At AMUN Black Lives Matter

Position Papers by Committee

Position paper for Human Rights Council


Country:Armenia
Topic: The human rights to safe drinking water and sanitation
Paper text:
For the past decade, the government of Armenia has been working to provide citizens with clean and safe drinking water. Providing secure access to water is a vital resource to our citizens, and we need help getting sanitized water and the ability to have water 24/7 for all of Armenia. Armenia is a small West Asian country struggling for access to a water source as citizens can only access water 21 hours a day. Water is an extraordinary commodity that must not be wasted and used efficiently for us to be successful. We have received funded projects from the World Bank, which have drastically improved Armenia from being more efficient to identify problems through technology and sanitization to cleaner water. One notable effect with the help of projects is water per day has increased from 6 hours to 21 hours per day for our citizens. However, we still have problems of leakage and need help rehabilitating old infrastructure, which we are limited on institutional and financial capacity, which requires more reinforcement. The 1977 United Nations Water Conference has recognized water as a fundamental right and considered water a privilege too. In 2015 the UN had established Sustainable Development Goal 6 to help provide universal access to clean drinking water and equitable sanitation and hygiene services by 2030, which is close to us. We recognize the issue of clean water since we are affected by this issue. We support the UN to work harder and more effectively in reaching the 2030 goal of clean water for all as it has been deemed a human right. We remain committed to working with the UN as much as we can in providing clean water to those who need it throughout the world. One solution is supporting the UN in promoting more hygienic practices to prevent contamination of water sources that can provide more sustainable water and healthier earth.

Country:Armenia
Topic: Human rights and indigenous peoples
Paper text:
Armenia has always been considered the most ethnically homogenous state among the Soviet republics states. The indigenous minorities (Yezidis and Kurds) arrived in Armenia around 1828; They are two different ethnic groups but are often considered just one. There is a considerable debate on these minority communities whether they should be considered one ethical group. Currently, the technical distribution group in Armenia is: 98.1% is Armenian, 1.2% is Yezidi, and 0.7% is others. Because Yezidis represent such a small percentage of the Armenian population, they often express concerns, such as suffering inappropriate hazing during the military service; Yezidi children are often victims of bullying at school, discrimination directed from the government and government officials, disadvantaged when allocating land and when having access to water and grazing. Also, Yezidis are more likely to receive lower levels of education than other ethnical groups. The minorities also express a lack of representation at national and local levels. In 1998, the minority representative proposed including their group by allowing a representative to be elected to the Armenian National Assembly. Unfortunately, the proposal was not accepted by the Armenian government at the time. In 2017, four minorities (one Yezidi and one Kurd) were elected during the elections to be part of the parliament. However, for these minorities to run during the elections, they were required to join already established parties, which may not follow the same ideals as their minority groups do. In 2007, the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) was created, aiming to protect the rights of indigenous people and make sure that their traditions stay as intact as possible. To promote a better quality of life for Armenia’s minorities and let those people fully exercise their human rights, we would support the UN in creating new programs that would bring more visibility to the minorities in Armenia. Through these programs, Yezidis and Kurds would have their political parties and more seats in the parliament, making it possible for these minorities to express their concerns and complaints to their government at a higher level and enjoy the same rights as other ethnic groups. Even though this program may take time, it will improve the quality of life of so many people and make sure that the minorities are heard and fully exercise their human rights.

Country:Austria
Topic: The human rights to safe drinking water and sanitation
Paper text:
Lack of access to safe drinking water and sanitation facilities, two separate human rights, interferes with other human rights. For example, Article 2 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states that “everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms [in the Declaration] without distinction of...race, color, sex...social origin, property” etc. and following articles reference the right to fair treatment, honor, privacy, favorable working conditions, a healthy standard of living and food, medical care, and education. Women and girls are disproportionately affected by the lack of access to safe drinking water and sanitation facilities due to the need for maintaining menstrual health. For example, research by the World Bank shows that some girls miss up to three days of school per month due to the lack of infrastructure needed to manage their menstruation. In addition, other marginalized groups, such as homeless people and refugees, disproportionately lack access to safe drinking water and sanitation.
A/HRC/RES/45/8 reappoints a special rapporteur on the topic and highlights the disproportionate access that women face. Austria believes that we must further expand upon operative clause seven in this resolution, which calls upon Member States to promote women’s access to safe drinking water and sanitation facilities and address the stigma of menstruation. Austria hopes to work on the following resolutions: (1) resolutions that help gather information on sanitation infrastructure in countries, especially in rural areas and in schools, and (2) resolutions that implement educational programs about women’s menstrual health into school curricula. Additionally, we would like to discuss increasing access for other marginalized groups mentioned above.

Country:Austria
Topic: Human rights and indigenous peoples
Paper text:
Article 27 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states that “Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits.” However, the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs notes indigenous cultures and languages are threatened by extinction. Austria aims to encourage other Member States to acknowledge the progress made during the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization’s Year of Indigenous Languages in 2019 and focus on the preservation and revitalization of indigenous culture and language. Austria supports the establishment of the Global Task Force for Making a Decade of Action for Indigenous Languages from 2022-2032. Austria will draft and support resolutions that gather information on the status of indigenous culture and language within the respective countries and integrate the results into educational efforts, such as school curricula.
More specifically, Austria wants to address the most recent publications by the Special Rapporteur on Indigenous Peoples, which focus on the exacerbated impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on indigenous populations. Moreover, Member States’ pandemic responses, including quarantine regulations and lockdowns, directly impact indigenous communities by causing additional hardship to access basic economic, cultural and social rights. Thus, Austria will encourage all Member States to support the following resolutions: (1) resolutions that collect data on the impact of COVID-19 on indigenous peoples, and (2) resolutions that work in close cooperation with indigenous peoples’ representatives and institutions in their continued response plans to the COVID-19 pandemic, recommended in A/HRC/48/L.22.

Country:Bahrain
Topic: The human rights to safe drinking water and sanitation
Paper text:
The international community should put the needs of the people before anything else. In an effort to improve the world and improve the installation of Human Rights, this is an area that the United Nations needs to take a stand on. The rights to safe drinking water and sanitation are the bare necessities for people to live and survive. A human right centered approach to this issue involves the United Nations seeing through that safe drinking water and sanitation are provided to citizens of all classes and backgrounds. Before human rights are able to be used to the fullest, citizens need to be able to have access to the necessities of life. With that being said, all projects related to bare necessity assets like sanitation and safe drinking water should be seen through by the United Nations and governments around the globe. The safety of people around the world, and especially in sub-Saharan Africa, and within many indigenous communities is rooted in those bare necessities. To address this problem the United Nations will need to come together to wipeout this issue in every country that this problem affects, especially in a time where climate change and the use of natural resources is monitored so closely. The Human Rights Council should stress the importance that people who are members of historically disadvantaged and marginalized groups receive the same access as the richest people within each country. As technologies are developed around the world to make clean drinking water more accessible and safer, the world needs to work together to share those advancements and techniques. The United Nations should keep track of developments that can enhance the means to achieve safe drinking water and greater sanitation capabilities for the sake of all member nations. Our country is deeply concerned with the impact that not having bare necessities has on suffering people. Bahrain is willing to back efforts to improve the quality of countries around the globe with the help of the United Nations. Before other human rights are instituted, these rights come first.

Country:Bahrain
Topic: Human rights and indigenous peoples
Paper text:
Indigenous peoples from around the world have faced a history of persecution and exploitation, especially in the Middle East and North Africa. This tumultuous time for the human rights of minority and Indigenous groups has presented a tough challenge for the international community, but the MENA needs to be committed to changing for the better. The land of Indigenous peoples is sacred and the violence against these groups needs to stop, worldwide. The United Nations should push for movements to define self- determination goals among Indigenous groups that are seeking political or cultural organization. Prejudices and hateful outlooks on these groups should be set aside from politics and the way that people are treated within a country should not change depending on the race, or group of the citizen. Indigenous peoples should not be alienated in any way, including at the governmental level. We support international efforts to help Indigenous peoples of all walks of life and are committed to bringing about change with our vote. The noise of problems in the world should not overshadow the needs of the people inside a country, and that includes Indigenous people. Through civil wars, the COVID-19 pandemic, and internal conflicts in the MENA region Indigenous people have felt the brunt of the results, so it is that much more important that the United Nations get involved with these issues. Culture and heritage should not be a factor that issues warrant for loss of Human Rights and Bahrain is willing to stand behind that statement. The Human Rights council should address this issue head on in assembly and should ensure that the United Nation’s Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous People is upheld in all member countries.

Country:Bangladesh
Topic: The human rights to safe drinking water and sanitation
Paper text:
The People’s Republic of Bangladesh believes that we must prioritize access to clean, sanitized drinking water above all other global issues, and seeks aid in this time of crisis. Greater than 2 million people in Bangladesh lack access to an improved water source and 48 million lack improved sanitation.The people of Bangladesh have little control over where their water sources come from, given that the three great rivers they receive their water supply from all begin in different nations. Brahmaputra, Meghna, and Ganges all originate in China and India, meaning that our water supply is significantly limited by their large and growing populations. An additional facet to safe drinking water is the rising salinity of water. Salinity is caused by a variety of factors including an increase in shrimp farms, rising sea levels due to climate change, and construction of the Farakka Barrage in India.
We work with support groups such as UNICEF, and have made significant progress in recent years regarding universal access to water sources. In 2013, 97% of our population had access to a water source. However, only 34% had access to safe drinking water, consistently. UNICEF has made it a goal that by 2030, 24 million Bengalis will have access to safe and sustained drinking water. UNICEF’s efforts are supported by the Bangladesh Water Act of 2013. The BWA is a framework law that has the aim of coordinating and integrating management of water resources within the nation. This act provides new regulations for the sustainable use of rivers, lakes, and other available water sources within the nation of Bangladesh. The People’s Republic of Bangladesh hopes that through work with NGOs, as well as incentives, progress will be made towards the goal of each Bangali having access to sanitary water.
The nation of Bangladesh believes that the United Nations and overall world will be better prepared to take on other pressing issues once all people are freed from the constraints of dehydration. In this session of the Human Rights Council, we must focus on providing clean drinking water to all, especially developing nations. We propose collaborating with UNICEF, an organization with a focus on providing water sources where needed. If each nation in the HRC were to contribute to a universal budget, funds could be contributed where needed for research and aid. Should a nation lack the resources needed to conduct research, or contribute to the budget, a proposed new subcommittee of UNICEF will conduct said research. We would like to emphasize the importance of ensuring a strong global foundation to set up sustainable future practices.

Country:Bangladesh
Topic: Human rights and indigenous peoples
Paper text:
Bangladesh is hesitant to acknowledge indigenous peoples in other countries, due to claims of indigenous heritage through self-identification. Five million people claim to be indigenous in Bangladesh, but we only recognize 1.6 million due to the unreliability mentioned above. In Bangladesh, there are 54 indiginous cultures , and the majority reside within the Chittagong Hill Tracts. We believe that countries should determine the needs of the indiginous people living in their country, rather than be subjected to the mandates of the UN.
The People’s Republic of Bangladesh has enacted several pieces of legislation to address the Indigenous Peoples residing within the country. Our Constitution prohibits discrimination on the basis of origin, race, and religion. Specifically in reference to indigenous peoples, the five major Acts of the Chittagong Hill Tracts reflect our intentions to improve the rights of indigenous peoples. For example, the Chittagong Hill Tracts Land Dispute Resolution Commission Act of 2001, amended in 2016, is an adopted resolution for land disputes which focus on returning land to indigenous populations. The Bangladesh Indigenous Peoples Forum brought more concerns about the rights of Indigineous Peoples, with which we responded with the Bangladesh Indigenous Peoples Rights Act of 2015. In 2017, we took initiatives to increase opportunities for primary education. This measure led to the nationalization of 210 primary schools and the production of 25,000 books in 5 different indigenous languages. Through continuing work with the United Nations and the Bangladesh Indigenous Peoples Forum, we hope to continue the conversation of human rights.
While the inclusion and acceptance of native peoples is an honorable cause,we believe that countries should decide the needs of the indigionus people in their respective country rather.The People’s Republic of Bangladesh seeks to emphasize the importance of helping indigious people but we also believe that countries should deal with this matter internally. We do not have the resources to address this issue head on without cutting resources to more pertinent problems such as hunger and access to clean water.

Country:Bolivia
Topic: The human rights to safe drinking water and sanitation
Paper text:
We recognize that in the 21st century, 29 percent of the world’s population is still without access to safely-managed drinking water services and 55 percent is without access to safely-managed sanitation services. Overall, the most affected by the issue of access to safe drinking water and sanitation are those in rural and underdeveloped communities. Bolivia supports the UN document that uses the plural human rights to safe drinking water and sanitation. Recognizing this need and affirming its commitments, Bolivia has partnered with NGOs such as Water for People to reach 136,451 people among 8 districts and counting. We recognize that inorder to provide for our citizens we must increase investments in our country. We urge the international community to recognize that water and sanitation are the cornerstone to improving the quality of life of our citizens. Bolivia has been on the forefront of addressing human rights in distinct forms. For example, we have committed to providing women with resources to decrease the lack of accessibility through adhering to the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, specifically Sustainable Development Goal 3, which highlights the ensurement of healthy lives. We concur with the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation that the key to accessibility and reduction of disease is to work towards diminishing poverty. We recognize that accessibility alone can not decrease the spread of the disease. Stigma surrounding medical resources and sex create a barrier, decreasing the willingness of women to obtain necessary help. In accordance with the commemorative report made between 2010 and 2020 and through our previous experience in protecting human rights, we recognize the importance and need for community based initiatives The report noted that solutions must assess the root causes that drive exclusion from access to water and sanitation, incorporate the human rights framework into policy making and ensure that people in affected communities, particularly those in marginalized groups, remain centered and protected in all decisions. Bolivia is maintaining support of the report as long as its commitment to Sustainable Development Goal 6: Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all. Bolivia spearheaded resolution A/RES/64/292 to recognize access to clean water and sanitation as a fundamental right in 2010. We continue our fight to protect water and sanitation as a right but are focusing on the support of community driven incentives that promote access to clean water and sanitation in rural areas. The United Nations can help new projects and technologies follow a human-rights based approach through community driven incentives where empathy and drive are already present. Through the promotion of these community groups, governments are able to reach the most disenfranchised groups on their terms. We are dedicated towards creating solutions to affirm the human right to safe drinking water and sanitation and align with the fundamental ideas of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

Country:Bolivia
Topic: Human rights and indigenous peoples
Paper text:
Bolivia is the home to 36 recognized peoples; Bolivia when adopting the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples and a new Constitution took on the name of a plurinational state. This decision demonstrates Bolivia’s commitment to the protection of and ensuring the rights of indigenous populations. The UN Declaration on the Rights of the Indigenous Peoples was approved by Law in November 2007. Since 1991, Bolivia has been a signatory of ILO Convention 169. According to the 2012 National Census, 41% of the Bolivian population over the age of 15 are of Indigenous origin. However, Bolivia's Indigenous Peoples still face challenges, especially in terms of seismic work in search of new oil and gas reserves and hydroelectric projects. These projects directly impact the people inhabiting the territory of the projects, often Indigenous Peoples. To date, the Indigenous Peoples have consolidated 23 million acres of collective property under the status of Community Lands of Origin (TCOs), representing 21% of the country’s total landmass. Thanks to the Framework Law on Autonomies 031/10 of 22 July 2010, a number of Indigenous Peoples are now forming their own self-government. Indigenous Peoples were disproportionately affected by the pandemic. Their right to participate in decision-making processes on issues affecting their rights continued to be undermined by the granting of licenses for economic projects on community lands without their free, prior, and informed consent. According to the Office of the Ombudsperson, in the context of the pandemic, there was a lack of a public health policy to protect Indigenous Peoples and an increase in the use on social media of racist rhetoric that stigmatized them. Since March, the Government has adopted a set of economic measures, in an attempt to help. However, none include specific provisions for the original peoples, who have had to move from the most remote territories to the population centers in order to access those subsidies, with the attendant risk of becoming infected, as indigenous organizations have denounced. There is a lack of medical care and access to biosecurity equipment, food, and assistance vouchers in indigenous territories, in addition to the preexisting precarious health conditions and infections among the employees of oil companies operating near the territories of the Guarani people. The IACHR has also urged the Government to coordinate effective and culturally appropriate responses with those indigenous peoples in order to implement prevention, containment, diagnosis, treatment, and nutrition measures, among others, as well as to avoid extractive activities in their territories. In early June, the Ministry of Health presented a comprehensive plan to mitigate the effects of the pandemic on indigenous peoples, aimed at enhancing and expanding their access to health care, reviving their economic activities, providing humanitarian aid, food, and other basic supplies, and ensuring their access to state subsidies. This plan aims to provide assistance to 62,000 indigenous families. At the government level. Bolivia is committed to continuing to provide services to its indigenous populations.

Country:China
Topic: The human rights to safe drinking water and sanitation
Paper text:
The People’s Republic of China is dedicated to increasing access to water rights worldwide. The lack of access to clean water throughout the world is disconcerting, as only 71% have acquired this necessity. It is our goal to aid nations in their desire to increase the supply of this necessity. It is also our goal to protect the sovereignty of nations within the United Nations, while we aid them in this goal, and only intercede with explicit requests from said governments. With permission to abet these nations, The People's Republic of China will increase economic ties in order to increase said governments revenue which has been greatly hindered due to past western imperialist interference. It is our intention to increase the amount of proper sanitation through increased economic prosperity brought to fruition through our economic policies with said nation. We have interest in this increase in water rights to allow nations to throw off the still extant yoke of western imperialism for the sake of their posterity. Increasing the collective wealth of lesser societies is the primary goal of China which can beget a more functional water system and increase water access. It is China's primary goal to protect the right to subsistence and all other rights which have been stated in the Declaration of Human Rights.

Country:China
Topic: Human rights and indigenous peoples
Paper text:
The People’s Republic of China is dedicated to the maintenance and assurance of human rights and prosperity to all members of any given society. It is our aim to provide and assure that indigenous peoples are maintained within their distinct, but equal, portions of the country in which they reside, and that the dominant culture provides all means of access as proportioned to them within their individually dignified human rights. Human rights are important to the People’s Republic of China, and we see it as our aim to continue to provide equality so as to respect the sovereignty of countries in which the indigenous reside. The People’s Republic of China sees it as our continued responsibility to provide these rights of indigenous peoples and sovereignty so much as it respects the individual sovereignty and human rights of the majority. Colonialism and western imperialism have seen a rise in the inequalities of indigenous peoples across the world. This is imperial hegemonic entities subjugating vulnerable societies while providing no means of improvement. China believes, and practices, a process through which indigenous peoples are uplifted and protected from their own harms, something which Western societies lack a calling and practice for. Therefore, China in protecting our own indigenous population from internal and external strife, calls upon the international community to do as they deem fit, which respects the indigenous peoples in which they call their countries home.

Country:Cuba
Topic: The human rights to safe drinking water and sanitation
Paper text:
We believe that it is important that everyone is able to access safe drinking water as well as safe sanitation. Although Sustainable Development Goal 6 calls for clean water and sanitation for all by 2030, there is still significant progress to be made if we are to achieve these goals. Today, over one in four people still lack access to safe water, and more than 3.6 billion people worldwide lack access to basic sanitation. Furthermore, discussions over this issue fail to consider the accessibility and affordability of safe water.
We would like to see more international cooperation among governments and international organizations to eliminate these problems and provide safe water and sanitation, the most fundamental human rights, to all people. We advocate for financial and technological resources to be provided to areas in which many people are unable to obtain safe water. We call on states to increase their efforts to provide clean water to all people, and we advocate for international cooperation to eliminate the lack of access to clean water and sanitation.

Country:Cuba
Topic: Human rights and indigenous peoples
Paper text:
Human rights of indigenous peoples must be protected and the United Nations has a responsibility to put pressure on states who do not comply. In 2006 and 2007, the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples was passed both in the Human Rights Council and in the General Assembly, however has been poorly implemented. We, despite previously voting yes on the previous declaration, wish to listen and take the advice of the Secretary General and other indigenous leaders across the globe in writing a different, updated declaration, building off of the previous declaration, aiming for clearer implementation plans and goals for the coming decades to ensure the rights of indigenous groups around the world. Doing such will likely put more pressure on countries that previously had not followed what had been proposed by the 2007 declaration.
COVID-19 has also severely negatively affected indigenous peoples, especially in areas of healthcare during said pandemic. In order to combat such in the world today, we plan to push for the encouragement of national, government-run healthcare implementation in member states from the United Nations. We feel that the success that we have achieved in our vaccine rollout can be attributed to our government-run healthcare and the application of such a healthcare system can lead to the prevention of the spread of disease in indigenous groups (which tend to more likely be economically disadvantaged in free market systems) around the world. We also plan to push for the intervention of other countries’ medical personnel into other countries that have been more detrimentally affected by COVID-19, including in areas of high indigenous populations as we have done in the past two years.

Country:Czech Republic
Topic: The human rights to safe drinking water and sanitation
Paper text:
Regarding safe drinking water and sanitation, it is difficult to discuss these topics when many individuals around the world do not even have access to water in general. The Czech Republic believes in people’s human right to have access to safe drinking water as about 98% of our population has access to clean drinking water. This nation is in full agreement with the recognition of the human right to safe drinking water and sanitation by the General Assembly and Human Rights Council in 2010. The poorest segment of the population must also have ownership of these rights for them to be valid. The Czech Republic is in favor of any solutions that are low-cost and efficient to improve water and sanitation conditions worldwide. As a land- locked country with three river basins draining into neighboring nations, we are technically “water-stressed.” In order to achieve our entire population having access to water, there are multiple providers that range from government-owned to private companies. Each of our nation’s 14 regions has municipalities that are responsible for providing or delegating this service. This method should be used in other nations to spur job growth and to increase accountability for this human right. Regarding sanitation, the Czech Republic needs to improve its waste management, including treatment of wastewater. We are in favor of solutions that use natural treatments, such as self-cleaning processes occurring in certain environments, in order to keep operation and construction costs low. There also needs to be incentives for nations and their individual regions to properly handle waste to attempt to help marginalized populations that do not always receive the necessary assistance from their governments.

Country:Czech Republic
Topic: Human rights and indigenous peoples
Paper text:
Regarding the human rights of indigenous people, the Czech Republic is in support of any solutions or actions that create greater self-determination for indigenous people and encourage these groups to gain leadership positions. Czechia has a turbulent history of changing borders and governments through the past nations of Bohemia and Czechoslovakia. More than half of the population labels themselves as Czechs with the minority groups including Moravians, Slovaks, Ukrainians, Poles, Viets, Germans, Silesians, and Roma. Due to World War II, the Jewish and Roma groups were almost entirely eliminated and the German population was forced to emigrate; therefore, Czechia exhibits relative ethnic homogeneity. Czechia also has a Council for National Minorities that has representatives from nationally recognized minority groups. Our nation would look favorably upon the creation of similar government advisory bodies in other countries to ensure the representation of minority and indigenous populations. We also encourage nations to listen to indigneous activists and their messages through protest. Moreover, the increasingly important factors of climate change and COVID-19 have unequally impacted minority and indigenous groups across the globe. Even when making decisions on the global-scale, nations have to ensure that these groups are represented and considered. There needs to be recognition and acknowledgement of stolen lands at the national government level. Czechia encourages those with a large indigenous population to take into account these voices as they make decisions that have large effects on these populations. To create change, Czechia supports the creation of education initiatives to inform the general public on how their nations are approaching the human rights of idigenous peoples. We also support programs that fund scholarships for indigenous peoples to attend higher education with less financial stress.

Country:Denmark
Topic: The human rights to safe drinking water and sanitation
Paper text:
Denmark supports efforts by the Human Rights Council to ensure the implementation of new water and sanitation projects in countries that lack these resources. Clean drinking water and sanitation have only recently been considered human rights, and UN action is necessary to ensure projects are properly planned and implemented. We acknowledge that despite considerable progress and consistent attention to the issue of safe drinking water by both the UN and NGOs, development projects do not often take a human-rights approach and can hurt communities more than it helps them. We want to work to find solutions that are sustainable, universal, and accessible. We acknowledge that climate change, water pollution, and competing sectors have significantly complicated efforts to implement safe drinking water protocols around the world and want to work to find solutions that work around and with these complications.
Let us also put equal emphasis and attention on sanitation that we do on achieving universal access to safe drinking water. Lack of sanitation and hygiene highly contribute to the spread of illness among a community. Denmark acknowledges that the COVID-19 pandemic has demonstrated the risks that can result from improper public sanitation. Ensuring proper sanitation efforts helps to ensure public health. Now more than ever it is necessary to implement sanitation efforts so that all peoples can fully enjoy the rights ensured to them by the United Nations.

Country:Denmark
Topic: Human rights and indigenous peoples
Paper text:
Denmark acknowledges the persistent human rights violations among indigenous peoples happening globally and supports efforts by the United Nations to ensure this vulnerable population’s rights are concretely established and protected. Around the world, indigenous peoples suffer from higher rates of poverty, an increased rate of gender-based violence, and discriminatory practices socially and politically. Deeply concerned by their past contributions to the violations and discrimination among Inuit natives in Greenland, Denmark has apologized for the worst of their affairs and has since made efforts to combat these practices in both Greenland and mainland Denmark. Noting with concern the failures of the Human Rights Council to implement indigenous peoples’ rights as outlined in the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous People, Denmark encourages the Human Rights Council and the United Nations to focus on the implementation. The Human Rights Council has, in the past, made significant strides towards acknowledging indigenous human rights violations and drafting separate declarations which outline the specific rights granted to indigenous peoples, but the implementation of these rights has been a consistent challenge. Denmark encourages the Human Rights Council and the United Nations to focus on the implementation of previously established indigenous peoples’ rights before any further damage is done to their land or their global populations.

Country:Fiji
Topic: The human rights to safe drinking water and sanitation
Paper text:
Over the last few decades, Fiji has been working to provide access to safe drinking water for our citizens. We want to uphold our promise to our citizens through the sustainment of our partnerships with Sanitation and Water for All (SWA) and Water Supply, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH). These programs ensure that no resident of Fiji, especially in rural communities, is left out of the conversation surrounding basic human rights and to continue our efforts to establish clean water and sanitation for all of Fiji’s residents. In these rural areas, 30% of Fiji’s population continues to use groundwater sources, such as boreholes, wells, and spring water. It is our mission to reach our efforts to these rural communities and maintain their participation in the conversations surrounding these fundamental human rights. Due to the geographical location of Fiji, the water supply is easily influenced by weather patterns and climate change. We uphold our government’s opinion that we must focus on our country’s mitigation and resilience into our infrastructures to ensure no resident is left without clean water and sanitation as a result of our ever-changing climate. It is our hope that through our communication and cooperation with other countries in similar situations as ours, we can develop a clear plan to provide clean water and sanitation to our communities that are in need.

Country:Fiji
Topic: Human rights and indigenous peoples
Paper text:
As a country filled with a diverse and unique population with a rich history from our indigenous cultures, we uphold the belief that indigenous peoples are the backbone of our modern society. We are committed to our ideals that indigenous peoples should be able to live with the same standard of life without being displaced to other regions of our nation. We believe that compliance with documents such as the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) is vital when it comes to respecting the self- determination, rights, and liberties of indigenous peoples in our community. As we have seen, global crises, such as climate change and pandemics, disproportionately affects minority populations, and the effect these disasters have on indigenous communities is immense and difficult to overcome. It is our hope that the United Nations will consider an allocation of resources to these indigenous populations that continue to suffer from significant losses with no global resources. It is our mission to focus on the voices of these indigenous communities as we discuss how we can assist them and amplify their voices in the future. When discussing potential solutions, it is our main goal to ensure we are helping and protecting the rights of indigenous peoples while actively listening to their concerns surrounding their own communities.

Country:Germany
Topic: The human rights to safe drinking water and sanitation
Paper text:
Germany is dedicated to the fight for safe drinking water for all, as it is a basic human right that should be available to every citizen throughout the world. Germany is one of the largest contributors to the clean water and sanitation movement and has donated millions of euros to combat this problem. According to WHO and UNICEF, almost 800 million people lack the access to water and sanitation services and almost 900 million people lack access to safe, clean drinking water. Germany is committed to working with like-minded countries to suggest ways to combat this problem that is a human rights violation on a global scale.

Country:Germany
Topic: Human rights and indigenous peoples
Paper text:
We understand the importance of protecting and ensuring the human rights of indigenous peoples around the world. Germany supports the economic empowerment of indigenous peoples. Additionally, Germany is aware of the situation facing indigenous peoples in the arctic as climate change and want for resources grows in the area and recognizes and campaigns for the indigenous people’s right to a free and self-governing life on the land that is considered theirs. As a nation, Germany is committed to maintaining indigenous people’s rights to their land even as natural resources continue to be in high demand and supports indigenous peoples through economic programs.

Country:India
Topic: The human rights to safe drinking water and sanitation
Paper text:
Since 2010, the UN has acknowledged the right to safe drinking water as a human right. In addition to being safe, water must be available, accessible, and affordable to all, without discrimination. Despite this standard, safe drinking water is still unavailable to many. According to statistics from 2020, 785 million people were without basic water service, 2 billion people had no access to safe drinking water in their homes, and 4.2 billion people could not access a safely managed sanitation service. Although access to safe drinking water remains a major issue, improvements have been made.
Prior to 2010, the right to safe drinking water was informally acknowledged in many ways. Discriminatory barriers have been recognized, such as in 1979 when the CEDAW resolved that women ought to have the same access to water as men. In 2008, the HRC decided to appoint an expert to perform research and to report on the issue,eventually leading to a formal recognition of the right. Efforts such as these encouraged progress, producing the improvements seen today. Though headway has been made, much work lies before the UN.
The Government of India supports the recognition of safe drinking water as a human right, as seen in our actions. Through efforts like the Swachh Bharat Mission (Clean India Mission), milestones, such as 100 million toilets being built, have been reached to further discourage open defecation, an essential step toward providing safe water. In a speech for the launch of Swachh Bharat, Prime Minister Modi said, “Mahatma Gandhi dreamt of an India which was not only free but also clean and developed… it is our duty to serve Mother India by keeping the country neat and clean”. To continue securing and advancing the human right to safe drinking water, transparency proves essential. Cooperation of States with experts and organizations remains of utmost importance, a reality recognized by the Government of India. With open lines of communication, preventative measures to keep water safe as well as proactive measures to make water available, accessible, and affordable must be taken.

Country:India
Topic: Human rights and indigenous peoples
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As of 2007, the Declaration of the Human Rights of Indigenous peoples was adopted. Because of the variety of cultures, languages, and histories of indigenous peoples, the Declaration supports self- determination to ensure accurate representation. Recognized as a category distinct from general human rights, the human rights of indigenous peoples encompass unique struggles like that of preserving ancestral land and resources in an ever-developing world. Despite the importance of these issues, only recently have they received attention.
Since 1982, there have been efforts to establish the rights of indigenous peoples. But until 2001 when the Commission on Human Rights appointed a Special Rapporteur to investigate issues and provide commentary, little formal action was taken. This mandate has been renewed multiple times since then, most recently in 2019. In 2007, 144 countries agreed to the Declaration of the Human Rights of Indigenous peoples, with 38 more countries joining in 2009 at a review conference 6. To make this declaration a reality though, State implementation proves essential.
The Government of India has supported the Declaration since its inception. Before the UN formally declared indigenous people’s rights, the Ministry of Tribal Affairs was established in India to facilitate the socio-economic development of Scheduled Tribes (STs). In a speech at the Dalit-Minority International Conference, former Prime Minister Singh said, “[The Indian] Government is deeply and sincerely committed to the equality of all sections of our society and will take all necessary steps to help in the social, educational and economic empowerment of dalits. This is our solemn commitment”. Prime Minister Singh’s words reflect the importance of recognizing the unique struggles of indigenous peoples, as all countries should. To continue securing indigenous people’s rights, self-governance is essential. Formal recognition of these groups as well as protection of their sovereignty provide two ways in which States can advocate for this. States ought to take on a role of support in order to encourage in indigenous peoples the full realization of their rights.

Country:Indonesia
Topic: The human rights to safe drinking water and sanitation
Paper text:
One of the issues presented before the Human Rights Council is the access to Safe Drinking Water as a Fundamental Human Right. Indonesia is devoted to the protection of the rights of all people and seeks further advancement in cooperation in the advocacy and advancement of these rights. Indonesia believes that access to safe drinking water is not only essential for the advancement of the quality of human life. Poor water management, limited infrastructure and rapid economic development has driven scarcity in parts of the country. Changing land-use patterns, deforestation and the spread of extractive industries have altered the natural landscape, leaving many areas susceptible to floods increasing the incidence of water pollution. Without adequate infrastructure to protect and treat water, the likelihood of water-borne disease pandemics increases. Climate change has the potential to disrupt the established alternating dry and wet periods that Indonesia usually experience, possibly leading to drier conditions. The dry season could become more arid, leading to greater demands for water. The wet season, on the other hand, could be shorter and more intense. As Indonesia’s GDP increases the quality of life within the country has not been properly addressed.
In previous years Indonesia has partnered with private investors to improve the water structure. In reference to Article 25 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, all people have a right to the resources necessary for an adequate standard of living. Access to safe drinking water is a key component of sanitation and physical health. Because of the importance that safe and clean drinking water has to the health of individuals, Indonesia is of the highest support for the recognition of safe drinking water as a human right. This is a call on the countries who reside within the United Nations to address human needs: Economic growth across the country has not been accompanied by infrastructural development. The solution lies in the hands of private investors. Improving access to sanitation facilities and clean sources of water as well as increasing awareness of proper hygiene practices will help to reduce the spread of disease.

Country:Indonesia
Topic: Human rights and indigenous peoples
Paper text:
As signatories of the United Nations Declaration of the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, Indonesia recognizes the unique human rights that apply to indigenous peoples, and is committed to promoting these rights within the United Nations system. These rights include the right to retain cultural traditions and linguistic identity, the right to establish independent education systems, and the right to prevent forced assimilation, among others. We are in favor of policy that will protect these rights, and we reject policy that we believe directly violates them. Indonesia also acknowledges the ways that indigenous peoples have historically faced discrimination, increased criminalization, and other unjust violations of their rights; for these reasons we are in support of policy that is meant to make amends for past wrongs regarding the treatment of indigenous peoples. Furthermore, Indonesia recognizes the way that indigenous groups have historically been left out of important conversations within the United Nations, and thus we are committed to promoting and encouraging indigenous voices on topics of international importance.

Country:Italy
Topic: The human rights to safe drinking water and sanitation
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The Republic of Italy believes it is imperative for each person regardless of nationality or creed to have access to safe drinking water and proper sanitation. The Italian delegation promotes the following of the sustainable development goals, specifically the assurance that all people have access to clean drinking water and sanitation. The delegation of italy also believes that all people with uteruses have access to the proper menstrual hygiene products that they need. We encourage other member states to follow resolution A/HRC/47/L.2, Menstrual hygiene management, human rights and gender equality. Allowing access to these sanitation measures will allow people with uteruses to live healthier lives and live with less stigma. Recognizing that menstruation is a natural bodily function that over half of the human population experiences, we oppose the stigma that has been attached to it and stress the importance of everyone with a uterus to have the ability to access proper sanitation measures as it is imperative to their overall health and well-being. The Republic of Italy will advocate for any sanitation or safe drinking water needs of the global community.

Country:Italy
Topic: Human rights and indigenous peoples
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The Republic of Italy recognized the rights of all people, especially the rights of indigenous people. Italy recognizes that all indigenous peoples are equal to all other peoples and that they contribute to the diversity and richness of civilizations and cultures which also constitutes the heritage of human rights as stated in the resolution 61/295. The Republic of Italy supports the rights of indigenous people to maintain their unique and distinct cultural institutions as they are essential to forming a community that is founded on diversity and cultural acceptance. The Republic of Italy recognized that historically, and even in the present, patterns of discrimination against indigenous peoples have impaired their ability to freely exercise their right to self-determination. While taking into account that the lack of meaningful involvement of indigenous peoples in decision and policy making has lead to further marginalization, as well as a lasting legacy of economic, social, and cultural challenges, Italy supports the inclusion of indigenous peoples in the processes of decision and policy making in order to ensure that all people are heard, included, and protected.

Country:Japan
Topic: The human rights to safe drinking water and sanitation
Paper text:
The lack of access to safely managed drinking water and sanitation services is a serious problem that threatens the global community, affecting billions around the world. In 2010, The UNDHR explicitly stated water, sanitation, and hygiene as human rights. Contaminated water and a lack of basic sanitation are undermining efforts to end extreme poverty and disease in underdeveloped and developing countries. 29 percent of the world’s population is without access to safely managed drinking water services while 55 percent is without access to safely managed sanitation services. Contaminated water and poor sanitation are linked to the transmission of diseases, exposing humans to otherwise preventable health risks such as: cholera, diarrhea, dysentery, hepatitis A, typhoid, and polio. The lack of access to these facilities also perpetuates other issues such as lack of access to education, safe healthcare facilities, and gender equality. Internationally, the funding for safe water and sanitation is inadequate. Not addressing this issue reduces human well-being and social and economic development and could have extreme consequences as contaminated water and poor sanitation is a high risk factor for infectious diseases leading to an increase in waterborne diseases, child malnutrition, infant death, and global death. Together, unclean water and poor sanitation is the second biggest killer of children. This is a moral failure, everyone deserves basic human rights, as an international community we should be looking towards accelerating efforts regarding water and sanitation related challenges.
The UN and the international community have been active in trying to address this problem by acknowledging human rights, having committee discussions, and creating goals. In 2002, the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights formally acknowledged that the rights to water and sanitation were implicit in the ICESCR’s articles on standards of living and health. In 2010, the General Assembly and HRC explicitly recognized a human right to safe drinking water and sanitation for the first time, representing the culmination of these changes. Additionally the UN General Assembly has declared 2018 through 2028, The Water Action Decade, discussing implementation of the water-related goals and targets of the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda. Japan has supported the work that has been done concerning clean water and proper sanitation internationally and domestically by providing more than 40 million people access to safe drinking water and sanitation in the past five years. These efforts will continue in the future. One goal of Japan's is aiming at improving access to the safe and stable water and sanitary sewage systems. Japan will support capacity building for water resources management through, in particular, establishment of an autonomous committee on water resource management and the creation of a model for public participation with women playing a key role. Japan is also looking at populated urban areas that face low coverage of sewerage systems and will support developments there.

Country:Japan
Topic: Human rights and indigenous peoples
Paper text:
The rights of indigenous peoples are essential and of historical significance to the present and future of the international community. However, due to a history of discrimination and marginalization, indigenous peoples face obstacles and sometimes violations to their human rights. Indigenous peoples have historically faced dispossession and forced removal from their ancestral lands, forced assimilation, loss of cultural traditions, and lack of self- determination. Consequently, these patterns perpetuate other human rights abuses such as increased risk of gender-related violence, higher rates of poverty, and increased criminalization. An indigenous woman is more likely to be raped, with some estimates showing that more than one in three indigenous women are raped during their lifetime. Indigenous peoples frequently raise concerns about systemic discrimination and outright racism from the State and its authorities. COVID-19 has been a new threat to the international community, but specifically indigenous peoples as it has disproportionately affected those communities, which often suffer from lack of healthcare access. These are international challenges as the population of indigenous peoples worldwide is between 300- 500 million. Indigenous peoples have faced global historic abuses and often rank highest for prison inmates, illiteracy, and unemployment. Indigenous peoples have the right to their own cultural identity and integrity and to their cultural heritage. All members of the international community should care as the issues of poverty, landlessness, malnutrition, and internal displacement impact indigenous peoples globally.
The UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples emphasizes the Indigenous peoples' rights establishes a universal framework of minimum standards for the survival, dignity and well-being of indigenous peoples, the declaration has since been adopted by 148 nations. The UN has also commissioned committees and conventions in the past to create dialogue and accountability between governments and indigenous peoples and recommend specific steps for greater recognition of indigenous rights at the UN. Internationally, there has been some progress but little change. Governments need to pay special attention to indigenous peoples residing in cross-border areas, in accordance with article 36 of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, to ascertain the human rights situation in those areas and despite widespread acceptance by Member States, implementation of UNDRIP continues to pose a significant challenge. Domestically, Japan has made effort in addressing historical issues of marginalized and discrimination against Ainu People. In 2007, the Government of Japan recognized the Ainu as an indigenous people with Parliament introducing and passing a resolution stating that the Ainu has a “distinct language, religion and culture.” In 2019, Japan’s Ainu Promotion Act passed which granted legal recognition as an indigenous people and obligates the government to adopt policies to facilitate people's understanding of the traditions of the Ainu and the importance of the diversity that ethnic groups contribute to society. The Japanese government is optimistic in implementing measures to ban discrimination against the Ainu peoples. Japan sees the solution to gender- based violence is to take ownership and responsibility for the future of Ainu women and children by providing support, education, advocacy, and by improving laws and policies of women’s rights. Japan also urges other countries to take positive actions to protect human rights and respect indigenous communities.

Country:Marshall Islands
Topic: The human rights to safe drinking water and sanitation
Paper text:
Access to safe drinking water is a human right yet is unattainable for at least 2 billion people. (UN) This in turn leads to a number of social inequalities such as health issues and a lack of education. This goes hand in hand with the problem of an inadequate number of sanitation facilities. Around 827, 000 people in developing countries die due to inadequate water, sanitation, and hygiene each year. (WHO) The Republic of the Marshall Islands firmly believes that our fellow member states must commit to ensuring that a much greater percentage of the global population has access to safe drinking water and sanitation services. While the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) has made steps towards inclusivity through Sustainable Development Goal 6 and Resolution 64/292, there is still a long way to go. We propose the development of a task force that monitors countries with less than 50% of their population with access to safe drinking water and sanitation. This taskforce will allow us to be informed of the current crisis and health risks associated with this problem. Along with this, we need to educate people on the importance of drinking sanitized water and the health problems that stem from unsafe water. We acknowledge that these systems are very expensive, however as the human rights council it is our responsibility to ensure that our population is given access to safe water and better sanitation to provide them with the best future possible.

Country:Marshall Islands
Topic: Human rights and indigenous peoples
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The Republic of the Marshall Islands recognizes the many human rights issues associated with Indegenous Peoples. The COVID-19 pandemic has greatly stimulated the displacement of people and has had a big effect on indegenous populations. This pandemic along with climate change has had detrimental effects to economies, specifically unproportionately for Indigenous Peoples, forcing them to look elsewhere for income. We firmly believe that the involvement of indegenous leaders and peoples are essential in the process of ensuring their protection of human rights. While UNDRIP shows a step in the right direction towards involvement of these voices in the UN, little has been done. We call for a task force designated to increase the number of indegenous voices in the UN and give them a platform to share their struggles and potential solutions. Along with this, we must ascertain that we support these populations during the hardships faced from the global pandemic. We propose that this council puts in place harsher conditions encouraging compliance with UNDRIP. Countries that refuse to comply can be subject to investigations of the countries’ human rights violations. We also call upon the council to bring forward a resolution in which more consideration is given to Indigenous Peoples in light of the COVID-19 crisis. These peoples have been inordinately affected and require more assistance in returning to work, having access to vaccines, and in finding housing after being displaced. We recognize the lack of voice of Indigenous Peoples in our council and urge our fellow member states to work harder to accommodate and include these marginalized and underrepresented voices.

Country:Mexico
Topic: The human rights to safe drinking water and sanitation
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In the words of the late United Nations (UN) ambassador, Audrey Hepburn, equitable and consistent access to water and sanitation services is life. The delegation of Mexico acknowledges that across the globe, with an increase in the impacts of climate change, natural disasters, and persistent conflicts, there are groups of people that are disproportionately deprived of access to clean water and sanitary services. This includes but is not limited to indigenous peoples, people of color, displaced peoples, and other marginalized groups. These inhumane conditions have been further exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. Mexico commends the continuous invaluable efforts of all UN Member States as the duty-bearers to provide equitable water and sanitation services to their citizens. The delegation of Mexico endorses the UN’s ten-year plan (2018-2028). Especially in light of the pandemic, 2.2 billion people around the world still lack safe water and sanitation services. In addition to the Mexican government legally recognizing the right to clean water and sanitation services as a fundamental human right, in 2012 we partnered with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to provide equitable water management in Mexico. By identifying our coordination and capacity challenges across multiple stakeholders involved in water policy design, regulation and implementation we collaborated in creating non-discriminatory suggestions for water distribution practices. The collaboration also noted the need to emphasize the financial stability of our clean water and sanitation solutions so that the government's service provision is affordable for all Mexican people, regardless of identity.
Through facts, grass-roots collaboration, and national or international expert opinion we hope to realize the fundamental human right to clean water and sanitation services in the coming years through working with established NGOS and partnerships such as Mexico’s with the OECD to help give clean water to everyone. The delegation of Mexico looks forward to working with all Member States in the Human Rights Council as this issue is universal and transcends political blocks.

Country:Mexico
Topic: Human rights and indigenous peoples
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The delegation from the Republic of Mexico acknowledges and upholds the standards of the United Nations Declaration of the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. Mexico fully supports the rights of indigenous people in our own country, ensuring the support for 25.7 million Mexicans that self-identify as indigenous people. The delegation fully supports the protection of indigenous people, especially in countering violence against indigenous women and girls. It is essential that the global community comes together to protect those groups at risk of facing more violence. One way of accomplishing this is by supporting these communities’ medical needs. One of the key factors to ensure that all indigenous people are healthy, is giving widespread healthcare to those at risk. The delegation is deeply concerned with high maternal and infantile mortality rates, overall lower life expectancy, and overall limited access to health services. Indigenous communities have the right to health and safety just as every other citizen. This delegation also stresses the support of the call to action on building an inclusive, sustainable, and resilient future with indigenous peoples.
The delegation from the Republic of Mexico proposes a plan in order to increase access to health services. The first step is to increase trust with indigenous populations through international education campaigns to end stigmatization so those communities will feel comfortable with receiving care. The second step of this proposed resolution is providing information to those indigenous communities who may be unaware of resources available to them as well as those who may be at risk. The last solution is expanding overall health care resources to those indigenous communities who are lacking those resources. This is of the utmost importance to help those in need in the global community. The delegation from Mexico is looking forward to working on these topics and coming to terms to solutions with the global community.

Country:Namibia
Topic: The human rights to safe drinking water and sanitation
Paper text:
At present, 2-3 billion people do not have access to safe drinking water, 884 million lack access to an improved water source, 2.6 billion do not have access to improved sanitation, and 1.1 billion still practice open defecation. The human rights to water and sanitation are inextricably linked, in functional and normative terms. These rights are fundamental to human dignity and essential for the realization of many other internationally recognized human rights. The African Development Bank has approved a grant from the Rural Water Supply Sanitation Initiative Trust Fund to support Namibia’s Water Sector Support Programme. The Namibian program will facilitate sustainable production and transfer of water resources to improve access to potable water and for agricultural and industrial use. This program seeks to increase access to sustainable water services from the current level of 85% and sanitation services from 54% to the universal 100% target by 2030.
The project aligns to Namibia’s national development plans and a government priority to boost the availability and affordability of water as a basic element for making Namibia a prosperous and industrialized nation by 2030. Namibia is grappling with a national water crisis due to severe droughts. The 2018/19 rainy season, one of the driest since 1981, only received 50% or less of average seasonal rainfall, thereby posing serious constraints to the southern African nation’s economic, environmental and social development agenda.

Country:Namibia
Topic: Human rights and indigenous peoples
Paper text:
There are between 370 and 500 million Indigenous Peoples worldwide, in over 90 countries. Although they make up just 5 percent of the global population, they account for about 15 percent of the extreme poor. Indigenous Peoples often lack formal recognition over their lands, territories and natural resources, are often last to receive public investments in basic services and infrastructure, and face multiple barriers to participate fully in the formal economy, enjoy access to justice, and participate in political processes and decision making. Namibia ratified the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) on September 13, 2007. In the 16th Session of the Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues, identified education, resettlement and livelihood support programs were identified as key development components to poverty alleviation amongst these communities. Hence, the government has prioritized them as key priorities towards addressing the socio-economic situation of the marginalized communities in a spirit of Harambee Prosperity Plan and that nobody must be left out in the Namibian House.
On the implementation of the Human Rights and culture mandated areas, the Constitution of Namibia provides for the Bill of Rights and all Namibian are treated equally before the laws and are allowed to practice their own culture without any discrimination. The government has implemented policies to guarantee self-determination and political representation for such communities as Namibian San Council was created in 2006 and the traditional authorities (TAs) were recognized as well.
Namibia acknowledges that there is a need to do more as a country for the marginalized communities but due to limited resources, only limited actions can be implemented within our means. Namibia therefore urges the United Nations and Agencies to continue and strengthen its support to Member States in the implementation of its programs. We also urge the United Nations system to continue with the implementation of equal representations of all indigenous peoples from different continents in its decision-making process. The Republic of Namibia once again affirms and commits itself to the implementation and ratification of all the United Nations Declarations, Conventions, and Treaties as a Member state. Namibia looks forward to working with other Member States in advancing the objectives of the work of the human rights of Indigenous peoples both within and outside its borders.

Country:Nepal
Topic: The human rights to safe drinking water and sanitation
Paper text:
The human rights to safe drinking water and sanitation
Universal access to safe, reliable drinking water and sanitation is a right that the Republic of Nepal seeks to provide to all its citizens and that must be more extensively addressed by the global community. As a country, we have committed ourselves to furthering UN Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 6 and although we have met the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) targets for water supply, we are still working towards the MDG target for sanitation. Home to one of the world's most extreme landscapes, Nepal recognizes that many environmental factors may contribute to water and sanitation scarcities. We are committed to creating innovative solutions that will work with the world's diverse landscapes and climates and bring clean water and sanitation to all people, even the most remote corners of the world. We also recognize that limited access to clean water and sanitation facilities disproportionately impacts women and children. That is why we work with UNICEF's Water and Sanitation (WASH) to provide equitable access to children and families. Noting that school-led sanitation approaches have been particularly successful in improving community sanitation, we look forward to discussing how similar programs may be universally implemented. These same approaches also aim to educate young women about hygienic menstruation practices and eliminate the stigma that reinforces gender inequalities in our country and in countries around the world. We are in favor of accessible, culturally appropriate educational and mass media campaigns that raise awareness on proper sanitation techniques and create a larger social movement surrounding equitable access to clean water and sanitation facilities. Finally, noting the discrepancy between clean water access and sanitation access, the Republic of Nepal looks forward to working on solutions that specifically provide low-cost, environmentally sound sanitation services to all people.

Country:Nepal
Topic: Human rights and indigenous peoples
Paper text:
Human rights and indigenous peoples
The Republic of Nepal recognizes the 59 different indigenous groups that comprise a significant portion of our population at 36%. With this comes the acknowledgement of the many challenges these peoples are still facing, including lack of inclusion in local government bodies, poverty, hunger, inaccessibility to healthcare, land rights, and instigated violence (all of which have been especially heightened in the midst of climate change and the coronavirus pandemic). Despite this, the absence of resources to collect aggregated data specific to indigenous peoples (particularly women) has only made it more difficult to find solutions, as the severity of these issues cannot be pinpointed. However, the Republic of Nepal reaffirms its commitment to The Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) and has taken steps in more recent years to adhere to these provisions. It is an inherent right of the people of Nepal to live with dignity and have the freedom to express their culture and social tradition. The passage of the 15th Periodic Plan by Nepal’s National Planning Committee in 2019 organizes and operationalizes special, protected, and autonomous areas with compliance to the Constitution. Furthermore, the federal government has allowed primary education to be instructed in native languages as a means of preserving these forms of communication, has implemented social protection programs targeted at providing monetary support to the elderly, single women, individuals with disabilities, endangered ethnicities, and marginalized groups, and is working in conjunction with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the United Nations to minimize the negative impacts of climate change. The Republic of Nepal is encouraging international collaboration in providing assistance to indigenous populations by establishing a network to obtain information about the hardships faced by indigenous peoples in a cost-effective manner.

Country:Pakistan
Topic: The human rights to safe drinking water and sanitation
Paper text:
The delegation of Pakistan firmly supports the importance of access to safe drinking water and sanitation as it affirms it being a basic Human Right. We also affirm the connection between being able to practice good hygiene and other human rights issues such as lack of access to education or safe healthcare facilities.
We express concern for the 53,000 children that annually die in Pakistan due to poor sanitation and lack of safe water; and also, for the 70% of households that drink bacterially contaminated water; while still being mindful of the fact that waterborne diseases make up 33% of deaths in Pakistan.
The delegation of Pakistan expresses its hope that despite the natural disasters that led to the previously mentioned issues, the Human Rights Council Conference will produce a meaningful action plan that will include the implementation of meaningful sanitation initiatives. These would for instance build toilets and link its water flow into a safe enclosure to prevent further contamination. Toilets would put an end to open defecation while improving water quality. Sanitation initiatives would also implement rainwater harvesting systems that collect and store water for drinking.
Additionally, we wish to stress the need for education on good hygiene habits among the population. In Pakistan, diarrhea is the leading cause of infant and child death, however proper hand washing can reduce diarrhea cases by up to 35 %. We remain committed to also promote low-cost solutions such as chlorine tablets for drinking water purification.
“Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere” Let us build a world safer for everyone.

Country:Pakistan
Topic: Human rights and indigenous peoples
Paper text:
As a country with over 220 million people, only 4% of the population in Pakistan consists of Indigenous people. Because of this drastically small number, Indigenous people, people who have a different religious identity than Islam, are subjected to cruel hate, unequal resources, and a lack of the fundamental right laid out in the constitution of “freedom of religion”. Although the country of Pakistan has voted in favor of the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, official actions aren’t being taken to act on this. Similarly, women are not being allowed their basic human rights granted at birth and are subjected to forced marriages, domestic violence, and acid attacks. We the delegation of Pakistan aim to change the ways of this closed minded thought pattern to help the minorities of the country have a safer environment to live in.
Pakistan wishes to ensure human rights for all and end all forms of discrimination towards minorities such as women and Indigenous Peoples. We want to establish equal rights and treatments for all by developing a new, stronger investigative system regarding attacks and violence against minorities and bring those responsible to justice. Furthermore, we aim to allow all people to choose their religious identity without retaliation from other viewpoints. A major step the delegation of Pakistan wants to make is recognizing the Indigenous Peoples as part of the nation they reside in. Adhering to the constitutional right of freedom of religion is an impertinent goal to make a happier and safe environment for all. Pakistan wishes to amend discriminatory laws and vigilantly counter discrimination against marginalized groups, including women and girls and ethnic and religious minorities. The delegation of Pakistan wishes to increase efforts to express cultural rights related rights to work, education, health and housing to be enforced. Pakistan strives for a nation of equality no matter the identities of its residents.

Country:Poland
Topic: The human rights to safe drinking water and sanitation
Paper text:
The Republic of Poland currently has many issues regarding water and sanitation and appeals to other member states for aid both financially and expertise on this matter. The Republic of Poland has adopted water practices to improve the water and sanitation of the nation. In recent years we have made a considerable investment in improving and modernizing our water and sanitation systems by introducing a New Water Act in 2018. To ensure water and sanitation remained affordable, accessible and acceptable a new regulation authority was set up with the main tasks of approving tariffs for water disposal, mediating conflicts between water supply and sewage companies and the recipients of these services and reviewing draft regulations on water supply and sanitation before their adoption by communes. The Republic of Poland has in recent years doubled the water pipe network, increased legislation surrounding the water and sanitation systems all while ensuring that the system remains affordable for the people of The Republic of Poland. In recent years, due to climate change there has also been an increased risk of both flooding and drought which has severely impacted the people, businesses and infrastructure of The Republic of Poland. The Republic of Poland appeals to member states for support and aid with this issue. The Republic of Poland continues to strongly support the United Nations efforts in water and sanitation globally and encourages the reaffirming that water and sanitation is a human right of high priority as shown in the resolution A/RES/70/169 which was adopted in 2015. The Republic of Poland will continue to ensure that the water and sanitation systems are to a high standard and uphold the basic human rights of its citizens. The Republic of Poland will continue to support the United Nations in resolving the water and sanitation issues that occur not only in the Republic of Poland but also across other member states.

Country:Poland
Topic: Human rights and indigenous peoples
Paper text:
Historically, The Republic of Poland has always been in favor of supporting the rights of indigenous peoples, especially due to the large scale massacre of The Republic of Poland’s indigenous populations experienced during WWII. In more recent history, The Republic of Poland continues to be strongly in favor of supporting the rights of indigenous peoples, and looks forward to working with other member states in bolstering the rights of indigenous populations. The Republic of Poland applauds the work of member states and their accomplishments already achieved by the assembly in securing the rights of indigenous peoples through United Nations legislation such as the adoption of A/RES/61/295 in the year 2007, with The Republic of Poland voting in favor of this resolution. There is still work to be done in securing the rights of indigenous peoples in member states, and The Republic of Poland encourages the continuation of the adoption of resolutions that reinforce the rights of indigenous peoples. On the topic of human rights, The Republic of Poland reinforces the importance of human rights through actions and legislation that prevents egregious human rights violations as shown in United Nations document CCPR/C/POL/2004/5. Additionally, The Republic of Poland is supporting the human rights of its own citizens through national policies within the state such as the Polish Deal, which subsidizes health care, lowers taxes, and increases wages for the citizens of The Republic of Poland, thus reducing human rights burdens and increasing the quality of life on its citizens.

Country:Republic of Korea
Topic: The human rights to safe drinking water and sanitation
Paper text:
The Republic of Korea recognizes the importance of clean drinking water and adequate sanitation. It is for this reason that the Republic of Korea has invested in infrastructure and technology to ensure the right to clean water and sanitation for all Korean’s. As a member of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OEDC), the Republic of Korea has worked to secure access to water and proper sanitation. To promote access to safe drinking water in the country, the Republic of Korea passed several national laws including the Management of Drinking Water Act which works to improve public health by managing the quality of drinking water at the national and regional level. The Republic of Korea favored United Nations Resolution 64/292 declaring that safe and clean drinking water and sanitation is a human right and essential to living an enjoyable life and fulfilling other human rights. As a supporter of the Sustainable Development Goals(SDGs), the Republic of Korea recognizes the sanctity of goal six which ensures the availability of water and sanitation for all. Additionally, the Republic of Korea welcomes the recent United Nations decision that declared access to a clean environment to be a human right. The Republic of Korea sees this as encouraging progress and recognizes that a clean environment also includes clean water and sanitary conditions. Clean water and sanitation are inherently interconnected and one cannot be achieved without another. However, given the advances in water and sanitation infrastructure in the Republic of Korea, much work still needs to be done to ensure access to all Koreans. The Republic of Korea has also adopted the Water Supply and Waterworks Installation Act created to establish the Korea Waterworks and Sewerage Association which performs investigation and research, and develops the necessary waterworks technologies to ensure access to safe and hygienic water. The act also allocates the necessary funds and resources to maintain and build the necessary infrastructure for water and sanitary access. However, despite advances in water and sanitation infrastructure, an urban-rural gap exists that must be addressed to improve access to safe drinking water. The Republic of Korea has also committed to building a National Water Management Plan every ten years that “defines policy goals and specific measures on comprehensive water issues including water quality, water resources, water disasters, conflicts, and water industry.” Additionally, with a quickly urbanizing country and with more people moving into cities, more action is needed to protect water quality in cities and ensure all sewage remains out of the water supply. Like many other Member States, the Republic of Korea is too impacted by the effects of climate change with floods damaging important infrastructure and leaking sewage into the water supply. The Republic of Korea recognizes the importance of clean water and adequate sanitation as a human right. To ensure this right for all, the Republic of Korea calls on other Member States to promote policies that seek to increase the access to water while also protecting water from unsanitary conditions. The Republic of Korea recognizes the importance of this work and looks forward to collaborating with fellow Member States on this important issue.

Country:Republic of Korea
Topic: Human rights and indigenous peoples
Paper text:
The Republic of Korea recognizes the importance of ensuring indigenous peoples human rights. The Republic of Korea understands that the human rights of indigenous peoples have been disregarded for centuries and continue to be violated today. Throughout history, indigenous peoples have had to tackle consistent patterns of discrimination and marginalization. Indigenous peoples have faced forced removal from ancestral lands, forced assimilation, loss of cultural traditions, and loss of land and territories. The Republic of Korea voted in favor of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) in 2007, which establishes a universal framework of the minimum standards for indigenous peoples and emphasizes their rights to “maintain and strengthen their own institutions, cultures and traditions, and to pursue their development in keeping their own needs and aspirations.” The Republic of Korea also established a National Human Rights Commission in 2001, which demonstrates our commitment to protecting and promoting the human rights of all individuals. The Republic of Korea signed the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, which further exhibits the country’s commitment to ensuring every individual is treated equally. Over 99% of South Koreans identify as ethnically Korean. Due to the Republic of Korea witnessing the continued human rights abuses of peoples throughout history, the Republic of Korea is working to remain ethnically homogenous. This will best promote and protect the rights of indigenous peoples in the country by maintaining a rich Korean culture and ensuring Korean traditions remain. This will also make certain that the rights of indigenous peoples in the Republic of Korea are not infringed upon and we protect our language and prevent forced assimilation. The international community should continue to promote indigenous peoples human rights and encourage indigenous participation in the United Nations. The Republic of Korea commits itself to continue supporting the human rights of indigenous peoples and collaborating with other United Nations Member States in order to promote indigenous peoples' rights.

Country:Russian Federation
Topic: The human rights to safe drinking water and sanitation
Paper text:
The lack of safe drinking water and sanitation is one of the deadliest problems humanity has to face, being responsible for countless deaths each year. Over a quarter of our world's population get their water from unsafe sources, whether it's from contaminated freestanding water sources, or outdated piping from many years ago. Furthermore, a little over half of the world's population lack sufficient access to sanitation services, which poor sanitation is linked to transmission of diseases such as hepatitis, cholera, and even polio. Therefore, it is important that we try to give greater access to water and sanitation for all, in order to save millions of lives.
The lack of attention given to expanding access to sanitation for all was one of the deadliest mistakes for humanity. With the ravaging of COVID on the world's population, now more than ever can we see the importance of sanitation, and the lack thereof, as nations with poor sanitation services tended to have a higher infection rate than those with proper sanitation services. It's clear that there needs to be a compromise between the focus we give to save drinking water, and the focus we give to sanitation so we do not repeat another mistake like this again.
Many countries after the lockdown phase of the COVID pandemic have been allowing citizens water connections to be turned off due to non-payment of bills. However, it is important that we protect the poor that can't afford to keep their water turned on, as citizens who can't pay their water bills are more likely to be living in a low-income housing area, which tends to be tightly compact thus increasing the transmission rate of many diseases and illnesses. Therefore, with many of our citizens being in highly infectious areas, it is crucial that we do not turn off the connection of water for anyone, in order to increase sanitation for those infectious areas.

Country:Russian Federation
Topic: Human rights and indigenous peoples
Paper text:
The international community must focus and further enforce the important developments within the United Nations and Governmental and nongovernmental regional human rights organizations. Indigenous people worldwide have a history of being dehumanized, attacked, and erased from history by imperial invaders. Both individuals and governments still mistreat many individuals of the Indigenous community and their cultures in their native lands. We are firm believers in the natural born rights of indigenous people and to halt and destroy any form of mistreatment due to their ancestral beliefs and cultures. The United Nations have invested through governmental and nongovernmental regional human rights organizations to enhance the indigenous peoples' initial freedom that has been limited or opposed to them. It showcases current work in human rights research and policy analysis that prohibits the fundamental nature of human rights is defined as the universal definition and concept of human rights. For example, In March 2017, the Human Rights Section supported the establishment of the first multi-ethnic Resource Center on Missing Persons. In June 2017, it also organized with the UN Working Group on Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances, a Roundtable on Missing persons. These are just examples of nongovernmental organizations that the UN uses to help improve the rights of Indigenous peoples. Since then, nongovernmental organizations have had an ongoing partnership with the UN. The UN Charter has created arrangements for UN consultations with NGOs described in the Economic and Social Council in Article 71. The alliance for the Human Rights of Indigenous Peoples is a human rights organization that seeks full implementation of the UN Declaration in Canada. It works on ensuring that government uses the Declaration to reform laws and policies so that the rights of indigenous people are upheld without discrimination.
If the United Nations focuses more on the more positive aspects and regulations they help implement, there may be a positive outcome rather than competition and total dominance. Each effort within several different organizations has proven that the Indigenous community should also see Individuals with the same rights as any other Individual. The initial goals of human rights organizations are to contribute to protecting and promoting human rights through both immediate and long-term actions. As well as empower the population to assert and claim their human rights and enable state and other national institutions to implement their human rights obligations and abide by the law.

Country:Somalia
Topic: The human rights to safe drinking water and sanitation
Paper text:
Somalia recognizes Resolution 39/23 adopted by the Human Rights Council in 2018. However, the Republic of Somalia seeks to emphasize a more pressing human rights issue: the right to safe water and sanitation. According to UNICEF, 2 billion people globally lack access to safe drinking water. In the Universal Doctrine of Human rights in Article 25, it is emphasized that “Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family”. Access to safe and clean drinking water is essential to the survival of all people. Without access to clean water, no other human rights issue matters because not a single person would be able to remain in existence. Water is critical to our survival.
Political instability and the COVID-19 pandemic both have caused the extreme poverty and humanitarian crisis. The pandemic decimated Somalia’s access to clean drinking water. A low of 52% of people in the country don’t have access to any type of clean water. This has led to public defecation, which leads to many diseases polluting the country. Particularly, many children have been affected by this and have died from cholera.
However, it is through initiatives that we can achieve greater economic prosperity and further help the needs of fostering development for women and children in Somalia. We support the creation of wells and increasing access to public toilets, not only in Somalia, but in other countries where water isn’t safe. We call on the members of this body to support legislation that would foster efforts to support medical services to treat diseases caused by malnourishment and lack of clean drinking water. Similarly, we encourage collaboration between IGOs and NGOs with local governments to support the growth of agriculture and improved sanitation in the country today.

Country:Somalia
Topic: Human rights and indigenous peoples
Paper text:
On the topic of human rights in relationship to indigenous peoples, the Federal Republic of Somalia understands the dire necessity of equal rights being given to every citizen regardless of race or ethnicity. Somalia reaffirms the statements issued in the United Nations Decleration on the Rights of Indigenous peoples, which states that “indigenous peoples have the right to be free from any kind of discrimination in the exersize of their rights.” Our history is scarred by the impact of colonialism, in Somalia was split into two separate proctorates, and forced under control of their colonizers, with the northern part of the country becoming British Somililand and the South part Italian Somiland. Under colonial control, native Somalis were treated as second class citizens when compared to the Italian and British colonists, and the differences in economic planning and overall administration of the two distinct procerates exacerbated pre-existing differences in Somalia’s various clans. While Somalia may lack indigenous peoples in the traditional sense of the term, Somalia’s population is notably diverse as our population is made up of many different clans, each with unique cultures, traditions, and practices. Some of the most notable clans include the Because of the forced split and sudden reunion, much instability was created between the native clans, and as a result, the civil war which still plagues Somalia today broke out. The Federal Republic of Somalia would like to call upon the United Nations to not turn a blind eye to members of all clans currently affected by the ongoing violence. Somalia believes that the United Nations has historically fallen short of its mission to facilitate peace, for example the premature withdrawal of UN troops in 1995 led to further outbreak of violence and further prolonged the conflict. We must continue to ensure that the lives of all are protected from ongoing violence as a result of the unfair treatment of native peoples.

Country:Togo
Topic: The human rights to safe drinking water and sanitation
Paper text:
The right to water and sanitation was formally recognized as a human right in 1977 and has since become a more and more prominent focus of the development of human living standards. The UN currently has the goal to reach universal access to clean and safe drinking water by 2030, which while difficult, is not impossible. Around 20% of the inhabitants of the Togolese Republic have access to a safe source of drinking water. According to the World Bank, this percentage has been growing by about .5% every year since 2000. While this is still progress, it is not on track to meet the UN’s goal by 2030. Additionally, only 25% of the Togolese people have access to water within 30 minutes of their home making this resource extra costly in time and energy. Our delegation suggests a more NGO focused approach to this issue as every region and country needs a different solution. Togo has seen results from the inclusion of outside organizations in the building of water infrastructure mostly because they are able to provide funds and resources that the government simply doesn’t have. The issue of water stems mostly from its high upfront cost of delivery and its reliance on the household to pay tariffs or fees for it. This can work well in more developed and wealthy nations, but when the average household income starts to drop, it becomes significantly more difficult for municipalities to pay for their own water systems. This is why NGOs can be helpful because they can provide that upfront capital in order to set up a water system and slowly expand upon access.

Country:Togo
Topic: Human rights and indigenous peoples
Paper text:
Since the initial concern expressed by the United Nation in 1971 regarding the inequality and specific obstacles to indigenous peoples worldwide, the UN has expressed concern for these minority groups. With the establishment of Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues in 2000, the United Nations took an active stance against injustice towards said groups by reaching out to indigenous groups themselves and calling them to participate in the United Nations. In 2006, with the initiation of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP), the United Nation formed a list of basic living conditions, educational opportunities, ways to retain language and customs, and reparation for past injustices, specific to both individual indigenous communities and those worldwide. With the implementation of these new expectations, climate change, COVID-19, and cultural conflicts have played the antagonist relative to these specific policies. In the state of Togo, the biggest indigenous group is the Éwé people. The Éwé, residents of the lands that are now the African nations of both Togo and Nigeria, were the target of the European slave raids, the German occupation’s abuse, and the French occupation’s forced servitude. Now, as the Togolese function as an independent state, the Éwé people have seen numerous generations of discrimination; however, as Togolese Republic strives to be more inclusive to underrepresented groups, the Éwé experienced no legal inequality and members of the Éwé people occupy the presidential cabinet. The Togolese Republic suggests that other nations strive for the legal and political inclusion and equality similar to the execution of our domestic inclusion of the Éwé people.

Country:Uruguay
Topic: The human rights to safe drinking water and sanitation
Paper text:
As we know, clean drinking water is an essential part of human life. Many of us do not have access to this most basic need on a daily basis. It is imperative that we work together to solve this issue so no one has to worry about where their next drink or water is coming from. This was an issue addressed in the Millennium Development Goals in Target 7.C. While conditions have improved in the past, nearly 2.2 billion people are without consistent clean water on Earth. Here in Uruguay, we have achieved this need for disinfected water for all and will work with the United Nations to extend this past our borders. Uruguay strives to meet Sustainable Development Goal 6 and ensure clean water and sanitation for all. We will work to clean wastewater and find other ethical sources for countries all over. We need to work with countries to create water sanitation plants and sustainable ways to distribute water to those who do not have it. The UN need to reduce the dumping of toxic waste in water supplies in order to ensure natural, clean water for those who cannot build elaborate facilities.

Country:Uruguay
Topic: Human rights and indigenous peoples
Paper text:
Human Rights is a topic area that is addressed consistently within the United Nations. This issue was addressing in Millennium Development Goal 3 with the goal to promote gender equity and empower women. This goal is continuing to be carried out in Sustainable Development Goal 5. This more recent goal strives to see more women participation in decision making, less violence against women, and takes a stand against child marriage. Uruguay would like to see these rights become more universal when working with other countries to make sure every human is given the same opportunities across the board. This includes people of different race, ethnic backgrounds, religion, sexual orientation, and gender. It is also important to highlight the issues facing indigenous people in all countries today. While indigenous peoples only make up less than one tenth of Uruguay’s population, we still strive to respect the culture behind this demographic. The UN needs to work on better standards across the board for human rights.

Country:Uzbekistan
Topic: The human rights to safe drinking water and sanitation
Paper text:
Water and sanitation are two essential components to ensure life. Without proper access to either, low quality of life, sickness, and death can occur; however, the United Nations did not consider either of these things as human rights when it was initially founded in 1945, nor were they mentioned in the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights. In 1977, the UN held its first conference discussing the problem surrounding access to clean water and sanitation at the 1977 United Nations Water Conference. There, the UN declared reliable and consistent access to clean, safe water for the uses of drinking and sanitation as human rights. Furthermore, In July of 2010 the United Nations General Assembly also adopted the historical resolution which recognized these rights as “essential for the full enjoyment of life and all human rights”. This resolution, Resolution 64/292 was adopted with a recorded vote of 122 in favor, 0 against, and 41 Abstentions.
In 2000, the UN created the Millennium Development Goals, of which Goal 7.c was to halve the number of people without access to clean water and sanitation services by the year 2015. The effort was successful, but according to 2020 data collected by the UN, 26% still do not have access to “safely managed drinking water” and 56% still do not have access to “safely managed sanitation services.” Now, the UN has implemented the Sustainable Development Goals, of which Goal 6 is to bring these percentages down to zero by 2030.
The Republic of Uzbekistan acknowledges the issues surrounding clean drinking water and sanitation, as the people have long dealt with the desertification of the Aral Sea, which provides the main water supply for production and agricultural purposes specifically. As of 2020 data, 59% of citizens have access to safe drinking water and as of Sept. 21, 2021, data surrounding access to sanitation is unavailable. This means that approximately 40% of Uzbekistani people cannot drink their own tap water and instead must have filtered water delivered; although the Uzbekistan government provides water subsidies to its citizens, which makes access to potable water affordable. However, Uzbekistan takes these issues seriously and has taken the initiative to help resolve the lack of access to water and sanitation. Most recently, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan reached an agreement in 2021 to jointly manage aquatic resources from the Amu Darya River. This agreement increases efficiency between the two nations and will be following scientific recommendations for its management methods in order to combat desertification and climate change.
As newly elected members of the United Nations Human Rights Council, the Republic of Uzbekistan not only has an obligation to comply with the Human Rights Council on the issue of the human rights to safe drinking water and sanitization services but holds an interest in attempting to bring non-compliant countries into compliance with the rulings of the Council. The Republic of Uzbekistan acknowledges that more has to be done in order to successfully combat lack of clean water and sanitation, especially in the region of Central Asia. This region is affected greatly due to desertification of the Aral Sea, which has shrunk to one third its size within 50 years. Although Tashkent, the capital city of Uzbekistan, directs water for irrigation from the Aral Sea basin into Fergana Valley, decades of environmental decay have culminated in both the shrinkage of the Aral Sea basin and in a severe water crisis throughout Central Asia. In order to meet SDG Goal 6, disproportionately affected regions, such as Central Asia, must take stronger action. In order to increase the number of citizens that have access to clean water, and subsequently sanitation facilities, Uzbekistan proposes that Central Asian countries form an agreement to combat desertification. As Uzbekistan is fully committed to combating climate change and other environmental causes, the nation recognizes that there is no time to waste. Legislation that keeps in mind what is best for the environment and for the citizens must be implemented within Central Asia. Uzbekistan proposes that subsidies be placed within more Central Asian countries to further the access of clean water to more citizens. The Republic of Uzbekistan would also like to suggest that other countries with similar water-related issues across the globe form such groups in order to increase access to clean water and sanitation. The development of resource sharing plans between Central Asian countries, and of countries like them across the world, would resolve this common struggle for the resources deemed necessary for human rights and build a mutual trust between states. This is not only a problem in Central Asia, but one faced internationally. The people and Earth need to be protected, and this will not happen without rules and restrictions enforced upon corporations to prevent further desertification. Investment in research that will find the best scientific ways to alleviate these water-related issues must be a priority. Justification & Summary
The Republic of Uzbekistan hopes that the conference will recognize the issues surrounding access to clean water and sanitation, and specifically desertification, within Central Asia that limits the supply of safe drinking water and proper sanitation. Uzbekistan requests that its fellow UN members to universally acknowledge that these issues are human rights issues, and that SDG Goal 6 will not be met without proper attention and focus placed in Central Asia, which is being disproportionately affected by shrinkage of the Aral Sea. Uzbekistan wishes that other Central Asian countries will agree to form a regional agreement in order to come together to combat these issues and meet SDG Goal 6, through the implementation of water subsidies and corporate/agricultural restrictions. Uzbekistan further encourages other struggling countries to follow this example and form regional agreements of their own. Therefore, on the issue of the human rights to safe drinking water and sanitation, the Human Rights Council has the open support of 122 nations. With this support, the Republic of Uzbekistan encourages revisitation to resource-sharing agreement policies between all nations

Country:Uzbekistan
Topic: Human rights and indigenous peoples
Paper text:
Although there intentionally exists no authoritative definition of indigenous peoples under international law, through the means of the Indigenous Declaration, many indigenous peoples are those who populated areas prior to the arrival of, commonly oppressive, foreign others. Furthermore, these peoples often retain political, cultural, and legal characteristics independent of said foreign others. These foreign others historically act within the role of a dominating force, displacing indigenous peoples from land, territory, and resources that would otherwise have stayed within the possession of the indigenous peoples. Although holding rights distinct from those of other minority groups, many indigenous peoples also hold minority status within the states in which they live.
The abuse of indigenous peoples has been a constant issue throughout the world’s history, and especially during the colonial era starting in the 16th century. Today, indigenous people still face mistreatment at a rate disproportionate to other groups. The first time the UN took a special interest in the rights of indigenous peoples was in 1971, when the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) authorized a study on indigenous abuse. The results of the study, published in 1981, were a harsh awakening for the UN and ECOSOC promptly created the Working Group on Indigenous Population (WGIP) in 1982. In 1989, the first Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention took place, and in 2000, the Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues (IPFII) was established with the Special Rapporteur on the rights of indigenous peoples created a year later. In 2007, the UN adopted its Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) and the WGIP was replaced by the Expert Mechanism on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (EMRIP), which was created to serve as a team dedicated to researching the status of indigenous peoples’ rights as well as listening to feedback from various indigenous groups around the world. The first World Conference on Indigenous Peoples was held in 2014, where the UN decided that helping indigenous peoples would be included as a target within the 2015 Sustainable Development Goals. An issue of major concern, demonstrated by the COVID-19 pandemic, lies within the lack of accessible, affordable, acceptable, and appropriate sanitation and hygiene facilities within indigenous communities. This further exacerbates attempts to reduce the spread and creates a situation wherein indigenous peoples are placed at a higher risk of contamination.
The Republic of Uzbekistan acknowledges the global issues surrounding the treatment of indigenous peoples and would like to serve as a model for granting self-determination to indigenous groups. The Uzbek indigenous people, the Karakalpak, have held their own autonomous republic within Uzbekistan since 1925. Karakalpakstan, as it was named, has its own language, capital, and government. The Karakalpak people have enjoyed representation and autonomy within the Uzbek nation for almost 100 years. While the Uzbek system is highly successful, this is not the case in other countries. The rights and privileges given to the Uzbek indigenous people are relatively unheard of around the world, which the Republic of Uzbekistan believes is an issue. More attention to the rights of indigenous peoples should be given at an equal standard, and that is what the Republic of Uzbekistan wishes to solve during this council.
Much like the state of Russia, the Republic of Uzbekistan has not endorsed the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, nor has it ratified ILO Convention 169. As members of the United Nations Human Rights Council, however, the Republic of Uzbekistan concurs with the rulings of the Council, and has taken steps to ensure that not only indigenous people, but also minority individuals, are allowed to live without interference from the state. The Republic of Uzbekistan recognizes that in modern times, especially with the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic, the treatment of indigenous peoples and their lack of access to resources has received global attention (E/C.19/2021/7); however, much is yet to be accomplished on behalf of indigenous groups. The UNDRIP has been violated countless times and looks as though it will not be honored until greater enforcement exists. These marginalized groups are often those most targeted by the lack of basic human rights and the lack of resources necessary for their fulfilment, through the placement of higher prioritization on these groups for resources such as water, sanitization, and dissemination of land may be used to further the human rights of idegenious peoples.
The COVID-19 pandemic highlights the fact that human rights abuses continue to be swept under the rug, and ignored, through the inordinate lack of access to proper sanitation and health services given to indigenous peoples. Abuse of indigenous peoples has increased during the pandemic, further proving that harsher implementation of the UNDRIP must occur. Megaprojects branded as sustainable have actually been wreaking havoc upon native lands. The negative impact of these projects could be reduced if greater attention was paid to the knowledge of true sustainability that indigenous peoples possess and have been practicing for many years. The Republic of Uzbekistan would also like to highlight the many benefits of indigenous medicinal remedies and sustainable development practices. Countries all over the world would benefit by forming an environment council composed of indigenous peoples who are deeply familiar with how to work the land sustainably. This would also give indigenous peoples more representation in the government and policy making that directly affects them.
Furthermore, the Republic of Uzbekistan also wishes to speak of forming global legislation that strongly encourages the granting of autonomy to indigenous people within nations around the world, with Karakalpakstan serving as a model. When created in a similar fashion to this autonomous Uzbek state, the economic, political, and health needs of indigenous groups will be better served. Newly-created autonomous states will have their own government, and consequently their own representation in the government of the larger nation in which they reside. Each country will need to establish geographic-specific terms in the creation of such autonomous states, in order to promote job creation and accommodate agricultural and health needs particular to the area. The Republic of Uzbekistan would also propose that within the terms of such a resolution, the ownership of ancestral lands be returned to these indigenous peoples, such as in Karakalpakstan, which lies in the peoples’ natively-settled land near the Aral Sea. Justification and Summary
The Republic of Uzbekistan acknowledges the global crisis surrounding the mistreatment of indigenous peoples, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. These human rights violations cannot be allowed to continue. The Republic of Uzbekistan would like to remind the council that the creation of sovereign or autonomous states within nations has been proven as an effective way to increase representation and autonomy of indigenous groups within a country such as in the case of Karakalpakstan in Uzbekistan. Implementing sustainable development and medicinal practices used by indigenous peoples would also more greatly help nations in their effort to develop and grow sustainably while properly using natural resources. Countries would benefit even further through the creation of environmental councils composed of the indigenous peoples in order to share and implement this knowledge. The Republic of Uzbekistan wishes that its fellow members of the council would look upon this proposal favorably and take action to recognize the rights of indigenous peoples immediately.

Country:Venezuela
Topic: The human rights to safe drinking water and sanitation
Paper text:
The Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela has worked diligently for the past several years on improving access to clean water for its citizens and improving sanitation and infrastructure in regard to citizen hygiene. The unfortunate interruption of President Maduro’s progressive policies on improving the social welfare of his citizens by Mr. Juan Guiado and his U.S. allies have cost the country millions of dollars in damage and time lost in the implementation of improved sanitation systems. Venezuela and other Latin American countries require the freedom to govern themselves in matters of domestic and international policy without fear of interference from countries like the U.S and countries in the European Union. Venezuela hopes to achieve better access to clean water for its citizens without interference from the international community on the political values of the Venezuelan people. Humanitarian aid is much welcome in the country, so long as it is not conditional on subjecting the Venezuelan people to neo-colonial practices and unfair political and economic partnerships, protecting the sovereignty of our nations.

Country:Venezuela
Topic: Human rights and indigenous peoples
Paper text:
The Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela holds that the rights and liberties of indigenous peoples around the world are vital and must be recognized and respected. As a multiethnic and multicultural society, Venezuela provides strong provisions for its indigenous citizens within the Constitution, recognizing their socio-economic and political rights, their cultures, customs, languages, as well as their habitats and original rights over their ancestral lands as vital to national identity. The government of Venezuela guarantees and demarcates indigenous lands, ensuring they are collectively owned by indigenous peoples. Additionally, unlike many other countries, the National Assembly of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela holds three seats specifically for representation by indigenous peoples. President Maduro, especially, holds the indigenous population of Venezuela in high esteem as his friends and allies and credits them with considerable support of the Venezuelan government. This particular topic urgently needs to be addressed in light of the COVID-19 pandemic and how it has affected isolated indigenous communities. It is essential to uphold the freedom of governance, access to healthcare, and resources for indigenous peoples throughout the world. Venezuela urges its fellow countries to uphold these same values and protections of cultures and communities, using the time allotted in this committee to improve and expand the rights of indigenous peoples.

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