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Position Papers by Committee

Position paper for United Nations Environment Assembly


Country:Afghanistan
Topic: Innovative pathways to achieve sustainable consumption and production
Paper text:
The UNEP found that after two decades of conflict and drought, Afghanistan had lost a vast majority of wetlands and forests. With its Afghani citizens increasingly at risk for infections and epidemics caused by poor waste management and unequal access to fresh water, it is important that drastic action occur. Of the aid given to Afghanistan, the UN Environmental Assembly has proven key to sustaining our people through the past and through the Covid-19 epidemic. We ask for UN Environment Assembly to evaluate the danger that changes to climate, mismanagement of natural resources, and poor environmental policy has had on impoverished nations of the world. The United Nations can assist by considering the application of the following resolutions. First, The United Nations can strengthen environmental sustainability to poor nations by sharing updated methods of agriculture or mining operations that could hinder developing nations economies and environmental situations. Second, by providing technical assistance in fulfilling the administrative obligations of each ratified convention from UN Environmental Assembly. Third, by putting in place outreach and knowledge projects that share information in accordance with UN restrictions regarding agricultural development. Lastly, the development of programs to educate others on the management of natural resources that preserve the religious independence of these communities, their cultural histories, and the naturally diverse landscape of the world. The major environmental issues today affecting not only Afghanistan, but many areas of the world are soil degradation, air and water pollution, deforestation, overgrazing, desertification, and overpopulation in already fragile urban areas. By educating the populace of the participating nation-states we can build a fruitful future for the global community.

Country:Afghanistan
Topic: Poverty-environment nexus
Paper text:
Poverty often causes people to put relatively more pressure on the environment which results in larger families, improper human waste disposal, pressure on fragile land to meet their needs, overexploitation of natural resources, and the inability to artificially renew habitats. Much of this is due to old practices and industries in these regions that the locals cannot afford to upgrade. This is present many nations including the US and in isolated regions where they fail to care for their own populace, more notably in less-developed nations such as in Western Asia and Africa. Rather than primarily supplying food packages, supplying aid to farmers or ranching operations as the UN has done in the past would be preferred to help renew our food production. A mission such as that in Afghanistan, where UN Environmental Assembly would visit the areas where farmers were using harmful techniques in their crafts could instead be taught how to use sustainable methods. While the focus should be placed on these isolated impoverished areas of the world, we could also encourage governments of larger nations such as the United States to adopt policies to encourage these methods to be dispersed to their own population. The methods and benefits suggested include first, the disposal of outdated pesticides. Secondly, the reuse and sharing of resources between individuals within the agricultural communities. Third, using fresh manure while sharing the remnants of crops. Fourth, by prioritizing nutrition over total production. Fifth, by creating incentives for sustainably produced food. And lastly, continuing pressure to encourage recycling and reinvestment in the products to aid the development of sustainable agriculture.

Country:Australia
Topic: Innovative pathways to achieve sustainable consumption and production
Paper text:
Australia has been a top coal exporter for the past 5 years and is a vital part of our history and economy. Coal mining occurs in every state, and contributes to 8% of GDP, and 70% of total exports. The economy of Australia relies heavily on coal exporting with major companies that employ thousands of employees. Coal mining is also our top resource for energy as 80% of the nation relies on coal to generate electricity. According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics, the mining industry employs around 263,000 people. Australia has not done as much to fix the situation of coal mining, but we are looking towards a new way of clean energy. The goal is to net zero carbon emissions by 2050. Coal mines that want to open must go through many protocols and are evaluated before opening for business such as to make sure they do not have any effect on the climate, environment, or the community surrounding the reserve.
There are many countries that heavily export coal as well such as Russia, Indonesia, United States, and South Africa. There is an effect that coal mining has on the environment and the harm that can be done to it that has long lasting impacts which make it harmful and safe. One of the many things that countries can do is to start green mining. According to multiple authors of a journal article, “Environmental issues from coal mining and their solutions”, they talk about green mining and how this would keep coal mining safe for the communities around them, Professor Qian states, “The principles of industrial ecology and mining science also should promote the rational utilization of natural resources by reducing waste, reusing waste and recycling waste. A reduction in the mining waste produced by excavating roadways along coal seams and other innovative mining methods are one approach to this. Using coal mining waste as fuel for thermal electric plants is a good example of reusing mining wastes. Recycling of mining waste is a more environmentally friendly technique”. Countries such as Australia, Indonesia, and other major exporters of coal would find this to be very helpful and a possible solution to the effects of coal mining.

Country:Australia
Topic: Poverty-environment nexus
Paper text:
Australia believes that all citizens around the world should have access to clean air, land, and water. This should be our number one priority for sustaining a long healthy future. The increase in population has also increased consumption and demand all over the world. The goal is to create a sustainable future that does not limit access to resources and makes sure that every citizen receives the same necessities. Climate change is a topic that should be looked at seriously and we need answers to keeping our world safe from the forces of nature. Coal pollution affects all areas of our life and has many environmental issues surrounding it. There have been reports that coal mining has affected towns and communities that have mining reserves near them. Australia is dedicated to fighting climate change and is willing to negotiate to keep a safe and healthy future. In order to do this, further safety protocols must be implemented in order to ensure that the land surrounding coal mines is hospitable to those who wish to live there, as oftentimes individuals of lower socio-economic status find themselves living in areas with greater pollution and other environmental hazards. As a result, citizens of lower socio-economic status are more likely to be exposed to harmful toxins and chemicals, while simultaneously being less likely to afford treatment for health related ailments that will occur as a result of exposure to such chemicals. Therefore, we need not only to focus on the immediate area surrounding mines and other types of industrial centers, but also focus on investing in infrastructure as whole, including making sure buildings are constructed safely and without harmful substances such as led paint, making sure appropriate safety precautions are taken in regards to electrical wiring, and make sure that every household has access to safe drinking water which is free of toxins. By taking these actions, Australia will be able to ensure that every citizen will be able to live in a clean, safe environment regardless of socio-economic status.

Country:Austria
Topic: Innovative pathways to achieve sustainable consumption and production
Paper text:
Due to the economic impact of the Covid-19-Pandemic and the focus shift away from environmentally friendly practices, Austria wants to stress the still continuous need for sustainable production and consumption methods, especially concerning long-term solution that will boost the economy after a crisis. Austria and the European Union are forerunners in the adoption of environmentally friendly practices, focusing on resource efficiency, eco-friendly products and consumer awareness. Austria is interested in pursuing relationships with other Member States in order to create a universal implementation of sustainable development practices by sharing resources, knowledge and expertise.
We want to ensure that all Member States have the chance to recover after this time of crisis and would welcome resolutions focusing on global cooperation and partnerships. The 2030 Agenda already set our goals for responsible consumption and production under the Sustainable Development Goal 12. We should now focus on implementing them on a global level, through providing sufficient resources for everybody, especially aiding countries and regions still in the process of development. We want to ensure those collaborations between developing and developed countries in a resolution, predicated on our Principle 2 of the United Nations Universal Values “leaving no one behind”. Austria would like to see approaches focusing on the need of specific rumors but also including all stakeholders as actors concerning environmental issues.
To ensure a sustainable production and consumption, Austria would like to focus on global waste management as well as greenhouse gas emissions. Inadequate waste management can provide an additional strain on already affected areas, leads to higher levels of pollution in the air and ocean, and can have detrimental effects of people’s health in specific areas. Resolutions could incorporate practices of reusing and recycling. We furthermore see the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions as a top priority as it is one of the most threatening factors to our environment and would endorse the discussion of energy efficiency from the process of production to the purchase of the consumer, as well as the use of green energy.

Country:Austria
Topic: Poverty-environment nexus
Paper text:
Austria sees the urgency to address issues concerning the possibility of a rise in poverty due to the global crises and wants to find solutions, especially focusing on areas with higher poverty rates, struggling with the consequences of the pandemic. We recognize the specific needs of parties and want to work on resolutions aiming to provide sufficient resources for all Member States. Austria is interested in pursuing resolutions that seek to establish quick and effective measurements, based on the circumstances of each country. We believe in the responsibility of Member States, especially more developed countries, to provide aid, be it financial or otherwise, to developing countries in need and want this sentiment reflected in possible resolutions.
Austria also would like to see resolutions focusing on expediting digitalization in all areas and worldwide. Digitalization allows economically disadvantaged areas to develop faster as well as increases the social inclusion of individuals as well as reinforcing circular economies, consequently decreasing greenhouse gas emissions and wasteful practices. Therefore, digitalization is the key to a more equitable, inclusive, global society. Austria will endorse resolutions aiming to provide opportunities for less developed areas leading digital advancement. We are hoping other Member States are seeing the urgency and necessity of those steps too, to work to find solutions suitable for this time of crisis.
Austria would like to encourage rediscussing the organizational base of the Poverty- Environment-Nexus, especially focusing on a more effective and result based cooperation between the different bodies of the UN. We would support resolutions introducing monitoring measurements and containing sufficient solutions for funding. Monitoring should be based on specific indicators agreed upon in this assembly.

Country:Bangladesh
Topic: Innovative pathways to achieve sustainable consumption and production
Paper text:
Bangladesh must further crack down on pollution and do more to ensure that polluters are rightfully punished for breaking the law. We must revamp our court system and take measures to deter companies from polluting in the first place. Individual polluters do not have much choice in the matter of polluting, making it mandatory that we implement the necessary infrastructure however possible. Additionally, Bangladesh urges other representatives to urge their countries to investigate the ways in which their respective country is truly handling environmental issues and push them to take steps to both fight against and prepare for worsening climate change. Bangladesh recommends for countries with listen to those who are advising them on these matters and to create bodies to call for effective strategies within their governments, and for those with the resources to do so, to help their global neighbors who do not.

Country:Bangladesh
Topic: Poverty-environment nexus
Paper text:
Since gaining independence from Pakistan in 1971, Bangladesh has worked to curb pollution through numerous ways. Something in particular worth mentioning, is the establishment of a specialized court system in 2000 to handle all pollution related crimes. Since Bangladesh is primarily composed of the Padma (Ganges) River delta, it is essential that measures are taken to combat pollution in the country and worsening climate change. I am therefore pleased by the UNEA’s choice of topic being the pathway for achieving sustainable consumption and production and the poverty-environment nexus, considering both Bangladesh’s geography and the problems we are facing both locally and globally.
As a country composed almost entirely of river delta, any sort of unsustainable practice in regards to the region’s rivers, done by ourselves or India, from which the padma flows, affects the longevity of the entire country. In this way the geography is a blessing and a curse as it helps the economy and makes the region very fertile, yet also makes the country susceptible to seasonal flooding and typhoons. The textile industry for example, has historically been important for our economy and continues to be today, however it is also directly responsible for worsening environmental degradation. Despite having instituted a system of environmental courts and numerous laws and pieces of legislation to combat the issue, it persists. It is essential that not only Bangladesh, but that all countries work both domestically and internationally to combat environmental issues since they impact everyone. Environmental issues are of particular concern to my country because of it being, as stated before, a river delta, and therefore at particular threat from worsening storms and especially rising ocean levels. It is however difficult to make strides in improvement as despite the specialized court system, pollution persists, and the poverty found in certain high density areas makes it difficult for my country to allocate funding for fixing and building water management infrastructure. In regards to the poverty- environment index, Bangladesh has been working to provide electricity to its citizens and doing so in an environmentally friendly manner. Another area of interest is access to clean water, as ineffective infrastructure and polluted water affects the health of our citizens particularly the poor. While Bangladesh does fit in with the index’s goal of density being one of the most densely populated countries in the world, the high density of much of our land mass coupled with poverty makes it important, yet highly difficult to effectively implement effective sewage and water treatment infrastructure and makes the already disastrous threat of rising sea levels even worse.

Country:Bolivia
Topic: Innovative pathways to achieve sustainable consumption and production
Paper text:
Development around the globe over the past century has contributed to uplifting millions out of poverty, but this development has been a double-edged sword, also leading to harmful effects to the environment. Along with development came increased pressure on natural resources as demand for more food, water, and energy grew. In order to prevent further harm resulting from development-connected issues such as pollution and climate change, the international community has met to discuss and combat these issues through conventions and agreements such as the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, Rotterdam convention, Basel convention, and Minamata convention. As a country who has participated in these international cooperation efforts and as a country who faces a high potential of environmental hazards from air and water pollution to problems with waste management and land use, Bolivia encourages further cooperation to meet goals of sustainable consumption and production through innovative pathways. We have firsthand knowledge of the economic and social impacts of environmental problems spurred on by unsustainable consumption and production, from decreased agricultural productivity to increased water treatment and health costs. Given our nation’s position in the Global South, it is in our interest that the United Nations plans and actions regarding sustainable consumption and production patterns include mechanisms for enabling access to finance, technical assistance, and capacity building in countries of the Global South. We support efforts to transfer and open up access to environmentally safe technologies for nations around the world, as well as mechanisms for supporting programs and initiatives that respond to Global South countries’ national and regional priorities. Encouraging innovative pathways to sustainable consumption and production should also include a focus on developing scientific and technological capacities of countries in the Global South. We believe that these programs will be beneficial to countries around the world as we try to navigate more sustainable consumption and production patterns.

Country:Bolivia
Topic: Poverty-environment nexus
Paper text:
Given the pernicious nature of poverty, development in order to escape it has often come at the cost of the health of the environment. However, in attempting to escape poverty through unsustainable development, there actually is a heightened risk of poverty in the long term as a result of the changing climate’s effects on productivity, agriculture, health, and resource strain. Poverty and environmental degradation are interconnected, and therefore we cannot properly address one of these issues without also addressing the other. As a nation, Bolivia has experienced firsthand the deleterious effects of mismanagement of natural resources, including air and water pollution, deforestation, decreased agricultural productivity, and negative health outcomes. But these costs are not evenly distributed across society. We also know these problems inevitably harm low-income communities and given poverty rates, this means harm to a large number of people. Our experience with poverty and linked environmental harms lead us to support international cooperation that aims to target resources for sustainable development through means that would include sustainable agriculture and mobilizing resources to finance and incentivize sustainable management of land use. We support a strategic action plan which should contain mechanisms such as financial assistance for sustainable development and technology transfer to developing countries.
The COVID-19 pandemic has also led to a rebound in poverty, and we therefore support initiatives to combat the negative reinforcing nature of poverty and environmental problems through addressing the economic needs of countries in the Global South who have been strongly impacted by the pandemic.

Country:Cambodia
Topic: Innovative pathways to achieve sustainable consumption and production
Paper text:
With the United Nations already having addressed the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, which includes the idea of moving towards the circular economy which is the best seen model of production and consumption to solve the global challenges that all member states are worrying about. According to Pathways of Peace, 93% of the largest companies in the world have begun to report on their habits when it comes to sustainability. With the world’s population looking to be around 9.6 billion people by 2050, this issue becomes more and more pressing by the day. The population density issue is a major problem for the member states of this committee.
According to multiple areas on nutrition, the average person consumes 3 to 5 pounds of food a day, anywhere from 11.5 to 15.5 cups of water a day and 58 kWh of primary energy per day. The current world population as of 2021 is 7.9 billion people, which means that people consume 23.7 billion to 39.5 billion pounds of food, 90.85 billion to 122.45 billion cups of water and 458.2 billion kWh of primary energy a day. With the major increase of population, the world is entering a major crisis period. Cambodia has been a major supporter of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, as the nation has been presented with solutions for a major issue, and have been implementing each of said solutions at a steady pace, and have improved the way of life for Cambodian citizens as each change comes forward. Cambodia looks forward to assist any and all member states who want to see an example of how well this is working for a fellow nation.

Country:Cambodia
Topic: Poverty-environment nexus
Paper text:
The general definition of the poverty-environment nexus is that “poorer people tend to depend more on environmental resources for their livelihoods”. Research done by multiple different organizations highlights the fact that there is a major, complex relationship between the environment and poverty. The ideas of circular economic systems come into effect here, as does the re-concentration of human populations to expanding, urban epicenters. On one hand, poverty is not an issue that can be addressed by just one solution. Poverty is an extremely complex networking of many different causes, which means a solution cannot be a one-pronged approach. On the other hand, this is where the circular economy system comes into play. As it allows the re-allocation of many different forms of material value, from money to materials, it may be the multi-pronged solution that this committee is looking for. With the fact that the great nation of Cambodia is classified as a “developing country”, there is a definite increase in the involvement of the poverty-environment nexus when it comes to environmental degradation. With the high rate of deforestation in Cambodia, that degrades the environment, which in turn begins to dismantle the line seen between impoverished people and the other classes. Cambodia would be willing to speak with any and all member states that believe in the circular economic model, and would like to make an attempt to implement it worldwide.

Country:Canada
Topic: Innovative pathways to achieve sustainable consumption and production
Paper text:
Canada believes strongly that sustainable development is an important goal for our nation and for all the nations of the world. It is possible, but it will require hard work, sacrifice, and cooperation. This cooperation is especially important. By cooperating with countries near and far, Canada believes we can discover effective, innovative solutions to tackle the issues of sustainability. Canada believes in building a low-carbon economy as a key step in combating all environmental issues. Canada is strongly committed to the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals as laid out by the UNGA in 2016. We would like to see more member nations use these goals to drive sustainability-focused policies at home and abroad. As party to the Paris Agreement created by the UNFCCC, we would also encourage nations to use the Paris Climate Accords as a guide in directing policy related to sustainability. Canada also supports the recent Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol, which targets the consumption and production of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). However, other international agreements, like the Kyoto Agreement, do not align with our nation's views. We do not feel like the Kyoto Agreement addresses the real challenges of global climate issues and we do not support it. Canada works alongside 21 other nations and the European commission in the Mission Innovation (MI) initiative and encourages more nations to join on in this effort. MI is a product of the Paris Agreement and directs investment towards research on clean energy, which is necessary for sustainable consumption and production. Canada supports recent summits on the issues of sustainability, such as the 2019 Sustainable Development Summit. In addition, we support the political declaration that came out of it and are concerned about the sluggish pace of change in much of the world on environmental issues. The 2019 Climate Action Summit also provided a valuable opportunity to push member nations and smaller subgovernments to make commitments. Canada would support more of these summits in the future.

Country:Canada
Topic: Poverty-environment nexus
Paper text:
Canada recognizes the more pronounced effects environmental degradation has on both individuals and nations stricken by poverty. We understand that those who are impoverished are especially vulnerable to natural disasters and climate change. Subsistence agriculture may be most affected by environmental changes. We must protect these individuals and nations. It is also important to note that those considered by the poverty-environment nexus are typically least responsible for the environmental changes they are hurt by. Major carbon emitters, like Canada, have an important responsibility to acknowledge this nexus and commit to meaningful change to protect the vulnerable. Every action that seeks to limit environmental damage helps in this cause, and Canada supports strong action on this front. More critically, certain environmental policies hurt or harm those who are impacted by poverty more than others. This is important for Canada and is the main reason we pulled out of the Kyoto Agreement. We believe the Kyoto agreement does not do enough to target large carbon emitters, like the United States enough. Additionally, the Kyoto Agreement puts an unfair burden on small, developing countries. These countries are most hurt by climate change, but are least responsible for it, and it is unfair for them to carry the load of reducing carbon emissions. This is also the reason we support the Paris Agreement and are party to it. The Paris Agreement, like the Kyoto Agreement, aims to reduce emissions and environmental damage, which aids those who are most affected by environmental change. However, the Paris agreement provides a better pathway for developing countries. It allows these countries to improve their median standard of living through economic development without putting undue environmental burdens on them. This should raise millions out of poverty, which is good on its own, as well as taking them out of the immediate danger of environmental degradation.

Country:Chile
Topic: Innovative pathways to achieve sustainable consumption and production
Paper text:
The sovereign state of Chile is in a firm commitment to economic growth and production under the condition of environmental conservation and sustainability. This is evident in the regional trade agreements within the Americas, such as the Environmental Commitment Agreement with the United States, the creation of the Joint Commission for Environmental Cooperation, and the ratification of the environment chapter in the Free Trade Agreement with the United States. Chile also favors the crackdown on illegal fishing and wildlife trafficking as prescribed in the 2015 additional amendments to the original agreements made in the ECA. The Fair-Trade Agreement also corresponds with Chile’s commitment to sustainable consumption and production through the creation of advisory and regulatory bodies to monitor the environmental repercussions of trade between the parties. Chile also supports regulation on air pollution as well as the conservation of biodiversity, as the Chilean Winter Rainfall Valdivian Forest is a significant biodiversity hotspot.

Country:Chile
Topic: Poverty-environment nexus
Paper text:
In the state of Chile, there is a clear and strong connection between environmental issues and the high poverty rate. To combat both, multiple programs have been created in order to incentivize those who are committed to the environment. Along with this, Chile has worked to ensure that all environmental issues are having a lasting and long-term impact. Chile has taken continual action against air pollution by subsidizing insulation in low- and middle- income homes as well as pollution reduction through vehicle emissions tax. However, it is important to be conscious of Chile’s geographical location. Being located on the pacific ring of fire, Chile is prone to natural disasters including earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions which require extensive effort to combat the poverty level that is undoubtedly affected by these natural causes. However, Chile efficiently maintains a low poverty rate with only 14.4 percent of citizens below the poverty line. In lieu of COVID-19, there has been increased effort to protect wildlife and conserve biodiversity through the GEF and remains compliant with the Paris Climate Agreement to transition to low emission and climate- resilient economy.

Country:China
Topic: Innovative pathways to achieve sustainable consumption and production
Paper text:
The People’s Republic of China believes that to have sustainable rebuilding processes after COVID-19, members of the United Nations will have to cooperate to reduce emission levels. Reducing carbon emissions can be accomplished by shifting away from fossil fuels and investing in renewable energy sources. China supports the development of sustainable technologies and the adoption of environmental policies. UN member states can move away from fossil fuels by taking steps to dismantle coal plants and replace them with renewable infrastructure. China also believes that by joining initiatives like The Belt and Road Initiative International Green Development Coalition (BRIGC). BRIGC is a China-led, worldwide network that promotes the integration of sustainable development with the help of the United Nations Environment Programme.

Country:China
Topic: Poverty-environment nexus
Paper text:
As an international community, the People’s Republic of China believes that in order to fix the environment, UN states must also face the challenges concerning poverty. The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted poverty and social inequalities on a global scale. The pandemic also threatens to erase the progress that nations have made towards sustainability for short-term economic gains. The international community can promote sustainable growth and reduce carbon emissions by collaborating with the Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA) and the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) to address the issues of poverty worldwide. Concurrently, UN members should engage in treaties like the Paris Agreement to reduce their carbon emissions.

Country:Colombia
Topic: Innovative pathways to achieve sustainable consumption and production
Paper text:
Consumers and producers are one of the leading factors of environmental degradation, the strain on resources, and environmental pollution. With a growing world population, it will only mean that consumption and production will increase to meet expanding demands of the people. Colombia would like to reaffirm the importance of Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP) patterns in aiding to counter the effects of environmental degradation and strain on resources, as well as to provide solutions for social development and eradicating poverty. To address these issues, political leaders met at the High-Level Political Forum in 2021 and reviewed the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. In this, the political leaders committed to heighten international cooperation and quicken the shift towards SCP patterns in the international. Along with these initiatives, world leaders also agreed to disengage in environmental degradation, eradicate poverty, and enhance social development programs. Colombia's implementation of SCP strategies includes participating in the Sustainable Food Systems Conference with other governments such as Costa Rica, Mexico, and Switzerland. Here, these countries aimed to implement sustainable food environments to address some of the 2030 Agenda goals such as resource efficiency, social development, eradication of poverty, and environmental degradation. In addition, Colombia supports increasing consumer information to promote sustainable lifestyles. Colombia has also developed initiatives such as SCP training for private and public sectors. It is imperative for global cooperation to find innovative pathways to sustainable consumption and production.

Country:Colombia
Topic: Poverty-environment nexus
Paper text:
In the past decade, the United Nations Environmental Assembly has focused on meeting the goals set by the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda which is essential to address global climate change. The first goal of the Sustainable Development Goals concentrates on the poverty-environment nexus, that is, the linkage between environmental problems such as deforestation and pollution and the quality of life of people impacted by these issues. Environmental degradation has a significant impact on the poor and vulnerable, affecting health, earning capacity, security, housing quality, and more. In 2005, the United Nations launched the Poverty-Environment Initiative that oversaw the implementation of poverty- environment projects in developing countries. Later, the United Nations adopted the Poverty-Environment Action for Sustainable Development Goals in 2018 to further demonstrate how poverty can be reduced with improved environmental sustainability acts. Colombia reaffirms that the protection of the environment would aid in the reduction of poverty and vice versa. One way Colombia has supported this concept is through our national initiative, Lazos de Agua (“Hands for Water” alliance) supported by the Inter-American Development Bank and private sector. This program aimed to install water technologies throughout communities to improve water quality and access for 200,000 people in Colombia, Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua and Paraguay by 2022. Colombia has also participated in regional initiatives through the Organization of American States (OAS), to reach goals such as fostering integral development and prosperity through environmental and social programs that can improve the standard of living for those in the region. Colombia would also like to bring attention to the need for world leaders to engage with private sector, including TNCs, to promote environmental management and sustainable production to stakeholders in order to improve the livelihoods of the poor and vulnerable.

Country:Czech Republic
Topic: Innovative pathways to achieve sustainable consumption and production
Paper text:
Sustainable consumption and production is a path that allows each nation to economically thrive while within the constraints of the environment. In the International community, the environmental impact of industries and increasing markets is often ignored and the exploitation of third world raw materials is damaging the environment. Currently, the materials required to sustainably meet living standards are about 1.6 Earths. This means that if sustainable consumption and production are not globally integrated soon, there will be no more natural resources left to fit the needs of every human and country. The way we can integrate the SCP requires looking at the way the consumers act. Nationally set focuses on emphasizing environmentally friendly products to the public through the allocation of funding towards advertisement and norm establishing will change the consumption of the nation. This shifts away from products that hurt the environment more than they support the economy and will allow the quality of life to remain consistent. The Czech Republic defends our citizen’s right to a quality life which is supported by the rise of national GDP and economic cooperation. Our nations’ economies are only going to thrive with SCP if measures to improve the efficiency of material consumption, allowing more production to occur with less necessity on raw materials, are introduced. The Czech Republic is in favor of implementing requirements on material recycling programs in plants in order to increase efficiency in our industries while cutting back on material requirements and unnecessary exploitation of third-world natural resources.

Country:Czech Republic
Topic: Poverty-environment nexus
Paper text:
The international community is in a position where we must fix the increasing carbon emission and greenhouse gasses or else we stand to lose greatly in agricultural sectors. The poverty- environment nexus is increasing the social and economic divide in every nation, and the environment is suffering accordingly. The drying of the Aral Sea is just the first step in the ever- increasing drastic impacts of global warming, and the nations surrounding have had their poverty rates increased tremendously. The Czech Republic is helping fight this problem by setting strict regulations and regular audits in the State Environmental Policy 2019-2020, in order to assure that our greenhouse gas emissions maintain their decline. We would like to urge other nations in our similar position to do the same to assure that our citizens are breathing clean air and consuming ethical, environmentally friendly products. As transportation across countries becomes more prevalent and accessible, greenhouse gasses are causing nations like our own to ideate alternatives. The fight against COVID-19 has left almost every nation in an unfortunate economic situation, where poverty has substantially increased. In order to address the unemployment problem put in place by the pandemic, the Czech Republic is in favor of programs in non-developing countries to electrify the nation’s railways, to provide a sustainable job market that reduces greenhouse gas emissions. For developing countries, the main objective should be to give protection and grants to farmers and farmland that abides by the nation’s environmental policy. We cannot stand idle while the effects of global warming take away jobs and the quality of life from our citizens.

Country:Denmark
Topic: Innovative pathways to achieve sustainable consumption and production
Paper text:
As countries develop, their consumption patterns and demands for resources adjust to their changing economy. With higher demands, the natural resources become increasingly scarce. Denmark emphasizes the importance of sustainable consumption and production and continues to work towards meeting Goal 12 of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) which ensures sustainable consumption and production patterns. Thus, we are advocating for implementing aspects of a circular economy. Rather than the traditional linear economy which involves the use of raw materials to make products intended to be thrown away, a circular economy encourages avoiding the use of raw materials and promotes designing products to be reused. This concept is built on the reduce, reuse, recycle idea, but calls on companies to develop their products to be easily repaired, reused, and refurbished while using as little raw material as possible. Strong partnerships with the private sector will be necessary to incorporate ideas of a circular economy. Denmark encourages exploring ideas related to taxing the use of raw materials while offering incentives to the development of new products following these ideals. However, we also advise nations to take steps to prevent a rebound effect, while new products that promote sustainability are crucial, reducing consumption as a whole remains a priority.

Country:Denmark
Topic: Poverty-environment nexus
Paper text:
The relationship between poverty and a worsening environment is impossible to sever. Working to decrease global poverty is a crucial goal that must be met; however, Denmark stands firm on ensuring these goals are being met responsibly and in a sustainable manner. While countries pursue development and see short-term success, often the pollution created by these attempts create long-term environmental damage. We believe that countries should not have to choose between getting out of poverty and enjoying a healthy environment. A prosperous and healthy private sector is necessary for long-term development, but a focus on green and decent jobs is necessary to prevent the degradation of the surrounding environment which in turn creates more poverty. It is possible for countries that are currently developing to skip the use of fossil fuel-based energies and move directly to renewable sources. Denmark encourages prioritizing assistance to developing countries in order to fund renewable energy sources while also mobilizing support from private investments. Additionally, Denmark recognizes the problems of dependency that can arise from providing assistance to developing countries; developing countries being reliant on wealthier countries for financial assistance can create a cycle of dependency. Furthermore, citizens have the potential to be punished when wealthier countries pull funding due to political issues. However, assistance for renewable energy resources is unique in that once renewable energy sources are installed, the developing country’s energy is established, thus avoiding the detrimental effects that direct financial aid can cause.

Country:Dominican Republic
Topic: Innovative pathways to achieve sustainable consumption and production
Paper text:
The reliability of having a stable source of water affects each nation differently based on their own according issues. The Dominican Republic believes that there should be a stable source of water regardless of national economic status. The World Resources Institute witnessed that 80% of the world’s wastewater is being sent back within the same line of clean water leaving a significant portion of contaminated water. The Dominican Republic economy is more focused on the architecture industry rather than having effective policies towards sanitation services which leads to the lack of cohesive control on stable water. In 2015, there were some improvements within sanitation environments at 84% in urban areas while the remaining 24.3% failed to meet the requirements. To meet the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, the Dominican Republic advocates for the United Waste Water Sanitation (UWWS) Policy which aims to obtain a clean stable source of drinkable water be available internationally for all nations by 2030. The transfer of technology within fully developed countries will be sent to nations that require assistance. Existing and future infrastructures will be reinforced to have stricter regulations to have ensured safe drinkable water. For nations that cannot comply due to pre-existing regional conditions or have a path of unavoidable resistance will receive clean water from other nations at an equal proportion. For nations that refuse to comply or refuse to endorse even though they are fully capable to comply due to not having any resistance by regional conditions can withdraw but will not receive any further assistance for current and future policies for clean drinkable water from United Nations and any other nations. Any violations from nations will be punished by the withdrawal policy. Funded by the United Nations Budgetary Committee and regional non-profit organizations.

Country:Dominican Republic
Topic: Poverty-environment nexus
Paper text:
Improvement of air quality is a factor that applies globally that is gradually damaging our planet. The Dominican Republic believes that the protection of the Ozone Layer could be recovered by improving air quality on a global scale. The Dominican Republic has about 12.95 micrograms per cubic meter of matter emissions, 25.26 megatons of carbon dioxide emissions, and 8.1 megatons of methane emissions which is an unhealthy amount of pollutants being released. Although there are regulations that comply with improving air quality, it is not enough to compensate for it to do enough of an effect since most of the government control is on basis of other projects. The Dominican Republic advocates gradually reducing air pollutants by 20% by 2030 with the overall goal of having 20% reduced per 10 years. Adjustment of air pollutant rejection is according to previous results. Loss of economic growth due to pollutant reduction can be adjusted by the transfer of utilizing green energy or by national default. Nations that refuse to comply will not receive additional assistance from the United Nations or individuals in terms of energy. Any violations from nations will be punished by the withdrawal policy. Funded by the United Nations Budgetary Committee and regional non-profit organizations.

Country:Egypt
Topic: Innovative pathways to achieve sustainable consumption and production
Paper text:
Only through innovation can we achieve sustainability in the global network. The Arab Republic of Egypt consciously renews our mission to reconfigure our logistical mechanisms of production and consumption along a more eco-centric framework. TUNEP/EA.4/L.2, established exploring innovative pathways to achieve sustainable consumption and production, established the collective goal of obtaining the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Egypt is uniquely invested in responsible consumption and production as the country faces scarcity in water and growing challenges to food supply chains. Through ethical and strategic partnerships, Egypt has made considerable strides toward revolutionizing our mechanisms. According to the 2021 Egyptian Voluntary National Review, the Ministry of International Cooperation (MoIC) created, in April 2020, a multi-stakeholder platform, of more than 120 representatives from 45 international institutions to discuss COVID-19 recovery and renewal. Through policy proposals, the multi-stakeholder platform has created a more competitive and appealing market for foreign direct investment (FDI), increasing total remittances by over 4.9% and Official Development Assistance (ODA) by 14%. Additionally, BariQ and Coca Cola Atlantic creation of a new pre-shorting facility helps to reduce the impact of plastic waste disposal on the environment. Egypt remains hopeful that the UNEA and Member States can enhance and renew our commitment to the 2030 Agenda by employing nations to publish their Voluntary National Reviews, increase accessible resources, and include sustainable systems in FDI and ODA.

Country:Egypt
Topic: Poverty-environment nexus
Paper text:
The forced dependency of impoverished, vulnerable households on natural resources, in the face of a rapidly changing climate imposes existential risks to social and economic systems. As demonstrated in DP/2011/8, addressing the poverty-environment nexus is essential to achieving the United Nations Development Programme mission. The Arab Republic of Egypt seeks greater global cooperation and resources in addressing the poverty-environment nexus and its growing influence. Within Egypt, the Takful and Karama Programs have increased from 60,000 families seeking assistance in 2015 to 3.7 million in May 2021, despite a 2.8% reduction in national poverty line. According to the 2017 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations’ database, about 4 million Egyptian individuals have a prevalence of undernourishment, for a period of at least three years, demonstrating a critical mass of vulnerable individuals in our country. The international community shall continue to renew its mission towards addressing the poverty-environment through supporting programs that have proven effective, like Small Grants Programme and establish internal funding for the UNDP.

Country:El Salvador
Topic: Innovative pathways to achieve sustainable consumption and production
Paper text:
El Salvador, much like many other countries, has previously signed on to the Paris Climate Accords and has as of late bolstered our efforts to tackle sustainability. With leadership under President Nayib Bukele, El Salvador’s Ministry of the Environment and Natural Resources to closely examine the food and water shortages as COVID-19 continues to create difficulties for our 80,000 residents who are suffering from food insecurity. While El Salvador has taken steps such as banning mining within our borders in 2017 to protect our natural water reserves, this is only half of the battle, but it is still an important one. Without sustainable and clean water, agriculture efforts can not ensure either food production or food on the plates of citizens. With a crippled global economy and food insecurity for rural citizens around the world, El Salvador would strongly recommend a partnership with NGOs for the training and implementation of agricultural technologies for rural citizens. With so many residents in need of work and food, a partnership that gives these residents the tools and skillset to bolster not just themselves but their community as well, while ensuring the absence of contractual obligations from NGOs. To execute such a plan, El Salvador would recommend the use of the UN’s International Fund for Agricultural Development alongside aid from global partners who boast an understanding of sustainable high yield agriculture. Factors like COVID-19 and Climate Change take no expense in being efficient in their strife, so any global solution should be just as swift and just as focused.

Country:El Salvador
Topic: Poverty-environment nexus
Paper text:
With great effort and attention to the critical issues facing El Salvador, we have generated vast support for our social programs designed to reduce poverty. In the pursuit of economic growth and stability, our country recognizes the massive challenge extreme climate disasters have on our people to thrive. El Salvador thereby calls on other nations to recommit to efforts directed at reducing carbon emissions by incentivizing industrial practices targeted to this problem. It is therefore our mission to balance the need for agricultural and textile production with realizable goals that protect natural resources and increase our use of renewable energy. In the interest of cooperation, we propose that a board of representatives from interested nations be created under the guidance of the International Fund for Agricultural Development to provide crucial resources to rural populations. Our country has remained diligent with our domestic and international commitments and has proven to be active proponents of climate change measures, and proactive with decision- making regarding the Pandemic. Our successful administration of vaccines is demonstrative of our continued leadership within the Central America region. We understand that the challenges we face now will be heavily impacted by COVID19, but we hope that our actions will contain not only infection rates but the economic consequences of such drastic measures. In the interest of renewing global partnerships as we all rebuild from the Pandemic, we are looking to the region and North America to support our efforts to fulfill the Humanitarian Response Plan, given by the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.

Country:Fiji
Topic: Innovative pathways to achieve sustainable consumption and production
Paper text:
The UN’s Sustainable Development Goals are of great importance to Fiji and we are actively working toward a more sustainable future. Fiji is committed to combating climate change and is looking forward to working with the international community to do so. Fiji sees sustainable development and consumption as issues of great importance and is working towards solving them in our country. Fiji has created a plan to decarbonize our economy by 2050 and believe that this effort is key in achieving a sustainable future. Fiji’s National Development Plan (NDP) has a vision of “transforming Fiji”. A 5-year and 20-year National Development plan has been written that addresses the various environmental concerns as well as other issues facing Fiji and provides methods through which these issues can be attended to. The NDP is aligned with the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Paris Agreement on Climate Change. Fiji has and will continue to promote issues of climate change in our own nation as well as around the world with a focus on the specific issues that face small island nations. The rates of extreme weather events have been on the rise that impact the ecosystems of Fiji. Such disasters have caused flooding that destroy farmland and disrupt supply in the Fijian economy. These more extreme weather patterns have also made Fiji more susceptible to viral disease outbreak, a particularly pressing issue currently. Rising sea levels globally have also had an impact on Fiji as they have led to an increase in flooding and eroded agricultural lands. Fiji remains very active in the effort to counter climate change, however, the nation lacks many of the resources required to implement such measures. Fiji looks forward to working with the international community to work towards combating climate change and mitigating its effects.

Country:Fiji
Topic: Poverty-environment nexus
Paper text:
The effects of climate change are exasperated on small island nations such as Fiji. Fiji has faced two cyclones in 2020, Harold and Yasa, leaving the island nation in a state of peril and in need of assistance. The catastrophic effects of these cyclones further punctuates the significance of climate change on Fiji. This is why Fiji sees mitigating climate change and sustainable development as a matter of great importance. The COVID-19 pandemic has had devastating effects on Fiji’s economy and the livelihoods of many people. Due to this, Fiji believes that there must be a focus on rebuilding and strengthening resilience to crises like the pandemic. Fiji has received copious support from the World Bank to strengthen our economy and pursue development and is continuing to receive support to help rebuild after the recent disasters that have affected the island. Fiji is heavily dependent on tourism which has seen a sharp decline because of the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, the dependence of the residents of Fiji on natural resources and the environment has also been hampered, due to the effects of climate change. The poor population of Fiji is especially affected by the effects of climate change. In order to rebuild and continue the development of our nation, we will prioritize protecting the natural environment and sustainability.

Country:Finland
Topic: Innovative pathways to achieve sustainable consumption and production
Paper text:
The Republic of Finland is committed to achieving sustainable production and consumption. Since 1987 we have been working towards achieving sustainable development and protecting everything that calls our nation home. In 1993 we set up the Finnish National Commission on Sustainable Development (FNCSD) which has continued to expand and grow to the present. As a Nordic nation-state we are concerned about the growing effects that climate change and global warming will pose not only on our nation, but the world as a whole. We have previously ratified measures such as the Paris Climate Agreement and will continue to push for further action. Therefore, we support and encourage strong international action to achieve sustainable production and consumption on a global level. We look forward to hearing what approaches the international community offers.

Country:Finland
Topic: Poverty-environment nexus
Paper text:
The Republic of Finland remains committed to ending poverty in all its forms. The Republic of Finland already maintains a poverty rate of just 12%, maintains a low unemployment rate, has one of the lowest child poverty rates in the OCED, and as a result has one of the highest qualities of life in Europe and the world. We have fought tirelessly and continue to fight tirelessly to end poverty in all its forms for our citizens and seek to help fight for the same on the international stage. We have supported numerous past measures in the United Nations to help reduce and end poverty and will continue to do so. We have fought continuously for a better quality of life for our citizens and will push for the same for our shared global community. We look forward to hearing from our international neighbors and what approaches they suggest and what support they need.

Country:France
Topic: Innovative pathways to achieve sustainable consumption and production
Paper text:
We the French parliament is committed to cutting greenhouse gas emissions by 40 per cent by 2030 (in comparison to the 1990 levels). Recently, France has passed a new climate law to help with this change towards sustainability. The new law is focused in on pollution caused by transportation, meaning restrictions on car pollution and travel as well as cutting down and eventually eliminating domestic flights. The new legislation also introduces mandatory environmental labeling that will help inform the public of the environmental footprint their consumption is leaving. France is committed to reaching our 2030 goal and that means installing more sustainable practices and making changes needed to save our environment. The French have had a recent history of helping mitigate the climate crisis by hosting the Paris Climate Accords. Here, the United Nations worked to create a stronger response to the climate crisis by seeking to limit global warming to 2 degrees Celsius in this century. The accords also review countries commitments every five years and provide financing to developing countries to enhance climate impacts and make sure everyone in the agreement continues the right track. Currently, the French are participating in COP26 where over 190 nations have pledged to phase out coal usage, unfortunately, other countries like China, India, and Australia who consume the most coal globally are not interested in taking the same pledge as France to save the environment we all depend on. The COP26 goals, as stated at ukcop26.org, put an emphasize on action by having developed countries (such as France) mobilize at least $100B in climate financing. The French Parliament is passionate about minimizing climate change and achieving sustainable practices for consumption and production.

Country:France
Topic: Poverty-environment nexus
Paper text:
Ever since the Rio+20 Summit in 2012, France has asserted that the fight against poverty and for sustainability development are unified. Integrating sustainable developmental goals that tie into poverty reduction is the best way to combat the ever-present nexus. Every year since 1989, France has presented a plan to combat poverty to the UN and has helped successfully drop severe poverty by over half since 1990. In 2015, France joined the Sustainable Development Goals set by the UN. The 17 goals, laid out at sdgs.un.org/goals, focus on the different targets and actions taking place to help the specific goals like no poverty, zero hunger, affordable clean energy, etc. France has made the global commitment to help these 17 goals be achieved as quickly as possible. The French Parliament has done more than just national commitments to help combat this nexus. In 2018, President Macron introduced a $8B national anti-poverty plan that introduced several innovations of dealing with unemployment and poverty within families. Developing anti- poverty plans that are sustainable are essential to permanently eradicating poverty in France as well as continuing to move towards our environmental goals.

Country:Ghana
Topic: Innovative pathways to achieve sustainable consumption and production
Paper text:
Ghana applauds the UN efforts on sustainable consumption and production. The urgency of this issue was recently reinforced by the topic of sustainable consumption and production being included in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development as a SDG goal, Goal 12. The Republic of Ghana recognizes that the issue of sustainable production and consumption is an important one for the international community to discuss as it affects all our livelihoods. As cited in the UN Environment’s UN Global Resources Outlook 2019, resource extraction has nearly tripled since the 1970s. The global rate of consumption has increased, with greenhouse gas emissions expecting to rise 43% by 2060. Economies worldwide have created a dependency on natural resources as well as a culture of exploitation and overconsumption. This has harmful effects on the environment and devastating health effects on nearby communities. In Ghana, oil and gold are two of the biggest exports, leading Ghana to face the challenge of relying on these non-renewable, natural resources to grow the economy. The international community must limit the use of these natural resources to lessen the pollution. Ghana urges all member states to make the shift to renewable, clean energy sources as well as diversifying their economy. Ghana has made major moves towards green energy, having created hydropower plants that currently generate two thirds of its electricity.
The issue of e-waste is another major concern especially for Ghana. The majority of these electronics are shipped into the country and later dumped into landfills. The burning of this e-waste has harmful health effects for nearby communities as toxins are released into the air and seep into the ground. Mercury and lead are found in e-waste, leading to health implications in addition to land degradation. It is important to consider the whole supply chain of the product, including the production and fate of the product after its use. This involves proper recycling, ensuring dangerous products do not end up in landfills and do not leak hazardous chemicals once disposed. Ghana supports a resolution that involves holding producers of these products accountable and responsible for the proper disposal of their products after their use. As an international community, we must collaborate and discover new and creative ways in order to sustain our environment for future generations.

Country:Ghana
Topic: Poverty-environment nexus
Paper text:
Ghana urges international attention to the poverty-environment nexus in order to eradicate poverty as well as protecting the environment. The COVID pandemic has only increased the rates of poverty, disrupting global progress towards the first sustainable development goal, the eradication of poverty. Many farmers rely on the environment to provide and grow crops to sustain their families as well to make a living. The poverty-environment nexus argues that harming the environment has a severe effect on the environment and exacerbates the poverty these individuals experience. When the land degrades, it lowers agricultural productivity and income, forcing farmers into poverty. Ghana recognizes that much land degradation is due to human-induced processes such as mining, overgrazing and the use of harsh agrochemicals that degrade the fertility of the soil. The overuse of these lands and poor land management harms the environment, which has negative effects on those living in poverty.
Particularly in Ghana, a nation where nearly half of the people’s income comes from agriculture, the environment is very deeply connected with the economy. Ghana’s own land degradation issues have become a financial burden, costing about 6.3 billion US dollars annually. Costly projects include the Ghana Environmental Management Project (GEMP), the Sustainable Land and Water Management Project (SLWMP) and the Adaptation Fund Project to restore and recover lands and support farmers. The Poverty-Environment Nexus Initiative has supported country-led efforts to put poverty-reduction and pro-environment objectives into government and this work must be continued. Ghana would be open to solutions that include promoting collaboration with other member states on the Poverty-Environment Nexus Initiative and creating a set of recommendations that consider the poverty- environmental nexus and the effects on the environment. To continue this progress of eradicating poverty, the international community must move forward and make sustainable plans and practices that consider the poverty-environment nexus.

Country:Guatemala
Topic: Innovative pathways to achieve sustainable consumption and production
Paper text:
Guatemala being the most populous country in Central America has focused on achieving sustainable consumption and production of food. More than half the population lives in poverty and has the highest level of chronic malnutrition for children. Malnutrition in children is a crucial issue in Member States around the world. Guatemala is focusing on ways to ameliorate these problems while also helping the economy and elevating people from poverty by giving them a chance to find a way to sustain themselves while that work is also sustainable.
Guatemala has committed to the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and has its national development plan K'atun Nuestra Guatemala for 2032 which aligns with the SDG goals. There are policies recommended for agriculture and trade for sustainable development: (1) integrating trade and agriculture policies by involving small farmers and coordinating the interests of the Guatemalan economy, (2) promoting farmers' groups/associations can facilitate information exchange and flow, (3) establishing and implementing competition policies to curb anti-competitive behavior among intermediaries harmful to small-scale farmers, (4) taking advantage of growing international markets, Guatemala's genetic pool, and making Guatemalan made brands known in the world, (5) and promoting good agricultural practices which should be based on the principles of sustainability, be gender-inclusive and ensure that products are ecologically safe. Guatemala has partnered with the World Bank work program, which gave a $150 million loan for agriculture projects for reducing food loss, increasing adaptation of climate-resilient technologies, building more resilient institutions, and promoting climate-smart growth. Through the Project to Strengthen the Resilience of the Maya and Rural Residents Facing Food Insecurity and Climate Change in Guatemala’s Dry Corridor, the World Bank helped cope with climate change by ecologically sensitive, lower-cost production systems, which increased productivity levels and contributed to food security. Guatemala has also joined the Clean Seas campaign – led by the UN Environment to reduce plastic pollution.
Guatemala seeks to continue with these recommended policies to benefit the economy, the people, and the environment, and to share its knowledge with other Member States in achieving these goals.

Country:Guatemala
Topic: Poverty-environment nexus
Paper text:
Climate change affects the life of people living in poverty more than any other group. With many natural disasters affecting states, many people have already suffered the changes. Covid has increased the poverty rate and undermines UN reduction efforts. Guatemala's inefficient land use has caused erosion and water pollution (micro-plastic) because of a lack of sufficient sewage treatment plants and most people live in poverty.
The independent research institute, RTI, is partnering with USAID through the Guatemala Low Emission Development Strategy (LEDS) Project to help the government of Guatemala develop a national strategy that lowers GHG emissions and mitigates climate change. Because of the support, the Guatemalan Ministry of Energy and Mines has completed a national energy plan. Guatemala has joined the UNDP‒UN Environment Poverty-Environment Initiative (PEI), which organized Nexus Dialogue 2: Poverty and Environment in the Sustainable Development Goals. Guatemala has addressed the UNDP and is aiming the SDGs at a local level through land management and social inclusion.
Guatemala seeks to partner with other Member States to develop well-built communities by reusing plastic to build homes, which will also provide initiatives for companies to hire low- income workers and help develop this project. Guatemala looks forward to working with other Member States in exchanging knowledge on the Poverty-Environment Nexus

Country:Hungary
Topic: Innovative pathways to achieve sustainable consumption and production
Paper text:
The international community has come to the consensus that we are in a time in which steps towards sustainable production and consumption must be taken lest we risk the loss of valuable resources and potentially many lives. The UN has been active in trying to address this problem in the past by ratifying resolution A/RES/70/. Hungary has supported the work that has been done in the past through the 2015 Paris Climate Agreement. Hungary has ratified the 2030 agenda for sustainable development. Hungary has taken steps domestically to address the need for sustainable practices by hosting the Budapest Water Summit Series three times now. Hungary has also agreed to build two VVER nuclear reactor units, and a 160 thousand square meter solar panel park which will generate the annual electricity requirement of almost five thousand households. The efforts by the international community to address the need for sustainable practices have seen some amount of success. Despite these efforts, more needs to be done. Hungary would like to see improvements to air quality, waste management, and protection of sources of clean drinking water. Hungary recommends that the international community, sign, and ratify resolution UNEP/EA.4/Res.1

Country:Hungary
Topic: Poverty-environment nexus
Paper text:
The intersection of poverty and the treatment of the environment is a deadly cycle: development to end poverty has succeeded at the expense of the environment. When the environment has been spent and the land’s resources depleted, the unsustainable practices that lifted the people of the world out of poverty will crumble and the people shall live in squalor once more. The UN has been active in trying to address this problem in the past by establishing the Poverty-Environment Initiative. Hungary has supported the work that has been done in the past through that initiative. Programs within Hungary to train workers and engineers have led to a higher rate of employment at automotive industries within our borders, which have turned their focus towards electric powered vehicles. This development has resulted in bringing better working and living conditions to the citizens of Hungary and the development of more sustainable transportation on the market. The efforts by the international community to address this problem have been somewhat ineffective in certain areas. Environmental degradation and a lack of resources has already sparked conflict and mass migration. Hungary has been sending foreign aid to communities that might be subject to unwanted relocation, so as to lift these communities out of poverty. The use of clean energy practices should also be utilized in tandem with funding to member states to help communities that are susceptible to unwanted relocation so that they can stay in their home countries

Country:Iran, Islamic Republic of
Topic: Innovative pathways to achieve sustainable consumption and production
Paper text:
Modern approaches to consumption and production often revolve around the reduction in the amount of waste a nation produces. However, this is not always feasible, and it is sometimes necessary for nations to create new pathways through which their carbon footprint can be reduced while maintaining the size of their economies.
The Islamic Republic of Iran believes that sustainable consumption and production can be achieved through initiatives to expand the circular economy. The detritus of production and consumption can still have value for those who can sanitize and recycle / reuse waste. Keeping waste out of landfills is a great way nations can reduce their carbon and methane emissions.

Country:Iran, Islamic Republic of
Topic: Poverty-environment nexus
Paper text:
Poverty and the environment have many relations on both a micro and macro level. One could look at an affluent neighborhood in a city having lower levels of dust particles in the air as well as a higher amount of vegetation covering and the corresponding cooler temperatures while a low- income neighborhood being much more barren and likely to experience harsher environmental conditions such as haze and heatwaves. As such, one could look at a high-income nation and find low levels of pollution and look at a low-income nation and find high levels of pollution despite the fact that production, consumption and standard of living are all much higher in the high-income nation; production being a significant polluter in any economy. Poverty reduces a nation’s ability to tackle environmental issues through investing in greener technologies which are generally much mor expensive than coal, gas or other non-renewable resources. The promise of a higher gross domestic product due to higher production also prevent developing countries from cutting back and they end up with low government regulations as to not stunt production. These reasons are all large contributing factors which tie poverty to a worse environment.
Furthermore, this need to continue production despite worsening environmental conditions creates an international power imbalance which may become highly exploitative towards developing nations. As a low-income nation, we are committed to ensuring such exploitation is prevented in all and any cases and that global cooperation and investment is put towards lower income nations currently experiencing high levels of pollution so that the nexus between poverty and a worse environment is broken. A better environment is correlated with a higher standard of living, and so an increase in GDP at the expense of a worse environment would not make life much better in LEDC’s.

Country:Israel
Topic: Innovative pathways to achieve sustainable consumption and production
Paper text:
Israel is finding efficient ways to achieve sustainable consumption and production. This includes with special emphasis the natural resources at hand that achieve sustainability without harming the environment. Israel is a participating state in the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals per A/RES/67/290. Israelis are well known for their ability to achieve greatness with little in the way of natural endowments, and its adherence to this agreement reflects the continuation of this talent. Israel is committed to researching and developing new and innovative measures pursuant to the fulfillment of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, especially in the fields of energy production, and agriculture. By going through these measures the state of Israel will create a lifestyle that is more sustainable and prosperous for all Israelis.

Country:Israel
Topic: Poverty-environment nexus
Paper text:
Israel is particularly interested in the eradication of poverty, and the elimination of poverty environment nexuses. Through the pursuit of sustainable development both within Israel and without, there is hope for a more productive society that depends less on natural resources and more on the ingenuity of its own people. With the creation of sustainable industries in energy production and agriculture, poverty environment nexuses can be eradicated within Israel and provide a framework for other sovereign states to follow.

Country:Italy
Topic: Innovative pathways to achieve sustainable consumption and production
Paper text:
In recent years, the International Community has seen a growing concern for the environment, especially in regards to global climate change. The issue of climate change has brought about a host of problems especially in major industrialized cities and countries. With the Paris Accords, many developed states are attempting to curb their emissions in order to avoid the worst consequences of climate change. In the interest of avoiding these dire consequences, Italy is committed to working with the rest of the international community in finding sustainability for the world. Italy has already begun this work through our commitment to both the United Nations Millennium Development Goals and Sustainable Development Goals, as well as the support of UN General Assembly resolutions 72/277 and 73/333. Italy is also in favor of further aid to developing countries as they attempt to build themselves up in a sustainable manner, as is called for in the Paris Climate Agreement. It is in our best interest that we, along with the rest of the international community, take action to fight this problem before it is too late.

Country:Italy
Topic: Poverty-environment nexus
Paper text:
As emissions and air pollution have gotten worse in industrialized regions, groups of low- income people have been negatively disproportionately affected. The aforementioned pollution may have a more serious negative impact on the countries that the Paris Climate Agreement aids in sustainable development. For this reason, in alignment with the Millennium Development Goals and Sustainable Development Goals set forth by the United Nations and recognizing resolution UNEP/EA.4/Res.18, Italy supports a special focus on addressing the emissions problem in urban/industrialized and impoverished areas in order to reduce the additional negative effects that these emissions have on impoverished communities. This has been shown with Italy’s support of UNEP/EA.4/Res.18. Italy is also in favor of acting in accordance with the Paris Climate Agreement by supporting poorer developing countries as they attempt to build their own economies.

Country:Japan
Topic: Innovative pathways to achieve sustainable consumption and production
Paper text:
The consumption of non-renewable materials and inefficient means of production have fostered a dangerous pathway that the world can ill afford to continue on. Fossil fuels are inherently not sustainable as they are non-renewable, and the production of them often leads to additional waste. Developing countries are withstanding the worst of overconsumption and production, but this is a global issue that will soon impact everyone. This has become ever more apparent as, globally, climate-related natural disasters have increased by 83% in 2000-2019 from 1980-1999.
As more non-renewable resources are consumed, we must face the reality that alternatives are needed. Efforts have been made at the global level for several decades, through the Oslo Symposium and the recent G20 Osaka Leaders’ Declaration, but no definitive developments have occurred.
Japan calls on world leaders to invest in well-regulated, Thorium based, nuclear energy as a means to safely create carbon free energy and promote foreign investment into clean energy in struggling countries that have endured the most of the world's overconsumption and production.

Country:Japan
Topic: Poverty-environment nexus
Paper text:
As the world continues to progress and advance technologically and generally, we must work together to ensure that developing countries are not left behind. When one country succeeds it must not be at the detriment of another, whether intentionally or as a biproduct. This stands especially true in relation to the effects of climate change. As natural disasters become more and more frequent, it is the developing countries and the coastal lowlands that are left to deal with the brunt of the issue. The people of these areas are often left with little assistance to aid with the problem.
We can see this connection by the increased poverty rates in areas adversely effected by climate change and the level of carbon emissions of the earth and geographic areas on it. This should be a concern of the entire international community, as all UN member states are interconnected. Efforts have been made to alleviate these issues, such as the Rio Declaration to eradicate poverty and the Poverty-Environment Initiative to mainstream the connection between poverty and environmental damage.
Japan has partnered with the World Bank to create the Japanese Social Development Fund which targets assistance to groups made vulnerable by financial crisis's, in low- and lower- middle-income countries, around the world. This program has benefitted 93% of lower and lower-middle countries that are members of the world bank. This helps people afford urban living which is linked to less environmental strain. In light of this, Japan calls on UN members to contribute to the World Bank to aid vulnerable groups in an international effort to reduce poverty in vulnerable areas.

Country:Kuwait
Topic: Innovative pathways to achieve sustainable consumption and production
Paper text:
Our country faces extreme environmental challenges. We are facing water scarcity in our country and have a big plan for our clean waters by 2030. The UN’s 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Developments has plans to help with getting clean waters for everyone. We want to replicate some of those goals in Kuwait as well as the rest of the world, such as refining the quality of the water by reducing pollution, eliminating dumping, and minimizing the release of toxic chemicals and other materials detrimental to clean water. These steps will cut in half the proportions of untreated wastewater. That goal is beneficial to us because our waters are polluted, so any reduction in the amount of pollution and the harmful chemicals in our waters is progress. Another goal to help us and the world with clean water is to expand our cooperation with other countries and to support developing countries in water sanitation activities and programs such as desalination, water efficiency, and wastewater treatment. Those programs in particular desalination could be useful to us seeing that desalination water is 73.5% of our water source. In addition, Kuwait strongly supports efforts to clean up pollution, as we believe defense and restoration of water-related ecosystems, including mountains, forests, and wetlands around the world, is absolutely necessary, not only for our own nation, but for many, including developing nations in Africa. In-depth plans for the restoration of our marine ecosystems will be important in reducing significant marine pollution in particular caused by land activities, which is essential to the progress of desalination programs, but is also essential for creating healthy oceans which can reduce the effects of climate change. Also, a key aspect of the Kuwaiti climate change agenda is to fight to restore degraded land and soil, which will be beneficial to our people because of the increased drought sensitivity associated with climate change.

Country:Kuwait
Topic: Poverty-environment nexus
Paper text:
Kuwait is a nation that is heavily at risk of poverty from environmental changes. We are facing water scarcity which has a multitude of effects on our nation, including a decrease in agricultural output and a lack of clean water for our most poor citizens. The water deficit is so severe that our people have turned to semi-salinated brackish water to fulfill their water needs. Their water consumption in 2002 was 248 million imperial gallons of distilled water, 268 million freshwater, and 70 million brackish water. Desalinated water is represented as “73.5% of total water source, and 93% of freshwater”. The foremost reason for the water shortage is that Kuwaiti desalination plants cannot support the increase in demand for fresh water. The expense of desalinated water is too high an expenditure but there is a way to make it less energy intense. According to Haweya Ismail, a research analyst, we can replace the desalination process using fossil fuels and use solar technology. It is a cost-effective and environmentally sustainable solution. Speaking of oil, we recognize that oil refineries have drastic effects on the environment and our health. We have a massive oil industry, but we have taken steps to reduce the amount of pollution that it has created, including building the world's largest environmentally friendly oil refinery. However, pollution caused by retreating Iraqi forces is still present in our country, making us one of the most polluted countries on earth. Fortunately, we have plans to use our wastewater to fuel many industries, as it is 99% pure water in its composition with only minor amounts of pollution. This project will aid in reserving freshwater to assist in ending the water resource deficit. Unfortunately, in our country, it is difficult to measure poverty due to our low unemployment rate and high per- capita GDP, but it certainly manifests itself in water scarcity.

Country:Luxembourg
Topic: Innovative pathways to achieve sustainable consumption and production
Paper text:
The Delegation of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg acknowledges the hard work and changes being made to reverse the effects of climate change. However, there is still a long way to go to meet the 2030 Sustainable Development goals. With the population continuing to grow, there will be more mouths needing to be fed than food being produced, especially in poorer regions. Therefore, Luxembourg is working hard to balance the needs of the people and the environment. With limited space to grow, Luxembourg has a high urban population; our delegation understands the importance of limiting the amount of greenhouse gases in urban areas. Luxembourg has adopted policies and legislation designed to improve air quality within urban areas. As the number of farms continues to decline and infrastructure expands, it is time to focus on biodiversity and agriculture. Therefore, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg strongly urges member states to take a holistic approach to better promote and support their farmers. Only through the development of new technologies and systems will the agricultural community grow in a sustainable way. Additionally, Luxembourg has raised the tax on petrol to push for the use of cleaner ways of transportation, but this has not been as successful as projected. With a good proportion of our workforce commuting from surrounding countries and other countries closer with less expensive petrol, people are purchasing petrol out of the countries. Further, Luxembourg would like to see other states also increase taxation on petrol and put the money towards research and support of a sustainable food system.

Country:Luxembourg
Topic: Poverty-environment nexus
Paper text:
Although the percentage of people below the poverty line has continually decreased year after year, the impact of COVID-19 is projected to be as high as it was 30 years ago. The United Nations is determined to end extreme poverty, measured as people living on less than $1.25 a day (UN), which is part of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. However, in order to keep the steady decrease of poverty additional policies and aid need to be put into place. According to Innovation for Poverty Action, “ Luxembourg allocates 1% of its Gross National Income (GNI) to Official Development Assistance (ODA) every year.” A good portion of poverty in Luxembourg is children, and with COVID-19 shutting down the world in different aspects, it is our fear children will fall through the cracks. Therefore, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg would like to see international solidarity in providing resources and policy recommendations in order to remain on track to meet the 2030 Agenda.

Country:Malaysia
Topic: Innovative pathways to achieve sustainable consumption and production
Paper text:
Climate change has presented a challenge to humanity like no other. Before, wars and poverty plagued only a few generations at a time. However, the difficulties we face surrounding climate change could impact All future generations, and could mean the end of all life on earth. It is necessary that we look to use innovative pathways to achieve sustainable consumption and production. We, Malaysia, are committed to ensuring the future of our people. In one generation,we improved our economy from low- to middle-income, and we have prided ourselves in the technological advancements we have made. Our current actions are now to continue the improvement of the lives of our people, as well as working to do so sustainably. Granted the commitment to sustainable growth won’t look the same for each country. That is why it is necessary to take a look at each country’s needs and adjust the SDGs that are already set in place. However, while each country has its own concerns, it can be agreed that the major component of improving the environment is in reducing our collective carbon footprint. To reach a goal of becoming carbon-neutral, it is necessary that there is a reduction of power that comes from fossil fuels. A way to help encourage this reduction is to place a tax on carbon.If we can unify our collective efforts, and think twice about our use of coal, oil, or natural gas, we can ensure the futures of our children, and of those who come long after us.

Country:Malaysia
Topic: Poverty-environment nexus
Paper text:
Within the SDG’s poverty driven factors are the number one contributor as to why countries continue to not be sustainable. The amount of poverty driven citizens that must rely on dwindling natural resources has only increased in some portions of the world. This significantly increases their risks of waterborne diseases such as Hepatitis A, Cholera, Typhoid And Paratyphi. In 2014 Malacca, Malaysia released a Green City Action Plan to echo Malaysia's commitment to the SDGs on a localized level as many cities did. Within the report a section of improvement of water quality with an emphasis of decreasing waterborne disease within the next five years was stated. Now in a 2017 report waterborne diseases have decreased dramatically in line with the plan and Malaysia's commitment. Now in 2019 the percentage of houses served with safe water supply was over 96% in rural areas. Malaysia, who experienced a record setting flood in 2014, considered to be a tsunami type disaster, exacerbated the amount of citizens who could no longer rely on natural resources to live. This event culminated into a trend to have rural areas have more ready access to safe water supplies free from waterborne disease. Ultimately Malaysia will continue to pursue and address the needs of the poverty stricken and their particular vulnerabilities to environmental factors.

Country:Marshall Islands
Topic: Innovative pathways to achieve sustainable consumption and production
Paper text:
According to the UN Montevideo Environmental Law Program, innovative pathways to achieve sustainable consumption and production are defined as “Recognizing the variety of policies that countries implement to move toward sustainable consumption and production, such as resource efficiency, circular economy, sustainable materials management, and 3Rs.” Actually furthering the advancement of sustainable consumption and production through innovative pathways is a global issue, affecting the entire international community. Should the global population reach 9.6 billion by 2050, the equivalent of almost three planets could be required to provide the natural resources needed to sustain current lifestyles, according to the UN Sustainable Development Goals. This affects our drinking water (less than 3% of the world’s water is drinkable), our energy (energy use in OECD countries will continue to grow another 35 percent by 2050), and our food (each year, an estimated 1/3 of all food produced ends up rotting or spoiling). The United Nations said on Goal 12 in their Sustainable Development Goals that “Sustainable consumption and production is about doing more and better with less. It is also about decoupling economic growth from environmental degradation, increasing resource efficiency, and promoting sustainable lifestyles.” As the majority of the Marshall Island’s traditional sources of consumption and production have been eroding since World War II, due to the testing of nuclear waste from other countries, the Marshall Island’s main source of food is imported from other countries in form of canned and processed food. By implementing a triangle structure of innovative fishing and agricultural routes in other major exporting countries, we could easily achieve more sustainable consumption. Seeing as though the Marshall Islands does not have certain foods available for purchase because of the higher prices, the Marshall Islands ask the Member States to lessen their exporting of processed foods, which creates more waste and cost more to produce, and adopt sustainable agricultural practices such as rod-and-reel fishing and rotating crops with a continued diversity that would then allow the Marshall Islands to receive and rehabilitate their own consumption and production.

Country:Marshall Islands
Topic: Poverty-environment nexus
Paper text:
As defined by the United Nations Environmental Assembly in 2019, poverty-environment nexus is defined as “Addressing environmental degradation, sustainable management of natural resources, including climate change and other environmental challenges, and achieving social and economic development is necessary to protect the planet to support the needs of present and future generations and contribute to poverty eradication.” This global issue is significant solely because of not only how it will affect us today, but how it will affect the entire future of civilization. The UN has already furthered the eradication of poverty-environment nexus’ by recalling Environment Assembly resolution 2/13 and affirming the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, however, I urge the Member States to complete this riddance by incorporating sustainable and climate-resilient agriculture to improve food security, investing in sustainable forest management practices to meet energy needs, and promoting sustainable fisheries for a guaranteed income and employment. The Marshall Islands find irrefutable damage to the country from the causation of a poverty-environment nexus. Due to small size and low elevation, Pacific Islands face considerable risk of inundation, coastal erosion, and loss of territory when sea levels rise. This has led to extreme migration to other islands and countries to escape the natural terrors. Because of nuclear testing performed near the Marshall Islands, a major uptick in poverty occurred, and loss of food security, as well as a continued battle with tuberculosis and infectious diseases. The Marshall Islands implore the Member States to follow the above statements because we have already seen positive, continued effects of sustainable agriculture. Through the use of traditional agroforestry, the soil does not become exhausted and thus continues to provide food and other resources such as timber, fiber, and medicine. The Marshall Islands would like to adopt these types of practices in order to secure a healthy future where every country is included.

Country:Mexico
Topic: Innovative pathways to achieve sustainable consumption and production
Paper text:
The twelfth United Nations Sustainable Development Goal is the commitment to “making fundamental changes in the way that our societies produce and consume goods and services” at both governmental and individual levels. The FAO estimates that 1 trillion dollars of food are wasted each year, largely as a result of unsustainable consumption patterns and poor transportation infrastructure. Moreover, as more nations transition to market economies, their domestic material consumption (DMC) also rises. It is critical that solutions are reached to mitigate and reverse the increasing strain on global resources as well as their unequal distribution.
The United Mexican States stresses the importance of developing infrastructure ways that promote sustainability. Underdeveloped infrastructure can negatively impact the societies and the environment, but it is critical to consider that developing infrastructure can have devastating impacts on carbon and material footprints. As such, Mexico encourages nations to research and adopt more sustainable construction practices and less environmentally impactive materials when developing infrastructure. Mexico also specifically endorses a two- part approach to help foster innovation in production and consumption practices at all levels. On a domestic level, educational campaigns teaching about the impacts of unsustainable consumption and about innovative ways to alter consumption patterns will significantly reduce wasteful practices and encourage people to view the issue critically and innovatively. On a governmental and industrial level, Mexico recommends that money be put toward research and development of healthier extraction and production processes and toward broader data collection to pinpoint which industries must be especially targeted for innovative remodeling.

Country:Mexico
Topic: Poverty-environment nexus
Paper text:
The intersection of Poverty and Environment is a pressing issue that affects the entire world. The degradation of the environment because of climate change is one of the biggest and growing sources of poverty and inequality in the world. Climate change currently impacts millions of people worldwide, with the people who experience poverty feeling the worst effects. As countries continue to grow and economically develop, their consumption and demand for environmentally damaging activities increases as well. With over 60% of Mexico population being considered low income, the intersection of poverty, the environment, and economic development is a significant issue in Mexico. Mexico is keenly aware that as countries continue to develop, their citizens will consume and produce more environmentally damaging products. The regions in Mexico with the poorest air and water quality are also Mexico’s richest regions showing how increased economic development can increase environmental damages. Mexico is currently working with the United States Environmental Protection Agency in its Border 2020 plan to help provide clean basic utilities 14 million people living near the border. Unfortunately, even in regions with high economic activity, poverty still constrains access to clean utilities which is made worse by the limits and shortages of utilities already in these regions.
Mexico is a proud sponsor of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Paris Climate Accord. Mexico maintains that continued economic development, especially in poorer regions is essential for combating poverty and are keenly aware of the importance of access to basic utilities as a source of sustainable economic growth. Mexico has implemented programs such as rainwater collection, construction of air and water filtration facilities, and local infrastructure upgrades to treat both poverty and environmental damage. To ensure access to clean environment and utilities, Mexico believes that an international fund should be set up to help local governments and businesses refit their infrastructure to be less environmentally damaging. Mexico holds that local and international cooperation is essential to combating both poverty and climate change. Through international cooperation on developmental and environmental programs along the borders, nations can promote prosperity and stability between nations and reduce both cross-border conflicts and environmental damage. Lastly, since with the intersection of poverty and environmental problems are such a major problem, especially for developing nations, a specialized international body should be created to research the effects of both environment damage and poverty as well as purpose solutions that both reduce poverty while protecting the environment. This body should be made up of UNEA members and be under the UNEA.

Country:Mongolia
Topic: Innovative pathways to achieve sustainable consumption and production
Paper text:
Over the past few decades, economic development has lifted millions of people out of poverty and pushed many countries from low-income to middle-income economies. However, this development often comes at the cost of environmental degradation. Furthermore, this level of development, should it continue with the current technologies and methods, will exceed the capacity of the planet’s natural resources, irreparably cripple the environment, and accelerate climate change. Transitioning to more sustainable practices is the only way to continue to lift people out of poverty without destroying the environment.
As an early adopter of the Sustainable Development Goals, Mongolia believes sustainable development is of the highest concern. The most influential and current international action on SCP is the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Specifically, Goal 12 (Responsible Consumption and Production) emphasizes resource and energy efficiency, as well as sustainable infrastructure. In 2019, the UNEA passed a resolution entitled Innovative Pathways to Achieve Sustainable Consumption and Production (resolution 4/1) which discusses more specific methods of implementing Goal 12. This resolution emphasizes the role of the private sector and viewing each product through life-cycle analysis to determine its full environmental impact.
In the fifth session of the UNEA, held in February 2021, the Executive Director issued a report on resolution 4/1. Specifically, the report emphasized further research on specific green technologies and exploring greater roles for financial institutions and investors. Additionally, the report had three key recommendations for the next meeting of the UNEA: 1) create an exchange space for knowledge and policies to ensure coherence, 2) explore mechanisms to encourage UNEP assistance to member states when considering policy options, and 3) encourage the adoption of life-cycle analysis by other international reporting bodies. Mongolia believes these ideas are valuable and will lead to more sustainable consumption and production. During the conference, we will be looking to sponsor a resolution pursuing these balanced policies. Other welcome ideas include funding for research on green technologies, greater roles for financial institutions and foreign investors, and emphasizing substitution of products rather than decrease of demand.

Country:Mongolia
Topic: Poverty-environment nexus
Paper text:
Poverty and environmental degradation are cyclically linked. Although a state may benefit from near-term development that exploits natural resources, the long-term consequences of such overuse can push a population back into poverty. Because rural communities rely more heavily on natural resources, any amount of environmental degradation impacts their livelihood and income. Furthermore, low-income communities often inequitably bear the brunt of environmental degradation, whether it be pollution or natural disasters caused by climate change. Environmental degradation contributes to climate change, causes illness and disease, reduces the labor force, and negatively impacts agriculture. Eradicating poverty is a necessary step for sustainable development.
The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development focuses heavily on the poverty-environment nexus, with 11 out of the 17 goals focusing on either poverty or the environment and 2 focused specifically on the relationship between poverty and the environment. The complimentary Addis Ababa Action Plan contains several specific targets for the poverty-environment nexus, such as restructuring energy subsidies to disincentivize fossil fuels and providing more infrastructure funding for areas inversely affected by climate change and environmental degradation.
The UNEA has taken several steps toward understanding the relationship between poverty and the environment, as well as some limited action addressing the issue. In 2019, it passed a resolution entitled “Poverty-Environment Nexus” that 1) asked for further reports to understand the ways poverty affects the environment and vice versa, and 2) called for reform in specific economic sectors (agriculture, energy, forestry, and extractive). A 2020 report by the Executive Director describes some of the early effects of implementation. According to the report, current issues regarding the poverty-environment that need more work include greenhouse gas emissions, wastewater treatment, and the impact of COVID-19.
Mongolia would like to see the Assembly focus on multifaceted benefit programs, such as planting trees, which can provide jobs, combat desertification, and offset carbon emissions. The poverty-environment nexus is a broad topic, encompassing many economic sectors and environmental concerns. For that reason, Mongolia believes we should limit our focus to wastewater treatment and emissions reduction. These two focuses, highlighted by the Executive Director, would have the greatest impact on both climate change and on the quality of life for people living in poverty. We would also like to see further funds for developing green technologies, foreign direct investment, and programs that simultaneously employ local people and combat environmental degradation.

Country:Myanmar
Topic: Innovative pathways to achieve sustainable consumption and production
Paper text:
61% of global losses from disasters were sustained by East Asia Pacific in the past 20 years, with Myanmar being ranked as the world’s second most sensitive country to climate change. As sea levels rise, countries with low elevation could be at extreme risk of widespread flooding. To combat this, we need to take preventative measures against global warming. The cost of initial investment in order to be prepared for this climate crisis, though it is high, will end up paying for itself multiple times over. Additionally, East Asia and the Pacific account for one third of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions and nearly two-thirds of the world’s coal consumption. Climate change is one of the biggest threats facing the world today, and it affects each and every one of us - so it is imperative that we work together to eliminate this threat and provide for a safe world for all inhabitants of Asia.

Country:New Zealand
Topic: Innovative pathways to achieve sustainable consumption and production
Paper text:
Consumption and production patterns shape resource use management and related social and environmental impacts, thereby affecting sustainability. New Zealand argues that sustainable production uses fewer resources for the same value of economic output, and sustainable consumption reduces the need for excessive resource extraction. Over the first decade of this century, however, the material footprint, which measures the amount of raw material extracted to meet consumption demand, increased globally, as did the amount of material used in production processes. Achieving Sustainable Development Goal 12 requires strong national frameworks for sustainable consumption and production that are integrated into national and sectoral plans, along with sustainable business practices and consumer behavior.
Many developing countries are severely overpopulated country and especially vulnerable to the effects of climate change regard hydrological and land resources. Even without the resulting effects of climate change, there are many natural hazards, such as flooding and cyclones, which are obstacles to economic development. Therefore, New Zealand promotes the concept of Green Growth. We encourage developing nations to invest in cleaner, carbon-friendly economic growth, as has been highlighted in A/RES/64/206 of the General Assembly. As our future relies on a temperature change limit of 2 degrees, we cannot afford to release more greenhouse gases into the atmosphere by burning fossil energy sources. We also urge members states to take a lead in Green Growth measures, as developing countries cannot achieve the goals alone. We want to encourage member states to implement innovative ideas for a sustainable economic growth, just like the one Muhammad Yunus has provided with its idea of micro credits, which led to a major increase of investments in the country without disregarding environmental consequences, leading the way to achieve eco-efficiency.

Country:New Zealand
Topic: Poverty-environment nexus
Paper text:
New Zealand argues that we can help developing countries reach a level of competitiveness most vital for economic progress, however delivery is still the biggest challenge. New Zealand strongly supports the Barbados Program of Action, the Alliance of Small Island States and the South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission, specifically addressing the needs of Small Island Developing States (SIDS) which includes the Pacific SIDS (PSIDS). Recalling resolution, A/RES/64/300 on SIDS, New Zealand stresses the importance of blue economy issues and urges the international community to support empowerment of and relationship building with coastal populations through multilateral trading systems supported by the World Trade Organization (WTO), the Cairns Group and by promoting bilateral and sub-regional initiatives involving Australia, Asia, the Pacific region as well as American trade partners. Recalling Resolution, A/RES/47/189, New Zealand calls upon the international community to address water management, fishery regulations, transport services and renewable energy options, the latter as discussed in resolution A/RES/45/208 and A/RES/45/209, to be made available to PSDIS in order to improve sustainable development and environmental protection in the region. Finally, New Zealand argues that education is the single key to achieving the MDGs, hence the nation calls upon the international community to implement EET, Educate, Empower, and Transformation. 1) Educate the local communities, not only bringing basic education but tying it to the importance of their region, culture and environment. This will ensure long-term sound management of island resources. 2) Empowering children, especially female children, through specific gender equality education programs. 3) Transformation as the logical result.

Country:Nicaragua
Topic: Innovative pathways to achieve sustainable consumption and production
Paper text:
Responsible consumption and production is the 12th goal in the United Nation’s Sustainable Development Goals that were established in 2015 at the United Nations Summit on Sustainable Development. The countries in the United Nations strive to achieve all 17 of the sustainable development goals by 2030. The United Nations has paid a lot of attention recently to environmental concerns and encouraging nations to move towards sustainable development in recent years, and it is evident that this is a global issue where nations need to come together to agree on an action plan. Specifically, according to the UN, sustainable consumption and production is meant to support resource efficiency, access to jobs, and better life quality. It is also meant to help reduce poverty, which is one of the main goals of Nicaragua.
Our government is looking for new ways to achieve sustainability and believes that this is vital under the threats of climate change and poverty. Adapting methods that will help the environment while decreasing income inequality is essential to achieve sustainable development. While we recognize the benefits of working with other nations to achieve sustainability and identify innovate methods to do so, we also believe that every nation has the right to act on their own terms and solve their own problems. Nations should not overly interfere with the methods of others and should promote solidarity and freedom in decision- making. Utilizing innovative pathways provides an opportunity for nations to reflect on their most pressing needs, and no one knows what is best for a nation other than the nation itself. Our citizens’ opinions our very important when choosing these pathways as well, and we want them to be educated about environmental issues and understand why sustainable practices are necessary. Agreements like the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Paris Agreement are important in having nations acknowledge and address environmental issues in their methods of obtaining sustainable consumption and production. Moreover, we agree that securing environmental resources and benefits for future generations is essential, and that this should be pursued in tandem with economic growth.

Country:Nicaragua
Topic: Poverty-environment nexus
Paper text:
Improving governments’ ability to control natural resources while reducing poverty is one of the many environmental initiatives of the United Nations. Addressing the poverty-environment nexus involves the planning and support of multiple agencies within the United Nations, and their Poverty-Environment Nexus Initiative focuses on the joint nature of poverty and environmental issues. In addition, the UN Environment Management Group and the UNDP-UN Environment Poverty-Environment Initiative organized the Nexus Dialogue 2: Poverty and Environment in the Sustainable Development Goals during the High Level Political Forum on Sustainable Development in 2017. This focused again on poverty reduction by sustaining environmental and natural resource, integrating the poverty-environment nexus into sustainable development to successfully eradicate poverty.
Our country believes that poverty is a major issue in many nations, and that it should be addressed with major urgency. When solving our poverty issues, we must acknowledge the interconnectedness of poverty and the environment to successfully sustain the environment while reducing poverty. We believe that all nations must address these two issues together, and that one issue cannot be solved without the other. Measures to address the poverty- environment nexus include supporting and strengthening the Paris Agreement, the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, and the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization to the Convention on Biological Diversity. These agreements and treaties address environmental concerns in consideration of economic conditions, equity concerns, and the sharing of knowledge. Sustainable development is a way in which we can address the poverty-environment nexus, as it provides ideological framework for economic growth that does not harm the environment.

Country:Norway
Topic: Innovative pathways to achieve sustainable consumption and production
Paper text:
Norway stands by the goal that States should do risk/benefit assessments of investing in fulfilling environmental sustainability goals (SDGS). It costs a lot to not take action to meet the SDGs. Risk-informed financing at the domestic level through the private and public sector needs to increase, by investing on the creation of jobs, universal education, health systems, and social safety nets, as well as an international funding increase. There’s a widening inequality gap between developing and developed countries that needs to be put to an end, starting with increasing aid for vaccine acquisition in developing states, that can be furthered by outsourcing production of vaccines to developing countries, and voluntarily sharing vaccine knowledge and intellectual property rights. Moreover, permitting a debt forgiveness for the poorest states, relieving them from public and private creditors, and enabling more of their domestic funds to work on meeting SDG’s would go along with reducing poverty, and enhancing quality of life for all. Enforcing anti- corruption, budget transparency, proper budget and funding allocation, and non-evasion of taxes, would make “tens of billions of dollars” available to meet SDG’s better and decrease poverty related to environmental issues, -as UN Secretary general, Antonio Guterres explained. – Enabling free international trade would also help to give the developing countries greater access to the global market, improving their economies, enhancing innovation and progress. Investing in sustainable infrastructure that is resilient to disasters. Making infrastructure resistant to environmental can create savings in the long run. Lenders should make long-term sustainable financing to developing countries, for long-term investment in growth and development. Invest in agrarian sector and textile industries for sustainable development would improve the economy of developing nations. Developed countries could work on developing sustainable transportation systems to reduce carbon emissions by 2050. Exporting infrastructure and knowledge to poorest developing countries, such as transport system technologies that cut emissions, and transferring technology to developing countries, such as waste minimization and disposal systems. Also, partnering with NGO’s to adapt plans for innovation of infrastructure would help. States could invest on research and development of sustainable technologies. Trade partnerships can be enforced, giving the poorest countries access to global markets, where they can trade more and improve their economy and development (WTO, IMF support global trade, with Norway). Promoting greater policy coherence nationally and internationally. Enforcing Multi-stakeholder partnerships-public and private sectors, multilateral institutions, civil society and NGO’s must come together. (look at Norway’s history of collaboration based on strategic partnerships.) Also, strengthening research and verifiable data in many countries, monitoring success, and setbacks in implementation of sustainable development goals.

Country:Norway
Topic: Poverty-environment nexus
Paper text:
The delegation of Norway presses for enforcing sustainable practices to clean and protect oceans, and marine life. Many developing countries depend on the fishing industry, and would benefit from implementing sustainable practices in the industry to mitigate climate hazards in the future, and prevent economic devastation and poverty that arises from environmental impacts on the food shortage and the whole industry. Enforcement of the UNFCCC, and the Paris Agreement are crucial. Norway seeks to aid other states protect their oceans, forests and diverse ecosystems with its Action plan for Biodiversity, and sustainable energy development plans. Norway supports sustainable forest management, and sustainable development of forestry. To better address sustainable development in the future, UNEA could mainly reinforce states working towards having countries highly invest on healthcare and welfare, and providing official development assistance for education.

Country:Pakistan
Topic: Innovative pathways to achieve sustainable consumption and production
Paper text:
The Islamic Republic of Pakistan is statistically one of the only countries to be on pace with the expectations to reduce the impact of climate change and other environmental quagmires. While of course the government has to deal with difficulties of its own, our practices have proven to be effective, inferring that our sustainability efforts can be used in larger countries with a burgeoning population. The actions taken through the “Clean Green Pakistan Movement”, “Ten Billion Tree Tsunami” and “Recharge Pakistan” initiatives are valuable systems used to inspire and implement sustainability efforts in Pakistan. As a nation with one of the highest vulnerability ratings to the effect of climate change it is extremely important that our efforts are focused on reducing its effect. In 2020 the Global Climate Risk Index had the nation ranked as the fifth most vulnerable body. The extreme results of national heat waves and an intensification of the smog levels are beginning to increase the level of environmental health crises. One of the most impactful actions taken is the implementation of the previously referred to, Clean Green Pakistan Movement. This program works on primarily five fronts; Water, Waste, Sanitation, Hygiene and Plantation. In most of these situations it is a small incremental growth in each but has a large enough effect for measurable success. Perhaps sharing the processes of which created our sustainability operations can assist other nations in a more development stage of their goal. In the hopes of advising others, Pakistan is also favorable towards admonishing and analyzing the processes of more successful operations. This is of course at the discretion of nations with lesser developed programs that address the concerns of this council. It is upheld along with the expectations of this nation to prosper in the face of adversity, especially in landmark opportunities to spread influential work such as sustainability.

Country:Pakistan
Topic: Poverty-environment nexus
Paper text:
Poverty is an experience that no countrymen of Pakistan should ever have to experience. The people of Pakistan have been in a great time period for economic growth and prowess in the past 20 years. Not only has the national level of poverty decreased drastically in the past two decades, but an increase in the level of non-poor citizens shows that the constituents have access to higher levels of basic necessities and facilities. The increase of non-poor citizens has more than tripled in percentage. One of the reasonable conclusive discussions from these findings is the proven time of Pakistan's economic growth can be effectively translated into poverty reduction and management. Although quite robust the system for monitoring the level of current impoverished citizens is not at quite the level of admirability. Most of the system is dedicated to installing the resources in the communities, an insignificant amount of the effort is focused at making sure the resources are being utilized by those they are meant to serve. The index utilized by the nexus had shown that around 55% percent of the households they analyzed were under the determined poverty line. Amongst this statistic it was paired with the 95th percentile of these groups using wood as the primary heating source for cooking purposes. When examining these households, the risk of specific environmental hazards was also assessed. It was seen that there is a 54 percent chance of a flash flood destroying property further setting back these families. Compiled with this information are the flash flood numbers for land deemed as “agricultural”. These figures are bolstered by the location of the land. As these areas were settled beneath steep hills the flooding assumedly increased. The nexus can be a useful tool for finding rudimentary risks of a specific group of analyzed persons but should not be used as determinant of an entirely sovereign nation. Pakistan urges the skepticality of the nation towards the poverty-environment nexus.

Country:Palestine (Observer)
Topic: Innovative pathways to achieve sustainable consumption and production
Paper text:
Climate change is the biggest threat facing all of the corners of the Earth, yet it seems that selfishness and ignorance is getting in the way of protecting her. The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, set by the UN in 2015, talks about saving our planet from degradation by being more sustainable in consumption and production. Palestine calls on our fellow states to remember this goal, as we are supposed to be stewards of our environments every day. It is our responsibility to manage natural resources and take an urgent action to climate change in order to support future generations, as we have previously stated time and time again at these conferences. Palestine recognizes the urgency of this dilemma and is more than willing to work with other countries to put this at the forefront of all problems. Palestine also would like to send gratitude and appreciation towards the countries who have already begun to combat the challenges of climate change. Without urgent change like reducing emissions, scientists estimate that global temperature will rise from 2.5 °C to 4.5 °C by the year 2100. Furthermore, a lack of significant efforts from Palestine stems from the fact that Israel disrespect our sovereignty and efforts to exercise new environmental policy within our territory. Working to secure our sovereignty and territory will give Palestine the freedom to invest in green energy and solar power that will reduce our carbon footprint and improve our quality of life for generations to come. Recognition of the Palestinian State from the international community will in-turn create more opportunity for investing in green energy within Palestine.

Country:Palestine (Observer)
Topic: Poverty-environment nexus
Paper text:
One of the biggest challenges the UN faces is to be able to balance sustainable environmental efforts while also obtaining the goal to eliminate poverty. It is true that communities in poverty are often also facing a polluted and unclean environment majority of the time. The UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development puts “no poverty” for first place in sustainable development goals. This has only become more challenging in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, causing those falling into poverty to call on their country leaders for support and aid. Palestine calls upon fellow delegates to ask ourselves, what have we done for our global citizens in need? It is within all of our responsibilities to put these two hand in hand issues at the forefront of everything right now. The source of much of the poverty within our borders stems from the instability and hostility from Israel. Palestine will not be able to engage in the development of green policy until it has sovereignty over its own territory to maintain stability and positive change. We must focus on uplifting our people from poverty in order to create an ecologically sound future for later generations. Palestine would like to add that without aiding the global poor while also simultaneously addressing climate change and being more sustainable, there will be no planet for us to continue to advance our global accomplishments and goals put forth within the United Nations Charter.

Country:Panama
Topic: Innovative pathways to achieve sustainable consumption and production
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Deforestation is a major issue in not only Panama, but worldwide. Just from 2002 until last year, 2020, our small nation has lost 78.4 kilo hectares of forestland. Tropical forest landscape has decreased by a total of 2.7 per cent in total in the same amount of time. While we are over 60 per cent forested, this decrease, should it remain unchecked, could prove to be problematic in the future.
A significant part of this deforestation comes from logging and cattle ranching. One of many possible solutions to this particular problem is the local and federal encouragement to farmers and ranchers to focus less on cattle, and more on animals native to the area. Not only should this decrease the deforestation in our nation, but bring back the native biodiversity. The related philosophy and practice of seed sovereignty will also be of great importance, decreasing the need for flat farmland, the environment necessary for the mass farming of foreign plants.
A stark decrease in regulations regarding farmers, farmland, and farming practices is also in order. These often-unnecessary measures only harm the environment, making it more difficult for the more sustainable small-scale farmers, whether those only just entering the field, or those who have been doing it for generations, to start and maintain a living for themselves and their families without selling their property. These same measures still make it more accessible for large-scale, environmentally, socially, and economically destructive big and factory farms to buy up land that federal and international regulations make impossible for individuals to purchase, driving down the price for those who are able to comply.
As the global community knows, deforestation is a danger to the environment. A push for the reintroduction of native biodiversity and a decrease in regulations on farmers are two simple steps the UN can take to relieve us of this potentially growing issue.

Country:Peru
Topic: Innovative pathways to achieve sustainable consumption and production
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In the last decades, millions of people around the globe have risen above poverty and many countries have achieved middle income status. However, the methods used to create these developments have resulted in several significant environmental crises. These environmental crises include climate change, mass pollution, overpopulation, and resource scarcity. These crises challenge the sustainability of the earth. To combat these crises, the United Nations Environment Programme has advocated a system for sustainable consumption and production. The objective of this plan is to implement a system in which the global economy features continued growth, but also protects the environment. In 2012, the General Assembly passed a resolution called, “The Future We Want”. The main three focuses of this resolution were on sustainable development, poverty eradication, and resource management. These objectives are reinforced through the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Specifically, Goal 12 assists development plans, reduces economic and environmental consequences, and poverty globally. Furthermore, in 2019, the UNEP passed the Innovative Pathways to Achieve Sustainable Consumption and Production, which reinforces Goal 12. Our nation is one that has seen economic growth in the last decades. However, our country recognizes the methods used to achieve this economic growth are unsustainable. Therefore, the country of Peru is in full support of being a contributor in globally combating environmental issues. Our nation values the importance of following international law. Peru has been a signatory of the Paris Climate Agreement since 2016. A major focus for innovative pathways for sustainability in Peru is on forestry and renewable energy. The topic of forestry is crucial because Peru embodies the second largest amount of tropical forestry in Latin America and fourth largest in the world. Given this, reducing deforestation would not only benefit Peru, but the entire global environment. In addition, reversing forest loss would help secure vital resources and protect biodiversity. With this, the implementation of renewable energy is crucial. Our country believes increasing the use of renewable energy to 40% is possible in the near future. To reinforce, there is an evident need to globally combat environmental crises and Peru is willing to be an active contributor.

Country:Peru
Topic: Poverty-environment nexus
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Poverty is terrible for any nation; therefore, countries have chosen to advance development regardless of the harmful consequences to the environment. Despite it being cheaper to pursue developments that are harmful to the environment, the overall environmental consequences are unsustainable. These negative consequences to the environment disproportionately affect people living in poverty. Rural populations are severely affected because rural populations are often dependent on the number of natural resources available and the condition of their environment to produce resources. Failure to act on these issues will cause increased poverty, environmental damage, and natural disasters. Since poverty and the environment are intertwined, initiatives are being set forth to combat these issues holistically. The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Addis Ababa Action Plan are initiatives set to combat poverty and increase environmental sustainability. The country of Peru is in accordance with these initiatives and will be a global contributor to solving these issues related to the environment and poverty. The issue of poverty is an alarming threat to Peruvians. Even though Peru has halved its poverty rate in the last decades, climate change threatens the current economic growth. Specifically, the rural demographic is most vulnerable, which equates to 21% of the population in Peru. To contend with these threats, Peru has implemented several policies that are in accordance with the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Addis Ababa Action Plan. Peru is a signatory to the International Labor Organization’s Convention 169, which gives indigenous communities an opinion on developmental projects in their territory. Moreover, Peru has adopted a ten-year National Rural Electrification Plan, which expands access to electricity in poor rural areas. This plan also produces more electricity from renewable resources, which satisfies the objective of sustainability. Furthermore, Peru is part of the Partnership for Action on Green Economy. This initiative helps create economic growth and reduce poverty and inequality. The country of Peru will holistically continue to combat the intertwined issues of poverty and environmental threats as these global issues only continue to develop.

Country:Philippines
Topic: Innovative pathways to achieve sustainable consumption and production
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The World Bank-supported Philippine Rural Development Project should serve as the gold standard to develop sustainably and be further invested and replicated worldwide. Scoring a 19 on the Global Hunger Index crossing from serious to moderate levels of hunger in 2020, the Philippines understands that a reliable food supply is a precursor to sustainable development.
The COVID 19 pandemic worsened the global hunger epidemic, reminding every country in the world of the importance of a self-sufficient food supply. Investing in small farms and rural infrastructure is a move towards a better quality of life for all rural residents through the protection of the food supply and the health and safety of those residents. Such investment is necessary for the Philippines and other low to middle income countries to be able to develop sustainably.
Due to the COVID-19 Pandemic, 320 million additional people lacked adequate access to food in 2020; This brought the total to 2.37 billion people without adequate access according to the World Bank. The pandemic further deepened existing food insecurity, and make clear the ever-rising need to work towards Sustainable Development Goal 2: Ending hunger, Achieving food security, Improving nutrition, and Promoting sustainable agriculture. Investing in small farms, agricultural technology development, and resilient rural infrastructure will be crucial to ending global hunger, and improving the quality of life in rural communities around the world.
The Philippine Rural Development Project, currently in its sixth of 10 years, is putting us on the right track towards developing sustainably. Although caught in a pandemic just half-way through its expected timeline, the project is already meeting its final goals, such as increasing real income in rural communities, building roads and other infrastructure, and bringing women into the rural workforce. Parts of the project include investing in building resiliency in rural areas and increasing biodiversity, both of which are examples of developing sustainably within our changing climate. This billion-dollar USD investment will provide the Philippines with the economic base it needs to exit the middle-income trap. Is it already a proven and worthy investment, and a shining example on the world stage in developing an economy sustainably amongst the difficulty of a changing climate and difficult circumstance.
Investment in agriculture is the key to sustainable development as the world rebuilds from COVID-19. As the Philippine Rural Development Project has shown, these investments can decrease hunger, improve rural living conditions, bring women into the workforce, and give countries the roots they need to grow. The World Bank can serve as a way of funding similar projects around the world. Beyond improving local economies, consideration should be given towards lowering trade barriers in order to allow countries to ensure a food supply year- round, regardless of the feasibility of farming due to seasonal limitations. By lowering trade barriers, countries can focus on other important self-sufficiency goals, and improve rural development in order to create a stronger foundation on which to build. Decreasing the cost of food production is the first step to growing an economy, which is why the best investment this committee will be able to make is in sustainable agriculture.

Country:Philippines
Topic: Poverty-environment nexus
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Current UN climate action, especially the Paris Climate Accord, is a mistake and an overreach from the international community, trying to stifle the growth of developing countries. Climate change is a problem caused by the minority world, and the minority world should pay the price to fix it. This is especially true because the states including the Philippines in the majority world experience the consequences of climate change worse than those states of the minority world. With the state of global poverty worse after the COVID 19 pandemic, it is even more important to prioritize development for low and middle income countries and have the world's biggest polluters lead the fight against climate change.
The Philippines emits 1.22 tons of carbon per capita, which is insignificant when compared to the carbon emissions of states that have the capabilities to enact sustainable practices. The US rate of 15.52 tons per capita is over 12 times the Philippines rate, and China’s rate of 7.38 is over 6 times higher than the Philippines. The Philippines also experiences climate change more severely than most majority world countries. In the coming decades, 14% of Filipinos are expected to be affected by storm surges. Climate change has already begun to harm the Philippines' agriculture business, with changing seasons making fruit harder to grow and changing ocean conditions hurting Filipino fishers.
Development in the 21st century needs to have climate resilience in mind. However, the burden of curbing emissions needs to be put on countries who can afford the price tag of changing infrastructures, who are also the biggest polluters today. The Philippines will be supportive of action that helps countries develop and puts the responsibility of solving climate change into the hands of the states most responsible for causing climate change. The climate crisis threatens the people of the Philippines, so action to curb climate change and allow economic growth is essential to the prosperity of the Philippines.

Country:Poland
Topic: Innovative pathways to achieve sustainable consumption and production
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The Republic of Poland is committed to building a sustainable production and consumption process at home and abroad. The Republic of Poland has set a goal to decrease coal generated electricity by 20% by 2030, coal currently generates 80% of Poland’s electricity. Overall, the Republic of Poland is proud of its coal production, being the largest hard coal and second largest producer of lignite in the EU, and our supply is anticipated to last another 200 years. Currently most of the policies put in place to combat the emissions of greenhouse gases are demand side. In the past we worked to limit emissions from vehicles domestically, and had implemented a system of environmental fees to promote the sale of lower emission vehicles. Abroad, Poland was a participant in the Sustainable Production through Innovation in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in the Baltic Sea Region (SPIN). Poland is also a partner of the Climate and Clean Air Coalition (CCAC) and the IHO Hydrography Capacity Building Programme for Coastal States.

Country:Poland
Topic: Poverty-environment nexus
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Poland’s biggest contributor to air pollution is coal-burning gas from single family homes, we have the highest rates of air pollution in the EU. Many impoverished families are unable to access resources to update their energy sources or modernize their homes to protect against this unclean air. Many Polish homes remain unrenovated in low-income areas. This makes families and communities more vulnerable to air pollution and health issues. Currently, the proportion of the Polish population living below the poverty line is estimated to be 17%. In 2016, we launched the Family 500+ program to support families with children and reduce poverty rates by providing benefits, which has been seen to be improving the economic environment. We are also committed to reducing the amount of air pollution in Poland, launching a $30 billion plan to decrease the amount of smog in our country. This “Clean Air '' program targets reducing smog in transportation pollution and funding cleaner, more efficient heating in residential homes. The program would support lower-income or impoverished families to reduce their rates of air pollution and sustain a healthier home and environment. Approximately three million houses will be thermo-modernized, including both existing residential homes and homes being built. Similarly, we have implemented a “Stop Smog Programme,” which specifically supports families and individuals that cannot afford to thermo-modernize their homes, protecting impoverished communities from the health risks of air pollution.

Country:Republic of Korea
Topic: Innovative pathways to achieve sustainable consumption and production
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The Republic of Korea recognizes the immediate importance of creating and maintaining a sustainable framework that will preserve the environment and resources for future generations, and to advance the Sustainable Development Goals. The 2015 United Nations Climate Change conference recognized the Republic of Korea as one of the leading producers of clean technology patents; however, a recent study concluded that the Republic of Korea has the second worst air quality of all advanced Member States of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. In efforts to acknowledge the current pollution problem, the Republic of Korea has made strides towards creating a cleaner future. After a study conducted by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in 2017 revealed that over half of The Republic of Korea’s pollution was produced within their borders, the Republic of Korea has taken strides in creating a more sustainable and cleaner future. The Republic of Korea recently executed the destruction of 10 of the country’s oldest and most polluting coal plants with the intention that they would be replaced with cleaner nuclear power plants. According to the World Nuclear Association, roughly a third of the Republic of Korea’s electricity is currently generated by nuclear power plants. The expansion of nuclear energy coincides with other developments made in the clean energy industry. In 2011, the government announced their plan to make up 18% of the global lean energy market by 2030. In addition, The Republic of Korea signed a host country agreement alongside the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) to support technology development and combat climate change. The Republic of Korea was instrumental in the development of the Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI), which seeks to stimulate global economic growth through sustainable industrialization. Resolution 68/124 granted the GGGI observer status in the General Assembly, and the GGGI has closely cooperated with the United Nations in pursuit of a global green economy. The Republic of Korea has implemented many initiatives to promote sustainable development, such as the Green Finance Platform that seeks to fund green energy both in the Republic of Korea and globally. In addition, The Republic of Korea signed a host country agreement alongside the UNEP to support technology development and combat climate change. The Republic of Korea fully recognizes the immediacy of achieving sustainable development globally, and looks forward to cooperating with other Member States to strive towards a better future.

Country:Republic of Korea
Topic: Poverty-environment nexus
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The Republic of Korea is extremely conscious of the plight of the poor, and the intersection of poverty and environmental inequality, especially considering the COVID-19 pandemic. Addressing these issues in tandem is crucial to achieving Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 1 and 13, along with other SDGs. The Republic of Korea has a relatively high GDP and a strong economy, but currently has 14.4% of the population living below the poverty line with many of these citizens being out of work or making below a living wage. The Republic of Korea strives to bring those citizens out of poverty and integrate them into a sustainable and thriving economy, through measures that will increase job security and overall benefits. In 2020, The Republic of Korea initiated the Korean New Deal as a means to stimulate environmentally friendly economic recovery in the face of COVID-19. The Korean New Deal aims to invest 160 trillion KRW creating new jobs in sustainable industries. Also, in 2017, The Republic of Korea supported United Nations Resolution 72/224 to ensure access to affordable, reliable, and sustainable modern energy for all, so that those in poverty can have less reliance on fossil fuels and other energy sources that damage the environment. The Republic of Korea stresses its belief that all people have the right to work and make a living wage, and to have access to sustainable and affordable energy. As a demonstration of its commitment to the poor, The Republic of Korea, in 2011, vowed to create 1.5 million jobs in the clean energy sector, in addition to sponsoring Resolution 65/10, which promoted sustainable economic growth with the goal of eradicating poverty. While these steps have been worthwhile for the citizens of the Republic of Korea, the Republic of Korea hopes that international cooperation of all Member States brings the integration of ideas such as the Korean New Deal that will lift all peoples out of poverty while providing them with a healthy planet which will be passed to future generations. The Republic of Korea aims to work closely with all Member States for the benefit of the poor and of the environment, and expresses its strong commitment to discovering solutions to both of these problems on the global stage.

Country:Russian Federation
Topic: Innovative pathways to achieve sustainable consumption and production
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As important of a mission as lifting people out of poverty is, disregarding the potential negative externalities associated will only cause more severe and long-lasting harm in the future. Solving poverty requires economic activity to flourish but this also means a massive carbon footprint as a result. Production and consumption practices that do not account for damage to the environment or the potential to exacerbate climate change will eventually see irreversible consequences on a global scale. We also recognize that increased economic production and consumption not only strains the Earth’s environment, but its resources as well. With these concerns in mind, we remain committed to the goals and measures necessary as delineated in the Paris Climate Agreement. We also recognize how imperative balance is to address this issue and avoiding the rebound effect as a result of greater efficiency is paramount to successfully achieving climate change mitigation goals. Taking all of this into account, we support the U.N.’s implementation of their 17 Sustainable Development Goals as drafted in 2015, especially goal 12 that targets the issue of sustainable production and consumption. The elimination of waste is one paramount goal to mitigating the environmental damage caused by pollution. Plastic, electronic and other such chemical material waste is a serious threat to achieving the sustainability goals set for 2030 in the 17 Sustainable Development Goals, and we support UNEP and their resolution in 2019 for Innovative pathways to achieve sustainable production and consumption in order to meet goal 12 of those 17 listed. We support and applaud nations that respond with proper policies to address production and consumption practices and standards and hope for adequate change to meet the issue at hand.

Country:Russian Federation
Topic: Poverty-environment nexus
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While we understand that addressing poverty requires respect for environmental concerns, appreciation for the interconnected nature of the relationship is paramount. The poverty- environment nexus must be understood and properly addressed. As we have seen, the nexus presents itself as a reciprocal relationship between the addressing of poverty and the degradation of the environment. If we continue to address poverty through non-sustainable economic production, further damage to the environment and resource strain as a result are inevitable. The consequences of the damage will then affect the populations of the relevant area of the environment affected, as we have seen with the drying of the Aral Sea. The scarcity of water resources due to overuse of the sea’s reserves means the population that relied on it will be forced to look elsewhere for that resource. This continuous resource strain will push more people into poverty which will require economic production elsewhere to address and the cycle continues itself. We support pursuing the goals listed in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the directions to be taken in the Addis Ababa Action Plan. Making sure that our economic practices are sustainable as possible will reduce the damage to the environment, which will reduce the effects climate related disasters have on populations, which will allow for the reduction of poverty to proceed unhindered by the cyclical relationship of the nexus.

Country:Saint Vincent & the Grenadines
Topic: Innovative pathways to achieve sustainable consumption and production
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Saint Vincent and the Grenadines supports and emphasizes the importance of a better quality of life for their citizens and those around the world. The development needed to limit toxic materials within our environment has been growing as conditions worsen for our environment. Programs like Sustainable Consumption and Production is one of the many strategies produced from the United Nations to tackle this matter. According to the SCP, “Sustainable consumption and production refers to “the use of services and related products, which respond to basic needs and bring a better quality of life while minimizing the use of natural resources and toxic materials as well as the emissions of waste and pollutants over the life cycle of the service or product so as not to jeopardize the needs of future generations”.
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines proposes the implementation of projects involving the compliance with big businesses and their consumers globally. Food and resources wasted due to constant surplus and greed of businesses. 2.5 billion tons of food wasted globally yet we gather to resolve world hunger. This calls for a united and communicative organization that holds such establishments responsible to their destructive contribution to the environment and its effective on humans everywhere. The best we can do for our environment and the lives of people internationally is to come as one and agree on even the little things to bring forth better days. A simple worldwide switch to energy efficient lightbulbs would save the world $120 billion USD annually, according to the UN. The world cannot save itself without collaboration.

Country:Saint Vincent & the Grenadines
Topic: Poverty-environment nexus
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Saint Vincent and the Grenadines recognizes the expansion of poverty-environment nexus and calls for the focus of minimizing poverty through bettering our environment and vise versa. Saint Vincent and the Grenadines has experienced many volcanic eruptions that has resulted in citizens being faced with poverty. This forces them to live on the streets and beaches littering the environment and oceans. Many nations can sympathize with this. To accomplish improving poverty rates and a cleaner planet, agriculture must be developed.
More than two-thirds of the world’s citizens living in poverty are located in rural communities. With global developed agriculture those farm families and people producing agriculture will benefit financially. Consumers will also benefit from the reduction of prices and distribution of more food. Saint Vincent and the Grenadines asks the delegation to sincerely consider agriculture development in response to poverty.

Country:Serbia
Topic: Innovative pathways to achieve sustainable consumption and production
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The Republic of Serbia identifies achieving sustainable consumption and production as an important goal for the international community. As we have historically been labeled a linear society, issues with infrastructure, focusing on waste management, has been identified as 94% of nonhazardous waste is landfilled.
The amount of waste that the Republic of Serbia generates 268 kg of waste per capita which is 100-150 kg pc lower than the European Union’s average. However, much of the waste ends up in landfills and does not meet the criteria of a circular economy. Turning to circular economies is highlighted in the Innovative Pathways to Achieve Sustainable Consumption and Production resolution adopted by the United Nations Environment Assembly, and this is the pathway we are aiming to achieve. Already, the Ministry of Environmental Protection published the Roadmap for the Circular Economy in Serbia in 2020. The roadmap contains recommendations on the sustainable use of resources, waste prevention and circular product design.
Focusing on SDGs 11 and 12, an innovative mode of action being taken is transforming the Vinča landfill to a sanitary landfill. Green space will be created, gas emissions will be turned into energy, and runoff water will be treated. The predicted recycling ability of the transformed plant is 170,000 t/year, and it will provide sustainable waste management for 1.7 million people. To further waste management, the republic of Serbia has also created a New Waste Management Strategy 2020 – 2025 with concrete plans for individual waste streams, like regional recycling programs. Internationally, the republic of Serbia also works with the he Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe work on these issues.
Our commitment to the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the implementation of new policies is a testament that it wants to push environmental issues, surrounding production and consumption, to the forefront of its growing economy. In relation to its national goals there are many obstacles, one of its biggest being financial. With this, The Republic of Serbia supports more public and privet relationships to improve infrastructure, provide funding, and the nationalization of the SDGs to fit member states specific needs as they consider more sustainable practices. The end goal being creating a circular economy.

Country:Serbia
Topic: Poverty-environment nexus
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The poverty-environment nexus is a topic that The Republic Serbia approaches with the upmost importance. Serbia is already being affected by Climate change with reoccurring heatwaves and decrease volume of precipitation, displacing hundreds of people. Furthermore, the temperature in the next hundred years will increase in the range of 2.4 to 2.8 degrees C, while volume of precipitation will decrease by up to 15%. This will affect our agricultural capacity and to establish renewable energy sources in the area.
To face this environmental plight that could quickly affect 40% of the population, The Republic of Serbia has gained a Sector Efficiency and Green Recovery Development Loan from the World Bank. With this loan, there are direct pathways to reduce poverty through the public sector while also focusing on reducing air pollution and creating a legal framework for climate policy, actions which are expected to benefit people from all segments of the population. Already, 30% of the energy produced in Serbia is renewable energy through our hydropower plants with more renewable energy plans set for the future.
We signed the Paris Climate Agreement and have ratified the United Nations Framework Convention (UNFCCC) to fulfill obligations to the international community, but also recently adopted the Serbian Law on Climate Change to establish a system that reduces greenhouse gas emissions and ensures adaptation to changed climate conditions to support those who are most affected. Some actions being taken are the emissions will be tracked and regulated in the manufacturing, automobile, and aviation sectors, and that the public will be educated on the greenhouse gas emissions from their potential vehicles.
The Republic of Serbia is making improvements in development in our country while taking the environment into consideration. With this, we support the implementation of green growth strategies when new development projects are considered. By doing this and adding legal framework, member states can move towards carbon-neutral development and protect those people who need it the most.

Country:Somalia
Topic: Innovative pathways to achieve sustainable consumption and production
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The Republic of Somalia believes that the only way to truly rebuild in the wake of covid-19 is by first assisting developing countries with international aid. For countries to rebuild they need all the resources they can muster, including people. All too often, developing countries are left to suffer from serious health issues as time passes by and the world seemingly passes onto the next problem. As larger countries buy up vaccines and medicine, smaller countries are forced into a cycle where they have no tools to rebuild and no resources to help their population recover. If the world wants to rebuild, the first focus should be on giving monetary and medical support to struggling countries. From these resources, the ability to choose more sustainable practices becomes much easier. If a country is wealthy, sustainability becomes a choice. Sustainability all too often costs more than the options that might wreck the environment. For small countries, sustainability is futile if they cannot afford the options available to them. However, both small, developing countries and large countries may be able to achieve a more sustainable future after the pandemic through similar actions. Countries should do what they can to keep a more local supply chain for necessities many might be tempted to only import, like vaccines and masks. A smaller supply chain will create less carbon emissions from transport and will create more jobs to support the millions who became unemployed in the pandemic. It will also allow countries to regulate their own factories and businesses, which will allow them to restrict environmental damage. Overall, the Republic of Somalia believes the best option relies on the choices of each country. If every country here today were to work together by sharing resources and knowledge, these strong alliances would allow countries to heal and support sustainable socioeconomic development with less risk.

Country:Somalia
Topic: Poverty-environment nexus
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The Republic of Somalia sees the environment-poverty nexus as an issue of resource disparity between developed and developing countries. As a smaller country, the Republic of Somalia is fully aware of the consequences of the environment-poverty nexus. It is impossible to focus on the environmental impact a country is having when the government is forced to focus on basic issues, like ensuring that their citizens are fed or restoring peace in the middle of war. That is why the response from large countries and committees such as these is of upmost importance. The Republic of Somalia is only responsible for 0.06 tons of CO2 per capita per year, while large countries can produce upwards of 16 tons of CO2 emissions per capita per year. The responsibility of developed countries is to decrease their own emissions, so that smaller countries are not forced to suffer consequences. Global warming will affect developing countries in coastal areas first, as water levels and temperatures rise, and these countries realize that they do not have the resources to save themselves. Larger countries can also lesson the weight of the environment-poverty nexus by providing monetary support. In the Republic of Somalia, for example, 70% of the land is used for agriculture. Placing windmills or solar panels in unused areas could create jobs and generate energy to fuel cities, lowering the already relatively low carbon emissions. Unfortunately, sustainability is expensive, so to truly aid developing countries it is important to provide the monetary support needed to create better, more sustainable infrastructure.

Country:South Africa
Topic: Innovative pathways to achieve sustainable consumption and production
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Developing nations, particularly those that once felt the brutality of colonial governments, have for too long been forced to subsist on outdated means of production. They have done this whilst their former colonial rulers, through exclusive access, have accelerated their development with more technologically and sustainably advanced methods. These processes have exacerbated global inequality and further encouraged developing nation’s reliance upon those industries and mechanics that continue to plague our planet. Simultaneously, the most developed countries have for too long had unchallenged consumption that with each year causes ramifications felt by the world as a whole. Every nation, if they are not already, in the coming years grapple with new realities due to our rapidly changing planet. Mindful of the growing threat from climate change while also acutely aware of how less developed countries are overlooked and exploited by their wealthier peers. South Africa remains committed to the position expressed in United Nations resolution A/C.2/70/L.36, that the hurdles and benefits in the transition to a more sustainable world be felt equitably between all states regardless of their size.

Country:Sudan
Topic: Innovative pathways to achieve sustainable consumption and production
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Ever since the 1972 UN Conference on the Environment in Stockholm, protecting the environment has been on the agenda of the United Nations. However, it was only at the Oslo Symposium of 1994 that the United Nations began weighing environmental protection against economic development and increases in quality of life. With that balance in mind, the United Nations has pursued development goals that are sustainable, in other words increasing consumption and production but doing so in ways that do not exhaust the environment. To these goals, nations around the world have made great progress: in 2015 it was determined by the United Nations that each unit of energy produced led to 1.5 times as much economic output as that same unit of energy. However, in 2021 the United Nations Environmental Assembly ascertained that sustainably maintaining current living standards would require resources from 1.6 Earths. Clearly, nations around the world still have much progress to make. With this problem on the table, Sudan is poised to propose innovative solutions that both further the UN’s goal to develop nations around the world and achieve consumption and production that is sustainable. As a severely undeveloped nation, Sudan understands that for billions around the world the technologies that can greatly increase their standard of living do not need to be unsustainable. Take bicycles, for example. The use of a bicycle produces zero carbon emissions. Furthermore, while sustainability of a product is measured not just by the environmental impact of the user but also by the environmental impact it generates throughout its entire life cycle, bicycles still have minimal environmental impact compared to cars and motorbikes - the material used for manufacturing bicycles is far lower. Despite their minimal environmental impact however, bicycles provide great quality of life improvements. Bicycles slash travel times on foot by about three times. This means that families with bicycles can access education and medical facilities faster, they can transport more crops to the market and make more money, they can travel faster to their fields to plant and harvest, etc. All those reductions in time snowball to create a substantial improvement one’s quality of life. Therefore, with examples such as the bicycle, Sudan is prepared to propose solutions that are both sustainable and promote quality of life around the world.

Country:Sudan
Topic: Poverty-environment nexus
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The Poverty-Environment Nexus describes the problem of negatively exploiting the environment to quickly advance economic growth, which in the long run damages economic growth because eventually the environment will be damaged enough that it can no longer be used for economic growth. This problem is especially prevalent in Sudan, where economic growth in farming as well as climate change have led to desertification. Desertification refers to land changing to become desert like and therefore no longer able to be farmed. Desertification is the most threatening problem environmental problem in Sudan for two reasons: 1. It is so widespread in the country that it affects half of the over 40-million- person population of the nation 2. 70% of the population is employed through agriculture and 80% relies on rainfall for their water, so as desertification spreads it will continue to affect millions more. Not only does desertification affect Sudan’s permanent residents, but it has also created thousands of Sudanese refugees that have added to the already hundreds of thousands of Sudanese refugees caused by the nation’s many conflicts. Although Sudan has been expanding other industries than agriculture, such as mining which has led to gold being Sudan’s greatest export, 70% of the current population relying on agriculture for employment indicates that a shift to a non-farming economy will be very difficult. Furthermore, shifting to other industries creates other environmental problems, for example mining is inherently harmful to the environment. Obviously, this precarious situation is also horrible for Sudan’s economic development because it represents a situation where the nation, if it wants to improve economically, has no but to further degrade the environment. For either Sudan invests in farming technology that further expands desertification, or it invests in other industries such as mining that come with their own slew of environmental problems. It is an understatement to say that Sudan’s poverty-environment nexus is in crisis, but UNEA has power to change it. What UNEA can do to help deal with this issue is to push for international coordination against climate change, for climate change has contributed to desertification. UNEA can also push for more international aid for Sudan. The case of bicycles applies here as well, as those with bicycles can access educational opportunities and sell more of their product, both of which further economic development.

Country:Sweden
Topic: Poverty-environment nexus
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The United Nations Poverty-Environment Nexus seeks to address the causes of economic and environmental issues that go hand in hand in causing some of the human rights issues in populations around the world. The countries around the world are developing at unsustainable rates, which has been causing climate change to accelerate at an unprecedented rate, that in turn causes food shortages, destruction of ecosystems, conflict, and mass migration out of their countries and territories due to one or a combination of these factors. Addressing the environmentally unsustainable development of countries around the world will help to alleviate the causes of climate change and poverty around the globe for those vulnerable populations and communities on the margin.
Sweden has taken the lead in demonstrating implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals. The Paris Climate Agreement from 2015 is a vital internationally legally binding agreement that is being used to address the effects of climate change and a host of other related factors which need to be addressed in order to meet these outlined goals. Sweden is also exploring with indigenous peoples how they might consult and work with them using frameworks such as the United Nations Declaration on the rights of Indigenous Peoples and other international instruments for respectful and equitable relationships in regard to Indigenous Peoples Rights.

Country:Tunisia
Topic: Innovative pathways to achieve sustainable consumption and production
Paper text:
The global community has made commitments in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development A/RES/70/1 to advance the application of sustainable consumption and production (SCP) initiatives. These goals outlined in the 2030 Agenda are admirable and if every country makes strides to complete them on schedule, the international community will have a much brighter future ahead. Unfortunately, work on the 2030 Agenda goals is both uneven globally and had been making slow progress even before the disruptions caused by the current pandemic. The developing world, where both the greatest need and promise for implementing sustainable consumption and production patterns exist, lack the resources needed to advance this globally beneficial initiative. The best method for accomplishing the goals of Agenda 2030 is through coordinating the sharing of resources, technology, and expertise between cooperating states. Tunisia participates in the SwitchMed Program and the UNEP 10 Year Framework of Programs (10YFP). The 10YFP has helped share expertise in developing Sustainable Public Procurement policies. Along with most other countries surrounding the Mediterranean, Tunisia participates in the SwitchMed Program to implement a coordinated approach to sustainable consumption and production initiatives. The SwitchMed Program is funded by the European Union and implemented largely by the Regional Activity Centre for Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP/RAC) of the United Nations Environment Program Mediterranean Action Plan (UNEP/MAP). SwitchMed’s initiatives have been inventive and effective in improving production efficiency in countries surrounding the Mediterranean. Tunisia supports the continuance of initiatives such as SwitchMed and the 10YFP. Tunisia requests that their effectiveness be improved by including assistance in reforming bureaucracy and financial institutions to facilitate increased SCP initiative development and resources to educate society on SCP benefits and publicize SCP projects to raise public awareness.

Country:Tunisia
Topic: Poverty-environment nexus
Paper text:
All countries will be impacted by the effects of climate change. Developing countries, particularly those that are arid or semi-arid, are particularly vulnerable to changes in the environment. Desertification or sea level rise caused by climate change can displace populations, destroying livelihoods and the only wealth most families possess. Displaced peoples have frequently struggled to reestablish employment and prosperity and often suffer abuse and exploitation. Efforts have been made on a global level through the Paris Agreement to lower carbon emissions along with funding adaptation and mitigation projects to blunt the worst of climate change. Tunisia is encouraged by these gestures, but must also emphasize that the emission cuts and funding commitments are too low and too voluntary to accomplish the goal of preventing worsening climate change by the end of the century. To prevent economic damage and population displacement, more must be done to assist developing countries with adaptation and mitigation initiatives. Adaptation and mitigation initiatives may blunt the effects of climate change, but in developing countries the potential to skip directly to low emission energy before investment in carbon intensive methods becomes widespread. Access to funding for both adaptation and mitigation and low emission development is difficult for developing countries. The Green Climate Fund, established under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, provides financing for adaptation and mitigation projects. The scale of these projects typically ranges between USD 5 to 75 million and are sub-national in size. We appeal for the application of this program to a broader scope, over an entire region and with a strategy of holistically adapting and mitigating, implementing low emission technology, and building environmentally resilient infrastructure. We encourage all countries who recognize the impact of climate change on poverty to recommit themselves to emission reduction and climate initiative funding.

Country:Turkmenistan
Topic: Innovative pathways to achieve sustainable consumption and production
Paper text:
On the subject of finding ways to achieve sustainable consumption and production in the country, Turkmenistan has worked on creating ways to help the environment and encourage environment-friendly practices. We have adopted the 2030 Agenda to support our goals for sustainable energy. As a country we have also ratified the Paris Agreement and adopted the National Climate Strategy. We are taking action to ensure that we report and advocate for the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). Since the adoption of the SDG, there has been progress in social policy. It has created opportunities for the population. We hope to keep working with the United Nations to create better agreements and a better environment for our citizens and those around the world. We see that progress still needs to be made in order to create a greener earth. We believe that by helping the environment, we will contribute to a better way of life for our citizens.

Country:Turkmenistan
Topic: Poverty-environment nexus
Paper text:
The country of Turkmenistan strongly believes in ending poverty both domestically and abroad and has made efforts to end poverty alongside the United Nations. Additionally, our delegation acknowledges that people living in poverty are disproportionately impacted by climate change, because poorer populations are more likely to directly depend on natural resources to make a living. As one of the countries most impacted by environmental degradation in the Central Asian region, our nation has a significant stake in addressing and improving the poverty-environment nexus. One important step our delegation has taken on this issue is monitoring and evaluating all the financial systems in our country to determine the best methods to reduce our domestic poverty rate. Furthermore, government policies regarding socioeconomic development in Turkmenistan are heavily based on the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Given our commitment to sustainable development, our delegation views the poverty-environment nexus as a significant problem facing the world’s most environmentally degraded regions. We want to continue working with the United Nations and other countries to establish strategies for achieving environmental and economic equality around the globe. Additionally, we support efforts by the UN to provide financial and diplomatic assistance to countries with high poverty rates that have been significantly impacted by climate change. Because we believe that no one should have to live in poverty or have their livelihood destroyed by climate change, we want to continue playing an active role in the UN’s efforts at addressing the poverty-environment nexus.

Country:United States of America
Topic: Innovative pathways to achieve sustainable consumption and production
Paper text:
As progress continues its steady march onwards, the United States of America (USA) is increasingly concerned with the need to ensure that consumption and production practices of food and goods is conducted in a sustainable way. Every year, about ⅓ of all food produced rots in the bins of consumers and retailers around the world. These practices not only harm the climate of the world, but they do not educate the citizens of the international community on sustainable practices. The USA already has some domestic policies in place to encourage sustainable development of goods such as emission controls for automobiles. These initiatives include the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) proposal to revise existing national greenhouse gases for passenger cars and light trucks for model years 2023- 2026. Aside from that, the USA has initiated a number of clean energy initiatives, such as the New Energy for America Plan that calls for a federal investment of $150 billion over the next decade to accelerate efforts to build a cleaner future. Lastly, the USA has made over 700,000 jobs for the economy through building robust recycling programs. The United States’ re-entry into the Paris Climate Agreement, as well as the support for UNEP/EA.2/Res.8 set a precedent for the work that can be accomplished in this body.
Promoting sustainable consumption and production practices worldwide is an important issue that affects all sovereign states. The United States of America will strive to introduce policies similar to ones we have already enacted at the domestic level in the international sphere to help other nation states achieve sustainable production practices. The United States of America looks forward to working with our international partners to find solutions that will help the international community achieve sustainable development.

Country:United States of America
Topic: Poverty-environment nexus
Paper text:
Natural resources are the foundation of human life that provides the international community with the necessities to live, work, and prosper. If nation states do not have adequate resources or the means to utilize them, they will fail to become a thriving member of the international community. Developing and economically adverse nations and regions rely heavily on natural resources. Consequently, these regions necessitate a healthy environment. For if these nation states and regions do not have a healthy sustainable environment, it will only worsen poverty conditions there, and make uplifting these areas more difficult. Because of these regions dependence upon environmental resources, any damage done to the environment directly impacts and harms these communities. The United States of America has a strong record of providing developmental aid to these economically adverse regions. The United States on average provides over 45 billion dollars in aid to our international partners every year, with most of this aid going to assist nations and regions most in need. The United States’ support for UN A/RES/63/230 further states our support for ending poverty in a sustainable environmentally conscious manner.
The United States of America looks forward to working with its partner nations, and nations experiencing environment related poverty to find solutions to these issues and preserve our shared natural resources. The USA further invites multinational corporations to take part in the solution to reduce carbon emissions within the supply chain. The top 100 companies around the world have been the source of more than 70% of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions since 1988, and the USA would like to create more international pressure upon these companies to develop sustainable practices that will not only improve the environment, but underdeveloped countries around the world.

Country:Uruguay
Topic: Innovative pathways to achieve sustainable consumption and production
Paper text:
Sustainable consumption and production is a responsibility of the United Nations to ensure an environmentally-focused future for the planet. One of the largest threats to sustainable consumption and production is the continued use of fossil fuels as a main energy source. Fossil fuel subsidies continue to encourage the use of nonrenewable energy sources. Global fossil fuel subsidies totaled $432 billion in 2019, which is a decline from the previous year. Deforestation is also an issue in regards to the sustainable production. The growth of national economies cannot come at the expense of the health of the environment. Uruguay fully supports the Paris Agreement and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Over the past decade, Uruguay has shifted to renewable energy, making 98% of the country’s energy from renewable sources. By 2030, Uruguay strives to achieve net zero carbon neutrality. The UN Environment assembly must promote renewable energy for sustainable consumption, especially focusing on developing nations. By creating renewable energy sectors, stable energy sources will contribute to the environmental and economic health of the international community. Uruguay urges the assembly to continue to support renewable energy industries in all member nations. The UN Environmental Assembly must also work to eliminate fossil fuel subsidies, in order to encourage the shift to renewable energy sources.

Country:Uruguay
Topic: Poverty-environment nexus
Paper text:
Deterioration of the environment adversely effects the poorest of nations. In order to provide equity to all of the world’s populations, poverty alleviation and environmental protection must work as one. Uruguay supports the UNEP decision EA.4/L.22, which recognizes and calls for the international community to acknowledge the interconnected nature of these two issues. Targets of the Sustainable Development Goals call for the eradication of extreme poverty by 2030 and the increased measures in policy that address climate change. Environmental pollution and degradation affects the cleanliness of drinking water, the soil quality in rural areas, and health conditions. Further development that ignores environmental protection only worsens conditions and extends national and global inequalities. Uruguay urges this assembly to further monetary support for sustainable development to improve environmental conditions in poverty-stricken areas. This development would include and protect for clean water sanitation and reliable food sources, contributing to the well-being of those in poverty. Uruguay also encourages the development and expansion of social programs to encourage education, health care, and employment which enhance social development and mobility.

Country:Uzbekistan
Topic: Innovative pathways to achieve sustainable consumption and production
Paper text:
The global population is estimated to grow to over 9.7 billion by 2050, which will cause a strain on food production, water and other important resources. The food sector accounts for around 22 percent of total greenhouse gas emissions, largely from the conversion of forests into farmland. 1.3 billion tonnes of food is wasted every year, while almost 2 billion people go hungry or undernourished. Without a plan in place, this strain will be passed on to the environment, with devastating effects on global health and wellbeing. The day when humanity overshoots the planet’s ability to recover from what resources we consume within each year— regrow the trees we cut down, absorb the carbon dioxide we emit, and replenish the seas with the fish we harvest. At this rate, it would take 1.75 Earths to sustainably meet the current demands of humanity, according to Global Footprint Network.
The 1972 United Nations Conference on the Environment in Stockholm brought the status of the environment to the fore of the international community. This Conference proposed 26 principles and 109 action items through the Stockholm Declaration and Action Plan for the Human Environment, including human rights, ocean pollution and weapons of mass destruction. Recognizing the importance of international cooperation on these issues, the Conference established the UNEP to coordinate the United Nations’ environmental efforts. In 2012, the General Assembly passed a broad resolution entitled “The Future We Want”. The resolution identifies promoting sustainable patterns of consumption and production as one of the three dimensions of sustainable development, along with poverty eradication and natural resource management. These previous efforts to achieve SCP have since been reinforced through their inclusion in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Goal 12,
Responsible Consumption and Production, promotes resource and energy efficiency, sustainable infrastructure and providing access to basic services and jobs that will help provide a better quality of life. This goal aimed to assist development plans, reduce future economic, environmental and social costs of development, strengthen economic growth, and reduce poverty worldwide. In 2019, UNEP passed the Innovative Pathways to Achieve Sustainable Consumption and Production, which elaborates on Goal 12. This resolution promotes involvement of the private sector and re-emphasizes the need for life-cycle analysis of products, from their supply chain to their fate in waste management. Uzbekistan pays great attention to the fight against climate change, protection of the environment and biodiversity. Uzbekistan ratified the Paris Agreement on Climate Change in September 2018, and has committed to reduce CO2 emissions by 10 per cent as well as strengthen resilience to climate change by 2030 (SDG 13). It reached an adoption in May 2021 of a special resolution of the UN General Assembly declaring the Aral Sea region a zone of environmental innovation and technology. The Aral Sea, which used to be the fourth largest lake in the world, has been reduced to 10 per cent of its size after two rivers that fed it were diverted for irrigation during USSR. The irrigation was used mainly for cotton production (previously termed white gold).
Uzbekistan the government has developed a National Strategy on Transition to a Green Economy. It sets several targets and initiatives aimed at reducing emissions. Particularly, the installation of wind and solar power plants, measures to improve the energy efficiency of buildings, the domestic production and installation of energy-saving bulbs, the introduction of drip irrigation technologies in agriculture, and the organizational improvements in solid waste management, national waste strategy for 2019-2028 at the local level. It is also planned to double the energy efficiency of Uzbekistan economy by 2030, increase the share of renewable energy to 25%, and develop environmentally friendly transport. By 2025, it is planned to commission new solar and wind power plants with a total capacity of 2,900 megawatts. Moreover, in August 2021 the president of Uzbekistan Shavkat Mirziyoyev ordered to plant 125 million fast growing fruit trees to reduce carbon emissions.
The Environmental Performance Review 2020 included observations on the environmental impact of COVID-19 with respect to the SDGs. The shutdown has had short-term beneficial impacts for Uzbekistan’s environment, due to a decline in fuel consumption, especially for cars, trucks, and aircraft. As a result, the environment has benefited from lower air pollution, which improved air quality in large cities. At the same time, the Review states that the challenge will be to convert these short-term gains into longer-term commitments that foster the transition to a carbon neutral economy and employment growth in green jobs across multiple sectors. During pandemic, on September 11, 2020, ‘Ensuring Climate Resilience of Farms and Dekhkan Farms Located in Arid Areas of Uzbekistan’ sustainable consumption project, implemented by UNDP, Uzhydromet and the Adaptation Fund, held a field workshop on organic farming and onion sowing for women-led households in Karakalpakstan. The project intends to counter soil problem by using a reverse osmosis system to deliver desalinated water, supplying a drip irrigation system to be owned by 20 women in the community. These low-tech solutions are durable, capable of sowing 20 to 30 acres each day, adjustable for different seed types, and allow for accurate planting which reduces labor and seed costs. It is expected that from one hectare sown during the training, 20 tons of onions will be harvested with a total cost of about 40 million soums ($4000). This result confirms that the new approach is not only less climate dependent, but also beneficial and saves resources.
Uzbekistan has demonstrated strong political commitment to incorporating innovation as a central component for future development: the Government established a new Ministry of Innovative Development in 2017; the Strategy for Innovative Development 2019-2021 outlines ambitious reforms to strengthen innovation institutions and mechanisms, especially with regards to science and research; the Ecological Party of Uzbekistan in 2019. Moreover, there is an initiative environmental NGO Hashar Week which is a multifaceted social project aimed at creating a platform for effective collaboration of people, businesses, governmental agencies and international organizations in tackling environmental issues, dissemination of environmental culture and play an active role in the formation of sustainable model of development in Uzbekistan. In addition to this, Uzbekistan is in good relationship with neighboring countries, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. Uzbekistan is a member of CAWEP (Central Asia Water and Energy Program) implemented by World Bank, EU, UK and Switzerland, which promotes water and energy security working at the national scale to strengthen national institutional capacities and sector performance, while at the same time keeping regional cooperation on the dialogue agenda to create an enabling environment for achieving national and regional energy and water security.
Uzbekistan from its history realizes that resource management, climate, biodiversity, water and land use are interconnected. We should work and find together new ways of sustainable consumption and production to save our planet. Resources at the center of voluntary initiatives, innovative policies and regulatory frameworks aiming at resource efficiency and sustainable management and use of natural resources are important for the implementation of the SDGs. Uzbekistan supports the efficient use of shared water resources to achieve sustainable consumption and production and to minimize environmental degradation using organic farming. Uzbekistan is ready to develop mutually beneficial, long-term and multifaceted partnership with all countries and global organizations. It will continue to strengthen close cooperation aimed at safe and sustainable consumption and growth and building a prosperous future.

Country:Uzbekistan
Topic: Poverty-environment nexus
Paper text:
The global population is estimated to grow to over 9.7 billion by 2050, which will cause a strain on food production, water and other important resources. The food sector accounts for around 22 percent of total greenhouse gas emissions, largely from the conversion of forests into farmland. 1.3 billion tonnes of food is wasted every year, while almost 2 billion people go hungry or undernourished. Without a plan in place, this strain will be passed on to the environment, with devastating effects on global health and wellbeing. The day when humanity overshoots the planet’s ability to recover from what resources we consume within each year— regrow the trees we cut down, absorb the carbon dioxide we emit, and replenish the seas with the fish we harvest. At this rate, it would take 1.75 Earths to sustainably meet the current demands of humanity, according to Global Footprint Network.
The 1972 United Nations Conference on the Environment in Stockholm brought the status of the environment to the fore of the international community. This Conference proposed 26 principles and 109 action items through the Stockholm Declaration and Action Plan for the Human Environment, including human rights, ocean pollution and weapons of mass destruction. Recognizing the importance of international cooperation on these issues, the Conference established the UNEP to coordinate the United Nations’ environmental efforts. In 2012, the General Assembly passed a broad resolution entitled “The Future We Want”. The resolution identifies promoting sustainable patterns of consumption and production as one of the three dimensions of sustainable development, along with poverty eradication and natural resource management. These previous efforts to achieve SCP have since been reinforced through their inclusion in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Goal 12, Responsible Consumption and Production, promotes resource and energy efficiency, sustainable infrastructure and providing access to basic services and jobs that will help provide a better quality of life. This goal aimed to assist development plans, reduce future economic, environmental and social costs of development, strengthen economic growth, and reduce poverty worldwide. In 2019, UNEP passed the Innovative Pathways to Achieve Sustainable Consumption and Production, which elaborates on Goal 12. This resolution promotes involvement of the private sector and re-emphasizes the need for life-cycle analysis of products, from their supply chain to their fate in waste management. Uzbekistan pays great attention to the fight against climate change, protection of the environment and biodiversity.
Uzbekistan ratified the Paris Agreement on Climate Change in September 2018, and has committed to reduce CO2 emissions by 10 per cent as well as strengthen resilience to climate change by 2030 (SDG 13). It reached an adoption in May 2021 of a special resolution of the UN General Assembly declaring the Aral Sea region a zone of environmental innovation and technology. The Aral Sea, which used to be the fourth largest lake in the world, has been reduced to 10 per cent of its size after two rivers that fed it were diverted for irrigation during USSR. The irrigation was used mainly for cotton production (previously termed white gold).
Uzbekistan the government has developed a National Strategy on Transition to a Green Economy. It sets several targets and initiatives aimed at reducing emissions. Particularly, the installation of wind and solar power plants, measures to improve the energy efficiency of buildings, the domestic production and installation of energy-saving bulbs, the introduction of drip irrigation technologies in agriculture, and the organizational improvements in solid waste management, national waste strategy for 2019-2028 at the local level. It is also planned to double the energy efficiency of Uzbekistan economy by 2030, increase the share of renewable energy to 25%, and develop environmentally friendly transport. By 2025, it is planned to commission new solar and wind power plants with a total capacity of 2,900 megawatts. Moreover, in August 2021 the president of Uzbekistan Shavkat Mirziyoyev ordered to plant 125 million fast growing fruit trees to reduce carbon emissions.
The Environmental Performance Review 2020 included observations on the environmental impact of COVID-19 with respect to the SDGs. The shutdown has had short-term beneficial impacts for Uzbekistan’s environment, due to a decline in fuel consumption, especially for cars, trucks, and aircraft. As a result, the environment has benefited from lower air pollution, which improved air quality in large cities. At the same time, the Review states that the challenge will be to convert these short-term gains into longer-term commitments that foster the transition to a carbon neutral economy and employment growth in green jobs across multiple sectors. During pandemic, on September 11, 2020, ‘Ensuring Climate Resilience of Farms and Dekhkan Farms Located in Arid Areas of Uzbekistan’ sustainable consumption project, implemented by UNDP, Uzhydromet and the Adaptation Fund, held a field workshop on organic farming and onion sowing for women-led households in Karakalpakstan. The project intends to counter soil problem by using a reverse osmosis system to deliver desalinated water, supplying a drip irrigation system to be owned by 20 women in the community. These low-tech solutions are durable, capable of sowing 20 to 30 acres each day, adjustable for different seed types, and allow for accurate planting which reduces labor and seed costs. It is expected that from one hectare sown during the training, 20 tons of onions will be harvested with a total cost of about 40 million soums ($4000). This result confirms that the new approach is not only less climate dependent, but also beneficial and saves resources.
Uzbekistan has demonstrated strong political commitment to incorporating innovation as a central component for future development: the Government established a new Ministry of Innovative Development in 2017; the Strategy for Innovative Development 2019-2021 outlines ambitious reforms to strengthen innovation institutions and mechanisms, especially with regards to science and research; the Ecological Party of Uzbekistan in 2019. Moreover, there is an initiative environmental NGO Hashar Week which is a multifaceted social project aimed at creating a platform for effective collaboration of people, businesses, governmental agencies and international organizations in tackling environmental issues, dissemination of environmental culture and play an active role in the formation of sustainable model of development in Uzbekistan. In addition to this, Uzbekistan is in good relationship with neighboring countries, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. Uzbekistan is a member of CAWEP (Central Asia Water and Energy Program) implemented by World Bank, EU, UK and Switzerland, which promotes water and energy security working at the national scale to strengthen national institutional capacities and sector performance, while at the same time keeping regional cooperation on the dialogue agenda to create an enabling environment for achieving national and regional energy and water security.
Uzbekistan from its history realizes that resource management, climate, biodiversity, water and land use are interconnected. We should work and find together new ways of sustainable consumption and production to save our planet. Resources at the center of voluntary initiatives, innovative policies and regulatory frameworks aiming at resource efficiency and sustainable management and use of natural resources are important for the implementation of the SDGs. Uzbekistan supports the efficient use of shared water resources to achieve sustainable consumption and production and to minimize environmental degradation using organic farming. Uzbekistan is ready to develop mutually beneficial, long-term and multifaceted partnership with all countries and global organizations. It will continue to strengthen close cooperation aimed at safe and sustainable consumption and growth and building a prosperous future.

Country:Venezuela
Topic: Innovative pathways to achieve sustainable consumption and production
Paper text:
Global consumption and production has dramatically increased as globalization continues to integrate the economies of countries around the world; the effects of globalization has had disproportionate effects on selected countries that have an unfair advantage in the global market. Neoliberal Globalization transforms a state into a competitive state which means that there is competition for good conditions of economic investment between nation-states. Due to which nation-states are frequently forced to facilitate privatization, deregulation, and the deterioration of wages, labor legislation, and welfare policies to attract the interest of transnational capital. Whereas capital and transnational corporations operate at a global level, the state is forced to enforce political action at a national level. This leads to fueling the economical gaps between the higher class, the middle class, and the lower class of the countries. Developing countries like Venezuela and underdeveloped countries get affected the most. Venezuela sees this inequality as the main driver of unsustainable consumption and production of most goods and services, and welcomes collective action, including cooperation among the G20 nations, to remedy the unfairness currently being perpetuated under the global economic regime of capitalism and its exploitation. Venezuela calls for global investment in the social safety networks of countries, particularly in education, housing, and urban development.

Country:Venezuela
Topic: Poverty-environment nexus
Paper text:
The Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela undoubtedly supports the idea that the poverty- environment nexus exists i.e. there are a set of mutually reinforcing links between poverty and environmental damage that exist especially in developing countries like Venezuela has been going through many crises recently. Venezuela has managed to come up with many solutions to this issue for example. The Bolivarian missions which were introduced by our honourable president Hugo Chavez and still in practice by our current president Mr. Nicolas Maduro. In 2003 the government created a series of emergency social programmes, the Missions, under the Bolivarian missions in order to attend to the basic needs of low-income individuals in terms of nutrition, health and education. They are grounded on a multi-dimensional view of poverty, and aim to act on several dimensions of poverty at once. The Mission targets the poorest and uses a variety of selection methods, including geographical proxies such as the number of ranchos in a given area and means tests. This was a success but Venezuela has developed many environmental havocs after the 2003 economic crisis. We’ve have suffered from oil spills, water contamination, and pollution which has also led to a threat to the innocent population of the great Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. Contaminated water has affected agriculture in the rural settlements and drinking water issues in the urban settlements. COVID-19 has added more nuisance to the already existing problems. The Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela recalls and seconds the resolution adopted by the UNEP on 15th March 2019 and wishes to participate in a fruitful dialogue that will contribute to solving our existing issues.

Country:Zimbabwe
Topic: Innovative pathways to achieve sustainable consumption and production
Paper text:
Domestic industry promotes economic growth at the expense of natural, environmental resources. With the emergence of topics such as climate change and resources’ remaining quantity, the discussion of how humans’ actions affect the environment is encouraging the international community to develop innovative pathways to achieve sustainable consumption and production. Guided by its Zimbabwe United Nations Development Assistance Framework, Zimbabwe has a commitment to working with the United Nations to achieve its sustainable development goals. Zimbabwe has since set up both local and national systems of accountability to ensure the state is on track to improving sustainability in both its industrial and tourism sectors.
Zimbabwe is undergoing a transformation process in its primary industry of mining to accommodate and fully adopt the terms of its agreement with the United Nations; various locations and the frequency of mining are being explored to accommodate sustainability and resource preservation demands. Zimbabwe hopes to achieve all goals by the UN’s deadlines of 2030 and 2040. In an effort to meet these demands, in 2020, Zimbabwe’s Energy and Power sector has explored technology and found favor within electricity and liquid petroleum; in addition, Zimbabwe is building a power station to allow harvesting hydropower. In total, eleven additional projects have been created to contribute to sustainable energy consumption and production.
However, it is vital that while Zimbabwe searches for sustainable alternatives, its mining industry is protected. Mining currently serves as a key component for Zimbabwe’s GDP and provides jobs-- both are essential in improving the quality of Zimbabweans’ lives. To eliminate this sector would eliminate additional economic opportunity for Zimbabwe. Mining can serve alongside the additional sectors and projects being created to address environmental concerns, but be modified to fit the expectations of its agreement with the United Nations.
Development assistance is encouraged within Zimbabwe as the state explores sustainable alternatives and partners to its existing consumption and production industries. Zimbabwe will continue to work with the United Nations in an effort to combat harmful and unsustainable actions, but requests that the international community respect the sanctity of Zimbabwe’s, and other countries, core industry of mining.

Country:Zimbabwe
Topic: Poverty-environment nexus
Paper text:
Changing environmental productivity and natural resource allocations affect individuals’ socioeconomic status. The poverty-environment nexus is a prominent part of environmental and social discussion within Zimbabwe as the amount of annual rainfall, deforestation, access to mining, and harvested state agriculture determines financial benefit from the earth’s resources. Zimbabwe understands that its people, especially in rural areas, remain dependent upon the earth’s resources for profit, but that personal profit does not supersede the importance of land and natural resource preservation. Zimbabwe’s Natural Resource, Forest Act, Atmospheric Pollution Prevention, Environmental Management, and Water acts serve as main pillars in their efforts to balance environmental and socioeconomic interests.
Land degradation remains a core component of this conversation as land use is a vital element in determining financial health in Zimbabwe. Under the United Nations’ Agenda 21 Chapter 10, Zimbabwe has made a commitment to develop land use and management provisions to aid in improving environmental and socioeconomic conditions. This resolution acknowledged that Zimbabwe’s Ministry of Environment and Tourism’s 1994 Environment Impact Assessment policy holds the state accountable in coordinating these efforts. The initiatives presented by this act encourage developments at both the local and national levels; involving, partnering with farmers and local businesses to monitor land use and optimize harvest opportunity. In addition, Zimbabwe is working on developing a bounce-back system to combat environmental degradation and contribute to financial growth; this includes expanding energy resources from coal to oil and gas after encouragement from Zimbabwe’s ZELA program. The switch to these resources will allow for access to purer water sources and quicker land renewal and empower individuals as they improve the state’s economic condition.
Zimbabwe understands that it must be resilient in developing economic and environmental opportunities; but the actions that matter are conducted by civilians on their own accord. To aid in development, Zimbabwe has allocated $1 billion for these projects that will follow the provisions as determined by rule of law. However, the misuse of these funds for projects other than environmental improvement and civilians’ economic betterment will not be tolerated.
Zimbabwe has contributed to environmental improvement and calls the international community to continue prioritizing environmental conditions alongside economic opportunity. Zimbabwe looks forward to supporting other states in their approach to resolving the poverty-environment nexus and developing a better tomorrow.

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