative efforts which pursue nuclear safety. These efforts include information sharing regarding safety standards and improving safety for the transport for nuclear and radioactive waste, inspections of nuclear reactor plants, and open information sharing regarding nuclear energy.

Country:South Africa
Topic: Nuclear security
Paper text:
The deterrence which nuclear weapons may provide, is not essential to world order. These weapons are not a tool to maintain peace, but rather a scourge on humanity. We continue to be committed to the language put forth in the Treaty on the Prohibition of nuclear weapons, this treaty includes prohibitions not to develop, test, produce, acquire, possess, stockpile, use or threaten to use, nuclear weapons. South Africa will support efforts that set clear guidelines including benchmarks and deadlines which help to rid the world of nuclear weapons.

Country:Sweden
Topic: Nuclear and radiation safety
Paper text:
Sweden, recognizing the right of States to use nuclear energy for peaceful purposes, is committed to ensuring safety in the development and management of such resources. The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident that occurred on 11 March 2011 re- emphasized, in modern times, the importance of safety and resilience in nuclear energy infrastructure and management. States should develop sound policies and practices that ensure nuclear safety, such as a stipulation in Sweden’s 1977 Conditions Law that requires planning for the safe disposal of nuclear waste before any reactor may be built or operated. However, as evidenced by the Fukushima accident and others, the consequences of a nuclear incident or accident are widespread and know no boundaries. Sweden believes it is an imperative of each State, and the international community cooperatively, to ensure safe management of nuclear energy resources.
Many conventions and agreements presently exist in the international community regarding nuclear safety, all which Sweden has ratified, including the 1996 Convention on Nuclear Safety, the 2001 Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, the 1986 Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident, and the 1987 Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency. Sweden encourages universalization of these agreements and emphasizes the importance of taking the steps necessary to comply with or, for States not already parties to these conventions, become parties to the conventions. Sweden affirms the importance of the International Atomic Energy Agency as an authority on nuclear safety and urges nuclear States to welcome IAEA review missions on a regular basis. Further, Sweden affirms it is in the interest of all members of the international community to encourage cooperation regarding infrastructure and human resources for nuclear energy management, radioactive material disposal, and the transportation of nuclear waste. This is of special importance with obligations to international standards of safety and the responsibility to preserve the environment.

Country:Sweden
Topic: Nuclear security
Paper text:
A world that is free of weapons of mass destruction is of paramount concern to Sweden. The threat of nuclear war brings innumerable risks unacceptable to humanity that will persist as long as States maintain their nuclear arsenals. Sweden unequivocally shares the perspective that “a nuclear war cannot be won and must never be fought.” Nuclear disarmament and non- proliferation must be ensured by implementation of existing international agreements that Sweden has ratified, such as the 1970 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and the 1996 Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The NPT must be reaffirmed as the cornerstone of the global disarmament strategy. Further development and implementation of the NPT (particularly Article IV, regarding disarmament) must be achieved in support of the “stepping stones” adopted by the participating ministers of the Stockholm Initiative on Nuclear Disarmament, hosted by Sweden.
These challenges cannot be met with unilateral actions—complete disarmament will only be achieved by multilateral cooperation. States maintaining the largest nuclear arsenals in the world bear special responsibility to collaborate and build trust in relation to disarmament. Collaboration between nuclear weapon States and non-nuclear weapon States to ensure disarmament and compliance will build trust and strengthen transparency regarding nuclear weapons. Additionally, the international community must unite against the unauthorized use of nuclear material by terrorists and other non-state actors in accordance with the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism and take action to mitigate risks of such use taking place. In the face of rising transnational cyber terrorism, Sweden supports cyber security and enhancing safeguards against cyber threats to nuclear security.

Country:United States of America
Topic: Nuclear and radiation safety
Paper text:
The United States takes a stance to stop nuclear waste contamination, particularly in regards to human exposure to radiation. Although only 30 countries maintain a combined 443 operational nuclear power reactors as of 2019, disasters know no boundaries, and a singular nuclear incident can impact millions of people. The United States does a Nuclear Power Plant Overview. The United States is willing to cooperate with others to gauge how much nuclear waste is currently produced internationally. The United States is also willing to be forthcoming and work with others on nuclear and radiation waste safety. IAEA launched the Global Nuclear Safety and Security Network (GNSSN), of which the United States’ Department of State is a partner of, in 2007 as a virtual community designed to assist the dissemination of nuclear safety standards and expertise at the national, regional and global levels. The GNSSN acts as an umbrella organization, coordinating the work of the disparate academic institutions, national laboratories, industry groups and regional bodies involved in nuclear technology.
The United States asks member states to work in better cohesion to combine scientific knowledge in order to provide better disposal and eventually prevent a need for disposal. In this way both the environment and humanity as a whole can be helped.

Country:United States of America
Topic: Nuclear security
Paper text:
The United States puts together a strong effort to strengthen the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and the Waste Management (CPPNM), which is a coordination of bilateral and multilateral efforts to improve the security of high risk nuclear materials being used in a “dirty bomb”. Regarding the CPPNM, the United States would like to see other member states join into this agreement, especially after the addition of the amendment in 2016. This amendment furthered the criminalization of trafficking and sabotaging nuclear facilities. CPPNM remains the only internationally legally binding undertakings in the area of physical protection of nuclear material and of nuclear facilities used for peaceful purposes. The CPPNM as strengthened by its Amendment is relevant for all States, not just those with nuclear facilities or nuclear materials, as all states have the ability to be affected by nuclear weapons or nuclear disasters. The addition of the amendment looks directly at collecting data on trafficking and sabotage situations, which the United States sees as being an ultimate need for the future of nuclear security. The United States has used the contributions of the IAEA in order to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons worldwide and protect the interest of humanity through comprehensive safeguards specifically against the weaponization of nuclear technology. This includes information analysis, inspection to verify that nuclear activities remain peaceful, and deterring and detecting their diversion to other purposes, including weapons related ones.
The United States would like all member states to follow the guidelines and rules laid out by the IAEA and focus on scientific research to better the implementation of nuclear energy.

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