At AMUN Black Lives Matter

Position Papers by Committee

Position paper for General Assembly First Committee


Country:Afghanistan
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:
With the prevalence of international telecommunication networks since the beginning of the 21st century the United Nations has sought to maintain and develop new strategies to protect nations from security threats. As representatives for the newly sovereign government within Afghanistan, we seek to uphold the same inclination of support that was present in the last representing government of Afghanistan. Regarding the United Nations GGE (Group of Governmental Experts) committee, we intend on supporting further resolutions in support of building stronger protections from cyberspace attacks. Afghanistan has provided continual support of United Nation efforts to discuss and improve policies regarding ICTs since the establishment of the first GGE in 2004. Afghanistan anticipates on joining the 47 other member states who in have called for a program of Action for advancing responsible State behavior in cyberspace. As many of the previous GGE committees set the framework and etiquette for International Communication Technology, the resolution that Afghanistan seeks to uphold those policies for further application and accountability in cyberspace.

Country:Afghanistan
Topic: Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control
Paper text:
For decades, the nation of Afghanistan has been the centerpiece of imperial struggle and warfare. Now, Afghanistan seeks to remedy these years of turmoil and strife, by repairing the foundations of our nation with an intense fervor. With the support and recognition of the United Nations and the international community, Afghanistan potentially can emerge as a moving force of peace and security in a region that hasn’t been witness to such qualities for decades. As the recognized delegation for the newly freed Afghanistan, we intend to follow the direction of United Nations with regulations of light arms, non-proliferation, and arms control. While we must maintain a defense structure for our emerging nation, we seek to have the new Afghanistan be a bastion of peace and security. Since our nation’s admission into the United Nations in 1946, our delegation have continually supported UN resolutions for the non-proliferation of light arms and regulation of distribution of said weapons. We understand the detriments that warfare has against all people, and more specifically against women. Therefore, we are stressing that the establishment of a stable civil government throughout Afghanistan is a key component in the safety of all our citizens. A conflict free Afghanistan will give our citizens the opportunity to flourish, and this can only be achieved with the continued support from the United Nations and the international community. Lastly, under the rule of the Taliban in Afghanistan we are seeking to provide women with the rights supported by the United Nations. Although, presented with a cultural bias against women, we believe that the Taliban led Afghanistan will provide women with ample opportunities to experience the rights that the previous administration in Afghanistan had voted in favor of for decades prior.

Country:Armenia
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:
The ever-evolving sphere of cyber information transfer, cyber threats, and terrorism evince the need for comprehensive, and effective means to control and monitor information and communication technologies (ICTs). Countries with a similar lack of experience regarding statehood and cybersecurity with the addition of an underdeveloped cyber infrastructure, understand the negative implications of avoiding ICT development. The nuclear power plant crisis in Iran serves as one such implication (Zetter). The current Group of Governmental Experts (GGE) and Open Ended Work Group (OEWG) structure has only partially addressed the lacking international framework and instances of gridlock which ensue. With the creation of the first GGE in Resolution 58/32, member States recognized the need to assess cybersecurity in an international framework. GGE number three in 2013 agreed that the existing framework of international law was applicable to cyberspace (Resolution 68/98). The establishment of a voluntary list of norms for States to follow, regarding appropriate behavior in cyber activities, solidified the trend for international cooperation and implementation (Resolution 70/174). Complications with adopting a position internationally, arose during GGE five as States were uncertain about all aspects of international law remaining applicable to cyberspace (“Digital Watch Newsletter”). Understanding the positive consequences of international coalition, we move to support the creation of a Programme of Action (PoA) for advancing responsible State behavior in cyberspace. We believe that the establishment of a central entity can foster long term cooperation, development, and accountability. Accountability remains a central theme because by holding States accountable for law violations and ineffective implementation of agreed upon norms, real progress can ensue. This entity should remain open to any States wishing to participate as it would bridge the gap between closed GGE sessions and open OEWG sessions. An open group would allow underrepresented States to share opinions and voice concerns previously overshadowed by key members of past GGEs. A PoA would foster the caliber of cooperation and resolve pivotal to the conscientious navigation of the digital age.

Country:Armenia
Topic: Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control
Paper text:
Armed conflict is responsible for the greatest unnecessary loss of life in human history. The ten most deadly conflicts originating in the 1990s have an estimated death range of 1,440,000 to 7,370,00 people (Murray). In a recent phase of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict in September 2020, 11 Armenia civilians were killed (Amnesty International) Women are disproportionately involved in conflict deaths and post conflict related violence. Therefore, the need for women to be involved in disarmament and peace talks proves vital for the successful implementation of peace and arms control policy. Women and girls have been disproportionately harmed in explosive weapon use over populated areas, such as marketplaces, due to them possessing responsibilities of buying food and household goods in certain contexts (UNIDIR). The destruction of houses and the creation of temporary housing exposes women to higher levels of sexual and er-based violence (UNIDIR). Understanding the need for greater awareness of consequences facing women, the United Nations Security Council passed Resolution 1325 in 2000. Resolution 1325 is the first time the Security Council acknowledged the different needs of women in conflict-affected situations (Resolution 13/25). The Office of Disarmament Affairs complemented this progress with the creation of the Gender Action Plan in 2003, believing that the incorporation of gender and gender perspectives would prove beneficial in disarmament and peace (United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs). Armenia supports the continued implementation of resolutions and action plans increasing women involvement in disarmament. Sustainable Development Goals 5 and 16 present topics and indicators to lead the international community in its efforts to end gender inequality and to promote peace and justice, respectively. Participation of women in peace talks proves efficacious as women are more likely to raise social concerns, advance peacemaking through high-profile tactics, and women have access to information and community networks, to name a few benefits (“Including Women at the Peace Table Produces Better Outcomes”). Despite this, only about three out of every ten peace processes included women (“Including Women at the Peace Table Produces Better Outcomes”). Also, 75% of First Committee resolutions did not include gender perspectives in 2020 (Gendered Impacts of Explosive Weapons in Populated Areas). Given the benefits of female involvement in disarmament and the low percentage of female involvement, we push for every resolution passed in the First Committee that will affect women in some capacity to require gender perspectives for the inclusion of underrepresented female opinions and expertise.

Country:Australia
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:
Australia realizes the role secure telecommunications play within international peace and security. Australia recognizes that cyber security threats can be interpreted as attacks from foreign powers. To prevent issues with hacking and information vulnerability, securing lines of communication is key.

Country:Australia
Topic: Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control
Paper text:
Australia recognizes the importance gender based violence has on a larger scale. Disarmament efforts can be a way to reduce the number of women who are disproportionately affected by violence. As the United Nations, we should aim to prevent it as much as possible.

Country:Austria
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:
Austria is firm in our belief that full cooperation of the international community is vital to solving the threats posed on Information and Communications Technology (ICT) security. Austria is open to working with fellow European Union and United Nations Member States alike to establish a broad coalition of states which all have the same goal. This common goal should be dissolving cyber terrorism threats and resolving the constant need to protect citizens' digital privacy. Austria will pursue resolutions promoting multilateral partnerships which will oversee states collaboration in attempt to prosecute cyber terrorism and promote more infrastructure in cyber security.
Austria cannot overstate the importance it places on establishing international law to govern cyberspace. While there are international laws governing war crimes and human rights, there is no set standard on regulating cyberspace and explicitly regulating the threat of cyber terrorism against states. Everyone deserves the freedom to use the internet and to have their use of the internet be private. With the constant threat of data miners and hackers lurking cyber space, there should be firm international legislation to prevent and punish these individual actors who commit cyber-attacks on innocent citizens and states alike. Austria would like to add a joint coalition of countries creating international law over cyberspace would dramatically decrease the amount of cyber-attacks on state infrastructures. Just last year in 2020 our foreign ministry was targeted by cyber-attacks stemming from other state actors. These threats are not unique to Austria, just in 2015 our neighbors Germany had a serious IT attack where their data was copied and stolen also by a state actor. This threat must be stopped and should be met with a resolution that prohibits states or individual actors from committing these heinous crimes.

Country:Austria
Topic: Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control
Paper text:
Austria is committed to upholding the goals presented in the Security Council Resolution on women and peace and security [S/RES/1325]. This resolution highlights the direct impact of conflicts on women, affirming the importance of the participation of women in all phases of peace efforts. We strive to promote the involvement of women in peace processes and to strengthen preventive measures relating to violence against women. Additionally, we hope to see an increased share of women in leading positions in international organizations such as the United Nations or the European Union [Federal Ministry, Republic of Austria 2020]. Austria will continually highlight the importance of international cooperation in order to achieve the goals brought forward in General Assembly One.
Being a member of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, Austria remains committed to supporting other Member States while reaffirming that Austria is a neutral nation in the international sphere. As a result, we have a vested interest in seeing other Member States prioritize conventional disarmament and conflict prevention. Austria firmly believes that other Member States need to implement supporting measures to protect the civilian population, especially women and children, in armed conflicts as these groups are historically disproportionately affected by conflict. As featured in the UN resolution, “Role of science and technology in the context of international security and disarmament” [A/C.1/73/L.65/Rev.1] Austria urges that the developments in science and technology be used for disarmament- related purposes. That the Secretary-General give the General Assembly an updated report on recent developments in science and technology and their potential impact on international security and disarmament efforts. Then, lastly, that the United Nations Disarmament Research group conduct a seminar in Geneva on the role of science and technology in the context of international security and disarmament.

Country:Bahrain
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:
In the twenty-first century, the field of information and telecommunications play a major role in both States and the international community. This is due to the fact that technology is being utilized by countries more and more to connect with each other or share information. This field is evolving which brings new developments and challenges. A challenge that is facing the United Nations is how to enforce international law upon the member States. Based on the principle of state sovereignty, we believe that control over cyberspace security should remain in the hands of states. Although the main control of security should lie with the State, we recognize that the United Nations and the international community do have a role when dealing with information and telecommunication. The United Nations can provide an opportunity for its members to come together to discuss the developments and challenges that have recently occurred. Along with providing a space for discussion, the member States of the United Nations can come together to create a set of norms which could help regulate State’s behaviors in the cyberspace and help maintain peace. A couple of examples of the norms that the United Nations could create are promoting the use of information and technology for peace and using the United Nations as a way to promote international cooperation on this topic.
Regarding the topic of a new Programme of Action on Advancing Responsible State Behavior on Cyberspace, we believe that the creation of such a Programme would be beneficial to help the United Nations set up norms which could be used to regulate behavior. These norms could be as simple as making it the norm to have States cooperate with each other and trade information or to provide consequences to States if they don’t meet their international expectation. This would help the United Nations achieve the role we believe it should have in this field. We also believe that having a new Programme could create different tools in which the member States can use in response to problems that may arise when dealing with State behavior. This is similar to the Programme of Action on Small Arms in which the member States created the International Tracing Instrument. Having a Programme of Action on Advancing Responsible State Behavior on Cyberspace could have a similar outcome which can help the United Nations regulate State behavior on the cyberspace on an international level.

Country:Bahrain
Topic: Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control
Paper text:
Concern about the discrimination and violence that face women in disarmament has been discusses in the United Nations since 1979. In 1979, the discussion started with the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women. Since this first step, the United Nations has been examining and taking steps regarding the role of women in dis-armament. This resulted in the creation of the Arms Trade Treaty in 2010. We believe there are a couple of steps that the international community can take to further expand the reach of the Arms Trade Treaty. One is that the international community should continue to develop an international cooperation between the States that follow the treaty. The other is that we believe that international community should continue to recognize State’s sovereignty and allow them to take national measures in implementing this treaty within their own country. Along with this Arms Trade Treaty, we believe that the disarmament of nuclear weapons should continue to be addressed by the United Nations. The United Nations has been working to on the disarmament of nuclear weapons by States which we support.
In response to the topic of women’s participation in disarmament, we believe that the United Nations should continue developing and implementing the steps that it has already taken regarding this topic. An example of a step that the United Nations has continue to develop is that there was an increase in funding to the United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women. We believe that member States can takes steps to improve their involvement on this topic this is through the States taking steps within their own country to provide support to women’s participation in disarmament whether this be financially or creating programs to provide the opportunity. Along with the States taking steps themselves, we believe that the member States can ask the United Nations for support if they are unable to achieve this target by themselves. This is an example of another step the United Nations could take to increase women’s participation in disarmament.

Country:Bangladesh
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:
Developments in the area of information and telecommunications have allowed humanity to advance at an unprecedented rate. These developments have strengthened international ties and have helped counter multitudes of issues that we see today from human rights to terrorism. These developments have also accelerated and increased the potency of cyberattacks that we all have faced before. The People's Republic of Bangladesh believes that the cyber-security question in the context of international security needs to be placed within a larger framework of international cooperation, norms, and rules for appropriate and responsible state behavior that will ensure the peaceful use of cyberspace.
Bangladesh is a country that is extremely vulnerable to cyberattacks. Because of the rapid modernization of technology, cybersecurity in Bangladesh is something that is still being developed. We have been taking action towards improving our cybersecurity and reducing cyber attacks both domestically and internationally. Bangladesh hosted the 1st International Cyber Security Conference, where the Cyber Incident Response Team of the Bangladesh Computer Council addressed the need for the protection of information networks related to national security and critical infrastructures. Bangladesh was present at the UN Cybersecurity and Capacity Building event, where we outlined steps toward a free, secure, stable, accessible, and peaceful Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) environment. Domestically, Bangladesh has established a National Cybersecurity Strategy, which provides the facts of why cybersecurity is important, as well as the largest risks to Bangladesh and what needs to be implemented to reduce our country’s risks.
To prevent the negative consequences that are inherently tied to cyberspace, we need to establish that the peaceful usage of cyberspace is a multilateral issue. To enforce peaceful usage of cyberspace, Bangladesh sides with the notion that international law should apply to cyberspace to ensure responsible usage of cyberspace and to prevent malicious behavior. Due to the unique nature of cyberspace, novel frameworks and rules may be required to reinforce the topic of peaceful usage. This framework should also include a global education initiative that outlines the proper usage of ICTs. The result of these actions will allow us to fulfill the goal of developing a more secure digital world.

Country:Bangladesh
Topic: Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control
Paper text:
The use of even one nuclear or non-nuclear-weapon could have negative implications for the entire world. The casualties from using these weapons disproportionately affect women, yet they are ignored from disarmament efforts. The People’s Republic of Bangladesh believes that Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) are not needed for the safety of any country and are a relic of our feudal past and are, furthermore, a security threat for the whole of humankind. Bangladesh subscribes to the notion that the ultimate guarantee of international peace and security can only be attained through the total elimination of WMD. This deliberation should include us and the whole of humanity including women who should act in the same capacity as us towards a future that still exists.
Bangladesh is a signatory of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and has actively withdrawn from the production of nuclear weapons domestically, thus giving up research and development on that topic. To realize the goal of total elimination of nuclear armaments, Bangladesh has signed the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons (TPNW) and has co-sponsored and voted in favor of resolutions for states to sign, ratify and accede to the TPNW. We have furthered our commitment to disarmament and have applied similar policies towards chemical weapons per the Chemical Weapons Convention, and biological weaponry per the Biological and Toxin Weapon Convention. The Prime Minister of Bangladesh, Sheikh Hasina has spoken on the topic of disarmament and its benefits. She has also created the Peace Model, which empowers female voices in Bangladesh to be like our Prime Minister and speak on disarmament and similar topics.

Country:Belgium
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:
Since the beginning of man, the security of information and communications has been a critical point for all nation states. With the dawn of the 21st Century the security and authenticity of what we read, hear, and write have become of even greater value. We as Belgium have a strong stance against cyber-attacks and condemn any nation that plans to attack the telecommunications and information field of Belgium and any of her allies. Last year the Center for Cybersecurity Belgium (CBB) introduced a new cybersecurity plan that will protect the information field of our great nation. The CBB will continue to minimize the risks of cyber- attacks as well as continue to bolster its defenses for Organizations of Vital Importance or OVI’s. Belgium will work with the European Union as well as her many other allies in an act of cooperation and good faith to the world and show that the combination of information and intelligence can lead to bigger and bolder plans and technologies that will lead to long lasting world peace.

Country:Belgium
Topic: Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control
Paper text:
Since the nuclear bombs were dropped that ended one of the worst conflicts the world has ever seen and the beginning and end of the Cold War, the largest arms race in human history, Belgium has stood strong in fighting for a world free of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction. Women in the matters of conflict, direct or indirect, world peace, non- proliferation, and arms-control has always been overlooked until the adoption of Resolution 1325 adopted on the 31 of October 2000. Belgium will continue to strongly support Resolution 1325 as well as continue to be a member of the “Group of Friends” and member of the “Focal Points Network”. The government and citizens of Belgium will continue our stance on the Non- Proliferation Treaty (NPT) as well as the United Nations Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons (TPNW). We believe that for true and meaningful change to occur, nations that possess nuclear weapons need to be members of these treaties and have a hard stance for Nuclear Proliferation rather than hide behind quotes and press conferences while they still proceed to test and develop new weapons of mass destruction. This is a call to all parts of the world not just Belgium’s foes, but her allies are just as guilty. The world will be able to move on once Nuclear Weapons are abolished and focus on more meaningful duties such as clean energy, space travel, cures to diseases, and end world hunger.

Country:Cambodia
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:
In a world increasingly reliant on technology to transfer information from one part of the world to another, the security of these lines of communication is more important than ever. With nations' weapons, hospitals, and economies all linked by telecommunication networks, the need to safeguard these against attacks is critical. On the one hand, the need for nations to develop tactics to increase deterrence to keep their information safe is important. But on the other hand, it is important to acknowledge that once these tactics have been developed, the likelihood of them being used offensively against nations rises.
Cambodia believes in the ability to develop defensive strategies to keep telecommunications safe, but opposes the development of offensive measures that can be used against other nations. The potential harm caused by these measures far outweighs the benefits. This has been shown during ransomware attacks against hospitals during the coronavirus pandemic. Defensive tactics should be developed to counteract this, but offensive measures should never be deployed.

Country:Cambodia
Topic: Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control
Paper text:
Seventy-six years ago, the world stood still and watched as Pandora’s box was opened. Today, a select few nations have the ability to destroy the world in a matter of minutes while all other nations hold their breath and hope. Nations have an inalienable right to pursue their safety from those who wish them harm. However, when the weapons being made have the potential to harm those outside of the borders of their enemies, the world cannot stand by and allow such weapons to proliferate. The Kingdom of Cambodia is a staunch believer in non-proliferation of nuclear weapons and recently shared its beliefs with the world by joining the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons. Cambodia believes in shared prosperity and safety for all and that a select few nations should not hold the rest hostage with their bombs. As an organization founded on the ideals of international peace and security, the UN cannot be true to its goals when those in charge of it can destroy our environment and poison the worlds people by the direction of a head of state in a matter of minutes. We know women are some of the hardest hit in traditional war. Nuclear war is no different: these atrocities immoral and wrong. Nations need to work together to create safeguards for women in the event of warfare along with making sure women are as active in the governments of their nation as the men are. Cambodia looks forward to creating a brighter future for women along with the rest of the world as we strive for nonproliferation.

Country:Canada
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:
The issue of information and communication technologies in the context of international security has become increasingly pressing as the internet and other cyber technologies continue to advance. Canada has been an active participant in the discussion surrounding cybersecurity for many years now and has already taken some action on the matter. We are a member of the Freedom Online Coalition (FOC), which is a group of countries dedicated to promoting international internet freedom, and within the FOC we are particularly concerned with discussing human rights in the context of cybersecurity. In 2010, we released our National Cyber Security Strategy, which focuses on three main goals: securing government systems, partnering to secure vital cyber systems outside the federal government, and helping Canadians to be secure online. This has been effective so far, and we are hoping to share this success with other nations. Canada’s National Cyber Security Strategy is not only effective in its basic principles, but it also has the ability to adapt to a changing cyberspace landscape; although it was first released in 2010, it has been adapted to various developments since, while still upholding its three main pillars. Moving forward, both nationally and internationally, there are several things we hope to discuss. Firstly, there is the matter of addressing cybercrime while also protecting individual cyber privacy. It can be difficult to find a balance between transparency and privacy in cyberspace, but this is a topic we hope to explore further, as Canada is committed to both individual privacy and justice for cybercrime. Second, we feel that education on cyber security should be emphasized worldwide, as information technologies become increasingly accessible. This education is important not just for professionals, but for the general public. Lastly, we believe that cyber security, while different for every nation, needs strong international regulation; good norms need to be set from the top down. The world of cyberspace is ever- changing and unpredictable, but Canada believes that with proper attention to detail, acknowledgment of various subtopics, and greater international regulation, the world will gain more confidence in ICT security.

Country:Canada
Topic: Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control
Paper text:
Following the September 2001 Terrorist attacks and the beginning of rudimentary biological warfare in the distribution of anthrax letters in the United States postal system, Canada and the G8 unified to condemn and combat the threat of chemical, radiological, biological, and nuclear weapons. In 2002, Canada joined the G8 in launching Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction with the intent to prevent terrorists from obtaining weapons of mass destruction. Since then, the Global Partnership has expanded to include thirty active member countries along with the European Union. In creating the Weapons Threat Reduction Program, Canada has contributed more than $1.5 billion to combat chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear proliferation and terrorism threats. This program also monitors and holds the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Iran, and Syria responsible for their behavior.
Canada strongly urges Member States to act in recognition of Security Council Resolution 1325 as it acknowledges the unique and disproportionate negative effects of conflict on girls and women. Our action plan asserts that women must have a substantial role to play in all aspects of global affairs from conflict negation, peacemaking efforts, humanitarian aid, and nation- building. We believe women should be viewed as empowered survivors of violence, not victims. Our beliefs become actions through our advocacy of zero tolerance for sexual exploitation and abuse by peacekeepers and international personnel, increasing humanitarian funding for sexual and reproductive health needs, and increasing women’s accessibility to information on legal rights. We call on the United Nations to commit to its implementation of the WPS agenda. Additionally, in pushing for non-proliferation and disarmament, Canada recognizes the unique abilities and successes of women in the area and urges Member States to increase their representation in these areas.
Canada is a member of the Conference on Disarmament, which has contributed significantly to important non-proliferation and disarmament treaties. However, since 1998, the Conference has been stuck in a prolonged deadlock. Regrettably, this deadlock has impeded the progress on the Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty, a proposed international agreement with the intent of prohibiting the production of two main components of nuclear weapons. Canada urges Member States to push this resolution through the Conference and ensure a more stable international world order.

Country:Chile
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:
As the world sees deepening regional tensions, coupled with the tragedies of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19), the world's stability continues to be fundamentally undermined. The Republic of Chile recognizes that it is necessary for the International community to take further consideration of existing and potential threats in the field of information security.
Given that the field of information security and telecommunications has grown and evolved significantly in the last several years, we find it is necessary to better understand the ramifications and effects of this increasingly evolved information and telecommunications system. With globalization taking further hold around the globe, it is imperative that we recognize that the world is more vulnerable than ever to disruptive attacks.
As the Delegation from the Republic of Chile, we are ardent supporters of initiatives that recognize and try to propose solutions to these implications. We recognize that technological and telecommunications developments, in the sense of International security, could have both civilian and military applications. We are committed to maintaining this progress responsibly. We further support the provisions from the Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 4 December 1999 (A/RES/50/73), which called on member states to promote the consideration of existing and potential threats stemming from the field of information security, among other things. This action reflects the growing acknowledgment among the United Nations and the International community of the importance of a coordinated and coherent approach in terms of the field of information and telecommunications.
The Republic of Chile supports initiatives that curtail the effects of information security innovation, for better or worse. We strongly believe that it is within our and the world’s interests to combat the circulation of any dangerous illicit information and telecommunication techniques. We call on our committee peers, and on all states, to help develop and/or support strategic, multilateral programs, for the greater good of all civilians and global stability.

Country:Chile
Topic: Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control
Paper text:
Since we continue to see a growing trend of violence between states, it is becoming increasingly necessary to continually recognize the outright importance of limiting the proliferation and circulation of nuclear arms, along with undergoing a comprehensive disarmament campaign. We understand that an increase in these deadly weapons harbors the creation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD), meaning that regional and international tensions and conflicts are effectively heightened. The proliferation of arms will have dire ramifications and effects on civilians themselves, making it even more of a necessity to face these outstanding issues head-on. It is our duty to propose effective solutions and policies that fulfill the goals of this committee. As the delegation from the Republic of Chile, we recognize that disarmament and development are mutually exclusive and are one of the most important tools in building a world of minimal conflict and collective prosperity. The practice of disarmament creates a viable environment for development. Ensuring that states or regions can adequately prioritize development initiatives, creates a sustainable environment for growth. Blindly allowing actors the ability to further equip themselves with arms only heightens the risk for conflict, and it comes at the expense of effective initiatives. We strongly believe that the most practical and sustainable way to address the issue of disarmament is through a continual, step-by-step process of reducing the production and attainment of arms. Furthermore, we support Article 26 of the Charter, which sees disarmament as a requirement for long-term peace, security, and development, and calls for the maintenance of international peace and security. We were also proud to co-sponsor and adopt First Committee resolution L.41 (A/C.1/71/L.41) ​​to convene negotiations in 2017 on a “legally binding instrument to prohibit nuclear weapons, leading towards their total elimination.” Additionally, we support the demands of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) and support the ratification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). These examples illustrate the international community’s effort to begin nuclear disarmament, and we applaud these efforts. The Republic of Chile is an active and ardent supporter of disarmament and sustainable development initiatives, to settle international and regional conflicts through effective means. Chile is determined to engage in closer cooperation, and we firmly assert that through a coordinated effort, global growth and security can be achieved with the implementation of development, nuclear weapons control, and disarmament programs.

Country:China
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:
The People’s Republic of China is committed to advancing global governance and international rule-making in building a peaceful and secure cyberspace. As countries pursue a reach into the realm of cyberspace and Information and Communication Technologies (ICT’s). In the growing realm of ICTs and cyberspace, both state and non-State actors are using cyberspace and related ICT tools, techniques, and capabilities for a range of malicious purposes. In addition, the significance of safeguarding legitimate rights of all states, peaceful uses, and urges all member states, without prejudice to their non-proliferation obligations, to take concrete measures to promote international cooperation for peaceful purposes.

Country:China
Topic: Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control
Paper text:
The People’s Republic of China is committed to promoting the equitable treatment of women, and China prides itself in promoting equality between men and women. In recent years, China has made fairness and justice, with gender equality included, an important part of efforts to build a harmonious socialist society, and has utilized economic, legal, administrative, public opinion and other measures to ensure that women enjoy equal rights with men in terms of politics, economy, culture, and social and family life, and continuously pushes forward women's development in an all-round way. In addition, China faithfully fulfills its international commitments and strictly abides by the UN Security Council resolutions on arms embargo. China actively supports and implements the UN Programme of Action on Illicit Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALW) and its International Instrument to Enable States to Identify and Trace Illicit SALW in a Timely and Reliable Manner and the Firearms Protocol. China continually submits its reports to the UN Register of Conventional Arms on an annual basis. These efforts contribute to the strengthening of control and increase of transparency on conventional arms transfer.

Country:Colombia
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:
Despite ongoing national and regional efforts, it remains clear that ICT needs to be upgraded to prevent potential cyber-attacks. These challenges include secure internet, data protection and privacy for all. Latin America as a region, and as individual States, must strive to create an environment where threats online are greatly reduced. According to IDB, the cost of cybercrime worldwide is US$575 billion a year, or 0.5% of global GDP. No state can afford to lose any percent of their GDP to avertible cyber activities. Cybersecurity Ventures expect “global cybercrime costs to grow by 15 percent per year over the next five years, reaching $10.5 trillion USD annually by 2025.” With an upward trend of cybercrimes every year, this issue can no longer be ignored. Colombia is working on this in conjunction with OAS and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. Furthermore, Colombia agrees that “international law should apply to the virtual world as well as the physical world” (A/74/120, 2019). There must be greater cooperation and financial support for cybersecurity policies. Colombia respects the previous work this body has contributed towards continued dialogue and cooperation, including most notably A/76/187 and A/74/120. The clearest path forward is through further cooperation to build trust with other states to battle ICT threats. In 2017, Colombia became the first Latin American country to get unanimously approved as a NATO global partner country. Colombia has participated in many other programs such as developing the "Hacker Girls" initiative, the cybersecurity roundtable of the Network of e- Government Leaders of Latin America and the Caribbean, and the Cyber Security Path Project. It is of paramount importance that Member States remain devoted to using ICT responsibly. Colombia remains committed to improving information-sharing and strengthening cybersecurity to make the internet a safer place.

Country:Colombia
Topic: Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control
Paper text:
Resolution A/RES/65/69 was a major improvement in the process of disarmament, as it is critical at all stages that women are involved. More recently, the Secretary-General report A/73/115 highlights the strides many Member States have made in involving women in disarmament, and the resulting successes. In Colombia, women are estimated to make up over 40% of the remaining rebel population, and by connecting to them and promoting their role in bringing peace it is clear reintegration is significantly more likely to be successful. Domestic legislation to make sure women are involved, like Colombia’s Law 1475 that requires a 30% quota for women in all elections, will bring the best to the table so the right solutions can be found. Along with this, the UN–African Union Mission in Darfur has through Community Stabilization Projects (CSP) made significant progress in improving women’s lives, and similar programs of post-conflict peacebuilding are necessary in many parts of the world. Weapons continue to trickle into Colombia since the 2016 peace accords, despite measures to prevent this. The 2014 Arms Trade Treaty is a great step forward in tackling the problem, however, a greater focus must be placed on Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALW) to truly protect women. The 2001 SALW pact attempted to tackle this growing issue, yet with no enforcement nor any real cooperation between Member States, therefore more must be done. Women are underrepresented on SALW commissions yet suffer disproportionately from use of firearms in domestic violence. Colombia would like to see an international gun registry to facilitate the ability of states to track and trace firearms found on their soil. Colombia looks forward to continuing to work to involve women in disarmament, and we desire more solutions to tackle the ever-rising arms trade.

Country:Costa Rica
Topic: Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control
Paper text:
Costa Rica believes that in the endeavor for our world to be filled with peace and freedom in the name of security, women must be included and welcomed into the efforts to create policies and documents that keep countries from using weapons for violence. Our goal for this committee is to promote about how disarmament can aid a country’s government and assist in peace and security for an area. Costa Rica reenforces the UN Nuclear Non- proliferation Treaty from 2018 and the Arms Trade Treaty from 2013 in its primary lead in slowing the acquirement of weapons in the name of defense. Costa Rica removed our standing military decades ago and switched over to a public force; Costa Rica may still face similar border problems as other Latin American countries, but our funds and training has moved onto our police force which continues to promote safety for our citizens. COVID has impacted the ability to conduct psychological exams and tests for guns laws. Costa Rica is focusing on the SDGs for gender inequality, but Costa Rica has troubles collecting information surrounding those goals. UNODA Women Scholarship for Peace program, created in 2017, is a scholarship given to women who attend university in San Jose in attempts to bridge the gap for women in high level talks about non-proliferation. Costa Rica gained much of the funds from other countries who pledge to address gender inequalities in diplomatic talks in international settings. Costa Rica continues to have security within our boundaries without a military and would talk with other countries about how military disarmament has been successful. Costa Rica would like to establish similar scholarship programs in other countries or plan to have individuals travel here to keep women in arm control conversations. Costa Rica reaffirms the Sustainable Development Goal 5 for gender equality and plans to establish more firm rules for the access to information pertaining to SDG 5.

Country:Cuba
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:
Over the course of the past century, the field of information and telecommunications (ICTs) has grown exponentially. This growth has been for the better and the worse. States have the ability to use ICTs to benefit the lives of their population, but they also have the ability to use it in harmful ways. We understand the duality of the advancements in ICTs. And we support the creation of a working group with the purpose of keeping a peaceful usage of ICTs, as set forth by resolution 73/27. The creation of this working group will allow a set of rules for states to follow and prevent malicious acts utilizing ICTs. We welcome this working group and encourage further positive utilization of ICTs as well as further advancements. We must acknowledge that these advancements have been unevenly distributed amongst states for a variety of reasons. This disparity places some states at a security risk as they do not have the means to protect themselves from malicious acts of ICTs. Furthermore, we support the distribution of ICT knowledge to such disadvantaged states as pursuant to 73/27. Specifically the creation of a group consisting of the Secretary-General and various governmental leaders with the purpose of making a report that details which states are disadvantaged.

Country:Cuba
Topic: Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control
Paper text:
We firmly believe in the importance of working towards non-proliferation. We recognize that armed conflict tends to affect women in more gender specific ways. Working towards disarmament and nonproliferation will help us achieve our goal of fighting for gender equality. Recognizing the factors that could help protect the human rights of women amidst conflict will raise awareness about the issue on a global scale. It is important for the international community to work towards implementing the Arms Trade Treaty in order to reduce the risk of arms being used in a violent way against women. Recognizing that women’s participation in disarmament is crucial for this to happen allows for development of these goals. Certain gender norms in countries are a leading factor of what prevents women from being members of armed forces and DDR programs. Women need a greater role when it comes to making decisions and negotiations in DDR programs.

Country:Czech Republic
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:
The Czech Republic recognizes cybersecurity as the latest front in national defense and public security. The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted our vulnerability to cyberattacks, with several Czech hospitals attacked by ransomware, placing our citizens at risk. While the Czech Republic has robust national policy and dedicated agency addressing cybersecurity and cybercrime, the sheer quantity and ease with which such offenses are committed demands a larger international response. As we prepare to embrace technology in more areas of public life, from smart cities to interconnected transit systems, it is important that we establish strong cybersecurity protocols to prevent the exploitation of our people by malicious actors. International law regarding cybercrime must be enforced by all nations. Questions over the applicability of international law to offenses in the digital world completely ignore the very real- world implications of the effect cybercrime has on people and organizations worldwide. As with international law regarding any other topic, the rule of law must be upheld. We believe that addressing cybersecurity requires standardization across national lines and enforcement of existing international policy. Our delegation also believes that in order for the work of this body and those similar to it to truly have an effect, member states must be compliant with the terms of the agreements and actively take steps to disrupt hacking networks operating within their borders.

Country:Czech Republic
Topic: Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control
Paper text:
Ensuring the safety of our nation’s people is the preeminent goal of the government of the Czech Republic. Another major goal of our nation is ensuring the true equality of all people, regardless of demographic factors. As noted in prior UN Resolutions, equality between men and women can only be achieved through disarmament and the maintenance of peace between people. Regardless of the specific situation, armed conflict always disproportionately effects women and children, who are far too often placed in the crossfire between belligerents. Violence against women is a tragic issue for every nation on Earth and preventing harm should be a chief goal of the United Nations. We believe that in order for these issues to be properly addressed, women must be present in these bodies to present their views and the views of their communities. We would greatly favor a resolution which aims to provide greater opportunity for women to be present at disarmament meetings and opportunity to join political bodies. Encouraging disarmament through the provision of opportunity and a better quality of life is the most ethical and effective method of achieving the goals of this body. We believe that prosperity and equality bring peace, and therefore, any attempt to create peace must involve the improvement of the socioeconomic status of the nation in question. Creating opportunity for rural populations especially should be a major consideration of this body.

Country:Democratic People's Republic of Korea
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:
The UN should not interfere with domestic security affairs. It is an intrusion upon sovereignty to regulate how states are able to interact with cyberspace, and severely restricts state flexibility if there is an outside framework a state is expected to adhere to. The UN must not take any path which advocates for such severe action. We cannot support any resolution which seeks to regulate how states can interact with cyberspace, as it is an infringement on national sovereignty to control how a state manages its own defense, and we cannot support any further resolutions which seek to control our country, such as Resolution A/Res/73/266 which called upon states to line their policy up with UN panel recommendations on this matter. However, we would support a resolution which calls upon the UN to allow for joint capacity building, as a means to ensure all states can have the ability to access the technological level necessary to protect against cybersecurity threats. Sharing of technology and resources is a necessary step for a more secure world, and will allow for more peaceful and swift resolutions to any problems that may arise. In short, we will support resolutions which maintain a respect for state sovereignty, and we are open to discussion regarding capacity building efforts to ensure every state is able to have equal access to the necessary resources to protect themselves.

Country:Democratic People's Republic of Korea
Topic: Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control
Paper text:
We recognize the necessity of developing a more peaceful world for women. We believe that this world can be achieved through multilateral treaties that limit violence towards women and through the inclusion of women in international diplomacy. In both regards, we are willing to act upon the desires of the United Nations as long as the United Nations recognizes the sovereignty of its member states. We fully support the United Nation’s actions to include women in state diplomacy such as peace negotiations, post-conflict reconstruction, and disarmament through Security Council Resolution 1325. We encourage the United Nations to do more internally to ensure more women serve in diplomatic posts and in administrative, leadership positions. While the United Nations has begun to incorporate gender in its analysis of disarmament with its Gender Action Plan of 2003, we do not believe that it truly incorporates women into the decision-making process at the United Nations. We believe that the United Nations should serve as an example by fulfilling the same goals it develops for its member states. The United Nations should also do more to secure the political, economic, and social rights of women around the world. We believe that the 1979 Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women was a step in the right direction and we fully support Goal 5 of the Sustainable Development Goals. We additionally believe that the United Nations should foremost recognize the sovereignty of its member states when putting forward resolutions and that the rights of member states should be respected during these interactions. Commissions meant to survey the fulfilment of the United Nations’ goals will not improve compliance but will only create resentment. We believe the United Nations should allow for member states to incorporate aspects of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women into their domestic laws on their own accord, as we have done. Furthermore, discussions on the arms trade should not be incorporated into solutions for improving the rights of women.

Country:Denmark
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:
Due to the advance development of technology, there has been a global increase by governments and the general public on relying on information and communication technologies, known as ICTs, as instruments in maintaining peace and international security. Despite the clear benefits, there is concern about the increase international cybersecurity attacks and threats caused by the misuse of ICTs. Therefore, Denmark fully supports and calls for a free and stable cyberspace where human rights and fundamental freedoms would fully be applied. Since 1998, when the issue about information security was first brought before the committee, the General Assembly passed Resolution 53/70 which calls for Member States to promote the consideration of sharing existing and potential threats in regard to information security. It is undisputable that governments and societies are rapidly digitizing, and it is crucial that international humanitarian laws are interpreted and applied in such a manner that protects in cyberspace. Since 2004, there have been five Groups of Governments Experts, known as GGE, who have studied the threats posed by misusing ICTs by State and non-State members as well as how these threats should be addressed. Three of these Groups have compiled and agreed upon substantive reports including recommendations which Denmark welcomes, along with the majority of the Member States.
The findings from the GGE established the foundation for recent discussions about how States should interact with cyberspace and what protections to enact in order to protect crucial online information. Due to the serious and growing threat to information security through ICTs, Denmark continues to support declarations of Resolution 53/70 and Resolution 75/240, which established the Open-ended Working Group, known as OEWG, and urges other Member States to take part of the collaboration and sharing process in the context of information security.

Country:Denmark
Topic: Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control
Paper text:
Denmark ranks 2nd in the European Union with 77.4 out of 100 points on the Gender Equality Index. On 18 December 1979, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women was adopted to achieve full equality of disarmament between men and women and to promote women’s rights by the United Nations General Assembly. In 2000, the Security Council passed a draft resolution to include the perspective of women in all fields of operations. In 2004, Denmark made comments regarding Res 68/33“Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control.” In 2019, women and girls were still the targets of 96 percent of conflict-related sexual violence. The United Nations has worked in various ways to promote women's rights and empower them such as funding the UN for Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment and the Women Scholarship for Peace initiative. Despite this progress, women still only make up only 32% of participants in disarmament meetings, and only 24% of delegation chiefs. And one significant issue is the low rate of access and resources dedicated to addressing the challenges facing women. A recent study, which is about violence against women and girls, illustrates the economic cost of violence against women at 2-5% of global GDP looking at. Denmark is an extensive financial supporter of the United Nations Women, the United Nations organization for gender equality and women's empowerment, formed in 2010. Denmark is also supporting the world’s largest framework to end violence against women and girls globally, namely the Spotlight Initiative, which is a joint EU-UN endeavor (UNFPA, UNDP, and UN Women). Denmark has an enormous focus now on women's rights and is committed to goal 5 of the 2030 Agenda for achieving gender equality by the Danish Strategy for Development Cooperation and Humanitarian Action.

Country:Egypt
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:
Every field has been changed dramatically by remarkable advancements in the field of information and telecommunications. Computers, the internet, and cell phones have become part of every aspect of civilized society. Thereby, it is of vital importance to ensure that nations are prepared to handle potential threats to this developing field. The Arab Republic of Egypt believes that the United Nations should play a central role in coordinating international communication. The UN should also implement a codified and legally binding set of international instruments and channels to better ensure the ability of these ICT’s to be used for the betterment of mankind. Another facet is increased support for developing nations who cannot implement needed infrastructure in this regard. Egypt also believes that the International Community needs to work together in addressing cybersecurity challenges. As a member of the International Telecommunications Union (ITU), we believe that as telecommunications develop all over the world, every Member State should take part in cyber drills and cybersecurity conferences that are organized by organizations like the ITU, Organization of Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), or the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC). Egypt also proposed the establishment of ITU's Council Working Group for Child Online Protection (CWG-COP) and chaired the CWG- COP from 2010 till 2017.

Country:Egypt
Topic: Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control
Paper text:
Egypt firmly believes that this body needs to take the proper steps to stop the proliferation of nuclear weapons and increase the disarmament of nuclear weapons. As an international community, we need to curb the sale of arms that cause widespread harm. This is why we support the Arms Trade Treaty. Egypt is also a part of UNIDIR (The United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research). We wish for more countries to sign the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons Treaty while also updating it so that it can combat the growing troubles the world faces with weaponry. Egypt recognizes the need to include more women in the efforts to fight the spread of illegal arms. We believe that expanded international assistance in the form of scholarships and other similar aid, much like the already extant Women Scholarship for Peace initiative, is the most effective action towards achieving the goals set out in the Sustainable Development Goals adopted by all United Nations Member States in 2015. Allowing women to be in negotiations and talks about disarmament will help create lasting peace. We advocate for the General Assembly to mandate more regulations concerning women’s roles in arms control, disarmament, and non-proliferation.

Country:El Salvador
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:
El Salvador has recently adopted one of the most sweeping changes to its economy with the acquisition of over 750 Bitcoin and has come to the forefront of our concerns with several key issues we need to address in the coming years in partnership with the local and global community. Despite our strong desire for an interconnected El Salvador, to this day still, only 60 percent of our people have stable access to the internet. We would like to partner with countries to increase access globally to nations without the means to develop critical telecommunication infrastructure. In addition to access to Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), it is also imperative that rogue actors involved with cyber-attacks are brought to justice. Internationally, attacks threaten to undermine the sovereignty of smaller states to enforce the security of our telecommunication networks. While 150 member states have worked within the OEWG and UN Secretary-General António Guterres to tighten security under Resolution 70/237, there are still more than 40 countries both developing and developed world who have not joined this initiative. Leaving open ends with any countries’ cyber security poses threats to both the sovereignty of our state, and to the integrity of our markets. Bitcoin is a currency known for its infamy within small arms and drug trade, and without proactive initiatives, it poses the risk of destabilization. El Salvador believes that the best step forward for our success as a country is inextricably linked to the tightening and international cooperation to reign in cyber crimes as well as cooperation and coordination on the emergent illicit trades using the internet.

Country:El Salvador
Topic: Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control
Paper text:
While women and children are noncombatant they are victims of war and conflict. They do not have much say in making policies that pertain to traffic and use of weapons. El Salvador as a young and progressive nation recognizes the critical role of women in development, policy making and the pursuit of peace. We call on other nations to listen to voices of youth and women in policies related to war and peace. We support funding of the UN Entity for Gender Equality and Empowerment of Women and the Office of Disarmament Affairs' Women Scholarship for Peace Initiative. El Salvador's President Nayib Bukele and his wife Dr. Gabriela Rodriguez de Bukele, who served as secretary for Women, are leading the country towards better treatment and consideration of women in all aspects of society.

Country:Estonia
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:
To enforce the efforts of United Nations peacekeeping operations, protect vulnerable populations, and promote the healing of regional conflicts, the Delegation of Estonia supports the continued development of information transferring and telecommunication strategy within the context of international security. The current state of the United Nations information sharing has not effectively addressed its goal of ensuring weapon tracing and using regional leadership to address conflict. For this reason, it is important to underscore the inherent necessity in the sharing of information between parties and formulating policies capable of tracking the movement of arms trading between regions and groups. The ability to gather data for analysis will not only provide insights into how to effectively manage crises, but it will also protect the lives of those involved in the United Nations peacekeeping operations whose lives are all too often taken during small arm conflict in these regions particularly of Africa where seven of the thirteen current peacekeeping operations are held.
Countries involved in these United Nations efforts should pursue protocols that improve global law enforcement and customs operations. The Delegation of Estonia therefore supports the use of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) as well as the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL). These, paired with arms embargo strategy and monitoring, can enhance the data-sharing platforms currently in use. Finding means of amplifying communication and simplifying the analysis of data for use by multiple parties can strengthen the United Nations ability to inform allied countries that are seeking to aid these efforts to reduce arms conflict.

Country:Estonia
Topic: Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control
Paper text:
The Delegation of Estonia is committed to the reduction of illicit weapon stockpiling worldwide. With special consideration for the present global situation involving the healing of a pandemic that has affected nearly all regions of the globe, the Delegation of Estonia is promoting the United Nation’s endorsement of a ceasefire in addition to attempts to reduce arms trafficking. The misuse and accumulation of small arms and light weapons has become a pivotal factor in limiting efforts for security at all levels of government and populace including local, regional, and even international as it has developed friction between communities and endangered vulnerable groups of people. This includes those still recovering from negative effects of the pandemic, persecuted religious communities, and also women and children. In order to mitigate these effects, especially those on vulnerable populations, the Delegation of Estonia supports the continued implementation of sex- and age-disaggregated data analysis in addition to the furthered support of civil society organizations to provide a comforting approach to aiding these individuals, including woman and children.
The United Nation’s peacekeeping attempts have been stifled by the unchecked arms trade, which has provided illicit weapons and explosives to terrorist organizations amidst conflicts, and they have become the greatest source of United Nations fatalities during peacekeeping efforts. The Delegation of Estonia wants to hold accountable the United Nations peace operations commitment to mandating the support of weapons management to reduce violence, disarmament, demobilization, and security sector reform programs. The Delegation of Estonia supports the continued use of the United Nations Mine Action Service while requesting the Security Council use the service to promote weapon tracing and efficient record-keeping. Data collection and the sharing of it are vital aspects of non-proliferation efforts and require cooperation between United Nations council members.

Country:Fiji
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:
The Republic of Fiji is gravely concerned about the abuse of information and communication technologies (ICTs) by nefarious and harmful actors and of the threat posed by cyberattacks on things ranging from infrastructure to other critical services, as well as foreign election interference meant to sow internal division and mistrust, and attacks on health and medical organizations, especially during the era of COVID-19. As a small island nation, Fiji is especially vulnerable to and concerned about the abuse of ICTs and other cybersecurity issues. We are all reliant upon ICTs in providing crucial government services and communicating public safety information, enabling digital commerce and keeping friends and families connected worldwide. Fiji desires strongly to work in full with all Member States in working to address and work to solve these pressing issues. Fiji is completely supportive of steps aimed at implementing a set of norms and principles concerning state behavior in cybersecurity as it relates to ICTs and to hold accountable any actors who knowingly facilitate or sanction such egregious acts against any country’s institutions and infrastructure through the abuse of ICTs. Fiji strongly endorses the creation of a Program of Action for advancing responsible state behavior or any other action-oriented international framework and political commitment aimed at addressing these challenges to cybersecurity as they relate to ICTs. Fiji also would look favorably upon a treaty that would create a body of Member States directed at combating issues of cybersecurity, regulating information and communication traffic to ensure the fair dissemination of ideas and voices, and to work to combat malicious activities conducted through ICTs, and, in turn, to penalize those states that continually and knowingly partake in such activities. This body would also work to assess, report on, and provide viable solutions to the issues related to cybersecurity and ICTs.

Country:Fiji
Topic: Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control
Paper text:
Women, like everyone else, deserve to have a role in any discussion and effort at working towards disarmament, on limiting the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction that put all, women included, in danger, and creating a world that is much more stable, safer, and peaceful as we aim to move towards a brighter, more united tomorrow. The Republic of Fiji is completely committed to this goal and will do all that it is able to do to help in addressing and resolving this issue. It is imperative that the voices of all citizens of the world are heard as we try to construct a better, more equal society that is receptive and concerned with all those who constitute it. Fiji would greatly approve of measures that make it such that in all future treaties and resolutions on the issue of disarmament, non-proliferation, and arms control whether it is ensure that the considerations of a diverse array of persons who may be implicated in matters related to the aforementioned topics be acknowledged, and that they are allowed a say in how we as a body move forward and establish the standards and guidelines by which Member States are to operate and approach these issues. Disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR) programs - to halt conflict and reintegrate people and groups involved in armed conflict into society at large, contributing toward peace, security and disarmament - are a step in the right direction and Fiji wholly endorses such efforts.

Country:Finland
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:
The Republic of Finland acknowledges the importance that telecommunications and cybersecurity plays in an increasingly interconnected world. The Republic of Finland recognizes that energy, water, banking systems, and transportation are reliant on the safety of digital networks that are vulnerable to cyberthreats. That is why the Republic of Finland is cooperating with the international community and the EU through the Council Conclusions on Cyber Diplomacy adopted in 2015 by the Council of the European Union. The Republic of Finland works closely with NATO countries as a NATO Partnership for Peace country in cyber security issues. Finland believes the standards of international law should be applied to telecommunications like the cyber domain. Domestically Finland established a national organization to engage in cybersecurity threats. Finland has established the Network Security Advisory Board which helps states and municipalities facilitate cyber defense mechanisms. In a statement at the UNGA First Committee 2017, Finland expressed support for the European Union on the topic of cybersecurity and recognized the importance that cyber security holds over international peace and security. Finland has established strategic guidelines for cyber security in 2019 that push to develop international cooperation, develop cyber security competence, and coordinate cyber security management. Additionally in 2016 through the government report on Finnish Foreign and Security Policy, Finland has encouraged the involvement of the private sector and recommended special cooperation with Nordic countries. Finland believes that international business should be protected from cyber threats, therefore in 2016 through the Ministry of Transport and Communications, Finland strategized for the EU’s market to operate more reliably and ensure Finnish companies could benefit from international products through information security. The Republic of Finland recognizes the threat that nuclear proliferation can pose to the peace and security of the international community. Finland discourages the proliferation of nuclear weaponry, with the signing of the non-proliferation treaty Finland continues to show its devotion to inhibiting the spread of nuclear weaponry and working towards establishing a safer international community. As a state who has ratified the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test- Ban Treaty, Finland has demonstrated its commitment to limiting the use of nuclear weaponry and preventing all nuclear testing globally. Finland, as one of the first seven co author states of the Arms Trade Treaty, has been active in the implementation of global processes in regards to disarmament and arms control by establishing provisions on the exportation, importation and transportation of arms.

Country:Finland
Topic: Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control
Paper text:
The Republic of Finland, as one of the largest donor countries to UN Women, has begun initiations towards a new proposal, the National Action Plan for Gender Equality. In addition, Finland has recognized that violence against women is one of the most pressing international human rights violations, which has led to the establishment of its goal to decrease the number of cases of violence that are instigated by young men. Finland has been one of the leading states to push for gender equality since 1986 when it ratified the UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women. Finland has been at the forefront, among nordic countries, to push for women’s rights and gender equality and it continues to do so through its ratification of the Equality Act that prohibits discrimination on the basis of gender, gender identity and expression of gender.

Country:France
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:
The delegation of France affirms and promulgates the further effort to create a more interconnected globe for the benefit of the entire human society. It is of utmost importance that the representatives on this committee work diligently to expand the reach of global telecommunications to provide practical, affordable accessibility to every corner of the globe. The French delegation asserts that it is not in the best interest of any member nation to strive to marginalize regions or demographics by limiting the scope of the international telecommunications and information hereby in effect now and in the future. However, in the interests of this assembled committee, it is the view of the delegation of France that further measures be taken in modernizing legislation for the rapid rate of change faced in this digital age and harmonizing regulations to ensure that no country, whether intentionally or otherwise, is ostracized due to a legislative oversight on the part of this committee. France stands by the agreements outlined in assembly document A/C.1/76/L.13 and urges the assembly to “recognize the consensus adoption of final report of the Open Ended Working Group on developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security.” Further, the delegation of France believes it is in the best interest of this committee, and of leading nations around the world, to prioritize security measures and broadly enhances the flow of communication around the world. France proposes an expansion of the programs and systems put in place by the ENISA, the EU’s institution for cybersecurity, that would encompass every member nation, providing unmatched security and consolidation of regulatory power and responsibility. This initiative would be back financially and supported unanimously by every nation represented on this committee, ensuring a bright and safe future for the growing interdependent global society.

Country:France
Topic: Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control
Paper text:
We, the delegation from France, acknowledge the past failures of this committee to ensure safety and security to all people, regions, cultures, and creeds, in past non-proliferation and disarmament negotiations. France stands unequivocally in favor of further efforts to secure developing nations and world leaders alike through the continuance of initiative aimed at curtailing and halting the spread of weapons around the world. The delegation of France calls on all members of this committee to move towards disarmament to provide security for their own citizens as well as the citizens of the world. France proudly stands by the agreements outlined in assembly document A/C.1/76/L.16, which, among other things, “call(s) upon all States to include and empower women, including through capacity building efforts, as appropriate, to be full, equal, and meaningful participants in the design and implementation of disarmament, non proliferation and arms control efforts.” Noting the dangers posed by unregulated arms accumulation, the delegation from France vehemently implores all nations assembled to work towards multilateral agreement in curbing the production, distribution, and stockpile of weapons around the world. The delegation from France further affirms the actions already taken by the internal body, and continues to uphold all agreements aimed at non-proliferation, including the Iran Nuclear Agreement. It is the expectation of this delegation that all members assembled unite in standing up to bad actors and do their part in ensuring a more secure tomorrow.

Country:Germany
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:
The history race has been one marked by great innovation, and great death. Throughout the history of our race, it was the control of new frontiers that was so heavily sought after. Now, that frontier so hastily pursued is that of information. This is only keeping on course with that last century of human history and has been only accentuated by the invention of the internet. In the age of exploration, countless lives were thrown at the cause: “Explore at all costs”. In our current cyber age, the rights of individuals are being infringed upon for the cause: “Expand at all costs”. The current trajectory the world powers are taking is frightening. We cannot continue the path of constant, large-scale cyber-attacks aimed at each other, while ordinary people get caught in the crossfire. Germany will not rest until all citizens of the world have the same rights online, as they do offline.

Country:Germany
Topic: Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control
Paper text:
The state of the rights of women in the world is, of course, better than it was 100 years ago, however there is still much progress to be made. In most developed countries, women have only enjoyed the same privileges as men for less than a century. And while they may, on paper, enjoy the same rights in some places, virtually everywhere women are still bound by the ancient hierarchies that have bound them for thousands of years. Germany will always work to fix the gap in gender pay around the world as well as the rights of women everywhere.

Country:Ghana
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:
In recent years, the international community has become strongly dependent on information and communication technologies in all aspects of life. Technology has become more accessible to people throughout the world but has also created an environment that leaves many less developed states with a lack of network infrastructure susceptible to greater risks of cybercrime.
The Republic of Ghana views these technological developments as being central to information and knowledge of the global economy, but also acknowledges the regional risks these developments have created for member states with a lack of resources to combat cyberattacks. Ghana is a strong proponent for the advancement in developments in cybersecurity to promote peace and security in the international arena. Abiding by international efforts to support international security, Ghana has created agencies such as The National Cyber Security Centre (NCSC) under its Ministry of Communications, to provide training and other resources to promote cybersecurity awareness in both the public and private sectors. Ghana has also implemented policies such as the Cyber Security Act in 2020, which demonstrates a commitment to the protection of critical information infrastructure and the need to prevent, manage, and respond to cybersecurity crimes and threats. Ghana has also demonstrated its commitment and support for the issue of cybersecurity through its support of bilateral and multilateral cooperation through initiatives such as the Budapest Convention, which aimed to harmonize national laws as well as cooperation between states within the cyberspace. Ghana has demonstrated its support for the advancement in cyberspace by being one of only 8 states in the African Union to ratify the African Union Convention on Cyber Security and Personal Data Protection, which establishes a framework for cybersecurity in Africa through the organization of electronic transactions, protection of personal data, promotion of cybersecurity, e-governance and combatting cybercrime. The Republic of Ghana encourages member states, specifically Western states that have strong infrastructure, to act in good faith and engage in multilateral cooperation through international workshops to assist less developed states to be less susceptible to the risks of cyberattacks.

Country:Ghana
Topic: Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control
Paper text:
On Monday, October 29, 2018, the permanent mission of the Republic of Ghana to the United Nations conveyed its commitment to good practices and standard operating procedures to prevent the illicit transfer, diversion, and misuse of conventional weapons. Ghana has demonstrated its commitment to this issue since the signing of the United Nations Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty in 1968. Ghana has continued to support these initiatives by maintaining the landmark Arms Trade Treaty of 2015 (ATT), which aims to reduce human suffering caused by illegal and irresponsible arms transfers, to improve regional security and stability, and to promote accountability and transparency by state parties by regulating the transfers of conventional arms. However, Ghana acknowledges the ever-growing human suffering, destruction to communities, forced migration, and armed violence that have been caused by the proliferation of conventional weapons, specifically in Africa. The proliferation of arms and ammunition enables violations of international humanitarian law, including acts of terrorism and sexual and gender-based violence. Armed conflict has disproportionately affected women, where in 2019 96% of conflict-related sexual violence targeted women and in many instances, women fell victim to bombings of highly populated areas such as marketplaces. The effects of conventional weapons have also further marginalized women in the fight for equality, because their traditional rules in the households make them vulnerable to the public violence that conventional weapons have facilitated.
The Republic of Ghana reaffirms its commitment to uphold the values of the Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), to promote the rights of women throughout the world, and it reminds member states of their obligations to the Arms Trade Treaty articles six and seven that seek to deny any arms transfer if there is an overriding risk that arms will be used for gender-based violence. Ghana is a strong supporter of the regional approach in the universalization for the ATT and wishes for non-member states to ratify the Arms Trade Treaty. Ghana has demonstrated its support for the Arms Trade Treaty by hosting the COARM Second Regional Workshop in collaboration with the European Union and the German Federal Office for Economic Affairs and Export Controls (BAFA) to promote the universalization of the ATT, specifically in Africa. The Republic of Ghana has also demonstrated its commitment to gender equality by adopting various measures such as enhancing the leadership skills of adolescent girls and young women in Nkwanta North and South Districts, and training women to participate through West Africa women’s organizations in the Commission on the Status of Women (CSW). Ghana firmly believes that non-proliferation and arms control is necessary for collective security for all member states and to attain full equality between men and women. Ghana urges the international community’s full cooperation and assistance, specifically from arm producing states, to assist in supporting resource constrained states to implement strategies to properly achieve disarmament. Finally, Ghana reiterates its call that all member states support the Arms Trade Treaty to achieve a safer and more secure world for all individuals.

Country:Hungary
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:
In this age of near-endless information and communication, the security of the global telecommunications network has never been at greater risk. This security risk must be considered high priority for all member states as they too are at risk. Hungary calls into account previous international laws and agreements which have not adequately addressed the complex nature of an interconnected world that is increasingly governed by the laws of cyberspace. The current situation with regard to the security of Global Telecommunications plays an essential role in ensuring connectivity, access to information, and protection against lawless and borderless acts of terrorism. One of the most damaging attacks in history, the WannaCry ransomware attack infected more than 230,000 machines in 150 countries, causing damage of at least $4 billion (USD).The United Nations has taken steps towards telecommunications security in the past through resolution 58/32 setting an inadequate precedent for action creating a group of 15 governing experts that are chosen by the Secretary-General to monitor global telecommunications security. We call upon all member states to heed their call for action to strengthen our ability to resist the actions of those who wish to tear down the Global connection that we as a body must safeguard. This group of experts has proposed new resolutions urging comprehensive and uniform security measures to improve security.
The government of Hungary has supported the global effort to promote telecommunication and information security by leading the way on resolutions such as the Budapest Convention on cyber security. The Budapest convention continues to offer the world uniform safety standards and it sets the groundwork for future conventions that will further secure global networks. Hungary recognizes the work that has been done, but it encourages Member States to do more. So far there has not been significant investment in this global endeavor despite the severity of the issue.
Acknowledging the need for immediate action, Hungary recommends that the group of experts be granted more authority to regulate the telecommunications networks to ensure that there is never a point where the security of the network becomes insufficient. Additionally, Hungary calls on all member states to unanimously agree to the terms already set forth by the Budapest convention so that the groundbreaking provisions it sets forth will be able to protect the entirety of our interconnected systems.

Country:Hungary
Topic: Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control
Paper text:
Hungary is a strong supporter of efforts aimed at providing equal rights and the empowerment of women, as it is key to global progress. The way to address this problem is by having more women in leadership positions at all levels of government. Historically GA1 has had an imbalance when it comes to the representation of women, unlike GA3 which reached equal representation three decades prior in 1985. Not only does this issue run deep within each member state but collectively as a whole. As of October 2019, the global participation rate of women in national-level parliaments is 24.5%. Collaboration and becoming unified on these essential solutions is the way we instill equality for future generations to come. The UN has implemented many treaties and resolutions to help encourage the participation of women on these issues. Resolutions such as 2220, the security council stresses the importance of women’s full effective participation in countering illicit transfer, destabilizing accumulation, and misuse of SALW. The work that has been done so far is largely symbolic and has only made a slight difference. The international community will have to break down gender stereotypes and enable all women and girls to reach their full potential within and beyond the UN, including in science and the STEM sector. Hungary has taken many steps to fix this issue, Hungary signed the "Women, disarmament, non- proliferation and arms control" draft resolution in 2016. Hungary promotes women’s engagement in local, national, and global decision-making structures, including electoral processes. This problem needs to be addressed at all levels. Member states should be encouraging women to be more involved in the process by creating accessible programs. This also means making it so that women have a seat at the table whether that be in the local, national or global.

Country:India
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:
The Republic of India is one of the top leaders in the telecommunications market, and we expect to see the number of users as well as the mobile economy increase tremendously. As a nation that has been heavily investing in telecommunications, we also understand how important it is to develop strong cyber security to prevent the chance of international crime that the internet inadvertently is home to.
Because of the uncertainties created by the pandemic, India has discovered many misinformation campaigns that phish for vulnerable people’s private information and that cybercrime has increased radically. Prime minister Modi has made it clear that this issue is very important to approach carefully and must be done on both a national and international level. Some of our steps towards international cyber security include the creation of our Centers of Excellence in Software Development and Training in Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, and Vietnam as well as our Memorandum of Cooperation with Japan, which both work towards strengthening international cyber security. The Republic of India is also a proud member of the Group of Governmental Experts (GGE) on Advancing responsible State behavior in cyberspace in the context of international security. a national level, India has passed The Information Technology Act of 2000 and amended it in 2008. The amendments to the original act helped to address concerns on our government’s ability to protect against “cyber security, cyber terrorism, and new forms of cybercrimes like identify theft, breach of confidentiality and leakage of data by intermediaries and e-commerce frauds.”
Considering how increasingly digitized our societies are becoming, the issue of internet security is one the India takes very seriously. Thus, the delegation of the Republic of India believes that to tackle the threats brought by cybercrime, we need to invest in developing nations who are vulnerable to attacks of these kinds. To do so, we need to make sure that they have the knowledge and resources required to make those important moves when those threats inevitably come about. Because of our increased development in our cyber security network, we went from 47th on the Global Cyber Index in 2018 to 10th in 2020.

Country:India
Topic: Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control
Paper text:
India is overall against the long-term harboring of nuclear weapons. We are not entirely for a disarmament policy as a blanket policy for every country, but more so is in support of disarmament policies on a case to case basis. For instance, China and Pakistan are of the greatest concern; for example, Pakistan has been found running nuclear tests in secret.
This is important because nuclear warfare impacts women just as much as men, if not more. Although India has made many strides to promote gender equality, there is still so much work to be done. Women are generally not at the forefront of nuclear weapons plans, policies, or use; yet in some cases disproportionately feel the effects of nuclear warfare. Women are the foundation of Indian homes and caregivers of all citizens. In a perfect world, we would hope to never have to have nuclear weapons, but many of us do. Therefore, women do not often make nuclear policies but they must be considered and protected under them.
One of India’s most successful nuclear policies was the “No-First Use” policy. India has stayed committed to that policy and has not struck nuclear weapons deals without an initiation from another country. But every western Asian country must be just as committed to this policy. It is the responsibility of all of us to maintain our commitments and precautions surrounding nuclear weapons. Countries that have distanced themselves from this policy would be Pakistan. Even though recent escalation, India has not used nuclear weapons, however; Pakistan has. Moving forward it is crucial that Asia and the international community continue to support policies that do not encourage initial nuclear weapon usage without a prior threat. We are beyond the age of completely banning the possession of nuclear weapons, so now we must now hold ourselves and each other accountable.

Country:Indonesia
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:
Since the start of the 21st century, the development of advanced information and communication technologies has led to an interconnected, global community. However, alongside this technological leap forward, there is also a greater threat of devastating, cyber attacks. As governments utilize these information and communication technologies on a daily basis, which often include sensitive material, Indonesia acknowledges that there is a need for cyber protection from not only hackers, but also other states. The wartime capabilities of these technologies also call to attention the necessity for global regulation and restriction; therefore, international law must be changed to effectively regulate state behavior in cyberspace, in order to preserve international peace and security. Indonesia promises to work to find the solutions to these new, and increasingly difficult problems. Additionally, Indonesia will work with the United Nations and the international community to help spread awareness among other member states concerning the role of cyberspace and information security in the context of international law and security. Indonesia stands with other member states and calls for a creation of a programme of action for advancing responsible state behavior in cyberspace.

Country:Indonesia
Topic: Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control
Paper text:
On behalf of Indonesia we acknowledge the importance of complete disarmament and equality between men and women. We stand behind the need to better DDR programs and the urgency of improving reintegration programs, in particular, making these programs meet gender specific needs. Indonesia supports the encouragement of reaching out to those suffering attacks of violence and the use of reintegration programs reaching beyond just the male gender. In addition to the reintegration programs, we expect women to be more involved in the process of disarmament by upholding the Arms Treaty of 2013. Indonesia stands in full support of this treaty and the exploration of ways to further implement it amongst all nations. In order to avoid mass destruction by disarmament, women must be involved in the conversation which is why we encourage all nations to support the equitable representation of women’s voices. Member states should be including the women’s perspective on all decisions including peace negotiations, post conflict reconstruction, and disarmament to prevent further attacks on peace. Women have been disproportionately represented in all decisions by countries failing to meet the United Nations expectations and Indonesia will actively work to change that.

Country:Iran, Islamic Republic of
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:
Iran views cybersecurity as an important national priority. The hacking of our nuclear power plant has made it clear that the establishment of tighter controls is of our vital national security interest. Western powers have made it clear that violations of international law are only truly considered offenses when committed by non-Western powers. If this body truly desires to establish security in the digital world, it is critical that policies and laws be enforced universally, not on a case-by-case basis.
Iran would look favorably upon resolutions which address the criminal use of cyberweapons by governments, such as the criminal attack on Iran by the United States and Israel as related to the Stuxnet worm. In order for justice and the rule of law to be maintained, the international community must address the past wrongdoings of these states and take physical steps to prevent further abuses of power.

Country:Iran, Islamic Republic of
Topic: Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control
Paper text:
The Islamic Republic of Iran regards non-proliferation as an admirable yet impractical idea. The past several years have demonstrated that there is a distinct lack of trust and equity in the international community. The withdrawal of the United States from the nuclear deal into which we entered in good faith is a clear demonstration that Western powers continue to serve only themselves while engaging in neocolonialist behaviors abroad. If any further deals on nuclear non-proliferation are to be made, there must be direct oversight of the deal by the international community, and withdrawal from said agreement cannot be possible.
In accordance with Islamic teachings and our Constitution, the Islamic Republic of Iran believes that men and women are fundamentally equal under the law. Respect must be given to both men and women, and women ought to hold the same rights as men to attend university and serve in public office, rights which we are proud to ensure for our citizens. The delegation of Iran believes that achieving peace and disarmament requires the input of women, and we look forward to welcoming their perspective during the course of debate.

Country:Iraq
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:
As a representative of Iraq, it is in our best interest to support the creation of international laws to regulate state behavior in cyberspace, in order to maintain international peace and security. The use of ICTs has greatly benefited many of our lives, but some seek to use ICTs to benefit their own goals by attacking member nations through the cyber spear. The United Nations must come together to regulate cyberspace, and create international laws that hold member nations accountable for the actions in cyberspace. We are committed to helping build a cyberspace that is safe and secure for all nations, and providing proper education on existing and emerging threats along with the capacity to counter these threats. Educating member nations on ICT is highly important in order to make sure that developments in science and technology are used for the good of all of humankind. The creation of international laws on cyberspace would help bring an end to the hostile attacks on member states' infrastructure such as water supply systems, nuclear power plants, and oil and gas pipelines. We believe that governments must agree to improve regulation on cyberspace between member countries, and improve the tracing of cyber attacks. Civil society organizations will have an important role in helping regulate the actions of member nations in cyberspace. The civil society of the world is oftentimes the main target of crimes that take place in cyberspace. We must ensure the safety of our citizens at home and in cyberspace, whether by better education or security measures. Only together can we hold those accountable who seek to disrupt and threaten our very ways of life. We are committed to creating international laws and regulations that will help maintain international peace and security in the ever expanding cyberspace.

Country:Iraq
Topic: Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control
Paper text:
In terms of the Arms Trade Treaty, Iraq commits to the mission of trading conventional weapons internationally, and as the United Nations (UN), they should uphold that by regulating the imports and exports of all weapons trades, and watch the terrorist groups that exist in Iraq today. There is no doubt that women in and around Iraq will also commit to the disarmament of illicit arms trade due to the sexual violence committed against those same women. The women of Iraq can propose to the UN that the Arms Trade Treaty must prohibit weapon transfers where risk exists. The Charter of the UN reaffirms the equal rights of women and men, and the first step to achieving that in Iraq is though the Arms Trade Treaty. The culture in Iraq has led to a large inequality gap between men and women, however it takes the full participation of both to prevent, combat, and eradicate the illicit transfer of small arms. Iraq is committed to taking measures to ensure nonproliferation and arms control, especially in support of the Iraqi prisoners who were recently tested on with chemical agents. This will require the full participation of the UN Security Council to regulate the arms trade. By Iraq, the UN, and surrounding nations committing to the support of the Arms Trade Treaty, there will be an addition of “international and regional peace, security and stability, reducing human suffering, and promoting cooperation, transparency and responsible action among the international community,” as cited in the 2021 Arms Trade Treaty. The sexual violence, kidnapping, and murdering of women in and around Iraq needs to be stopped through the use of laws and human rights organizations. The years of sanctions, armed conflicts, and political instability have created hard times for Iraqi citizens and we commit to working with surrounding nations and the UN in helping support the systems in place to create peace both nationally and internationally.

Country:Ireland
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:
The world of informational technologies has vastly expanded as society has evolved. Information, in the form of information and communications technology (ICT) has become a staple of the modern world with new impending challenges that have yet to be resolved on a global scale. These ICTs can pose many threats to international security through the breaching of personal information or in situations in which the military is involved. Many attempts have been made to agree to a consensus about the way to deal with international security through cyber systems, however, there has not been a universally wide strategy on how each country should handle the issue of cyber security and their citizens sovereignty. The enforcement of the cyber realm has also previously, and continues today, been a hindrance in the adoption of any cyber arm agreements. Cyber disarmament and an increase in security systems must be maintained as the array of technology continues to expand into various professions that have not had a stake in the past. This broad expansion has the potential to affect the daily activity of many citizens across the country. Therefore, we the Republic of Ireland believe that it is imperative that each country uphold the idea of cyber sovereignty to the extent that it does not interfere with issues of national security. We have long been a safe haven for technology companies and believe that it serves our best interest to continue upholding measures that will protect their interest as much as ours. International laws that curb the advancement of cyber-attacks into the field of personal information should be at the forefront of the direction that governments and countries head in order to prevent concurrent attacks. We are committed to ensuring that our citizens will maintain their level of cyber freedom so that they can enjoy the comforts of technology while also being committed to protect ICTs from international harm and cyber breaches. Moving forward, our country believes that technology will only continue to advance. Acknowledging the potential threats and coming to a consensus will be vital for the global deterrence of a dangerous cyber space relating to technical security.

Country:Ireland
Topic: Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control
Paper text:
With the rise of radical groups with histories of agendas against women, the necessity for states to take a firm stance grows stronger. Since the implementation of S/RES/1325 (An act regarding the inclusion of women in dialogue concerning international conflict), the resolution to include women in international conversations of conflict has proved vitally necessary in the examination of how conflict disproportionately affects women. Despite this, the inclusion of women in this dialogue, particularly those women from states that have been affected by attacks against women, is still lacking and we urge all states participating in the General Assembly to create measurable/attainable goals that will lead to the inclusion of women in research and policy making.
Though the inclusion of women in conversations regarding conflict on the world stage is crucial, that alone is insufficient in making efforts towards ensuring the equity and protection of all populations of women internationally. We uphold the belief that the United Nations must commit to providing aid to those populations women affected by conflict, particularly those who are targeted by governments and radical groups with histories of acts of violence against women. One way in which we strongly urge the General Assembly to help aid these women is through the dispersion of aid to countries with at-risk populations of women. The state of Ireland strongly supports and upholds the resolution of Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women. Additionally, we have gone on to further our partnership and development with UN Women by implementing gender equity at the core of our international development policy, A Better World. We believe that through our policy, we will be able to see continued success in providing gender-equal resolutions and that it may be used to model for future legislation regarding the protection of women

Country:Israel
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:
Israel recognizes the importance of addressing new and immediate threats in the realm of information technology and telecommunications. Emerging cyber threats endanger international security and the global economy, and therefore require a robust security architecture to counter these threats; Especially when dealing with state actors and terrorist organizations sponsoring cyber attacks. As a signatory of the Budapest Convention on Cybercrime, Israel has begun to establish this security architecture. In order to protect the integrity of state sovereignty, responsible states must cooperate to build capacity and knowledge in this field to swiftly respond to infringements by rogue states and non-state actors that threaten global security through information technology and telecommunications infrastructure.

Country:Israel
Topic: Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control
Paper text:
Israel notes the importance of gender equality within the realm of disarmament, non- proliferation, and arms control. To further take a stand on this measure, Israel has allowed all women within the ages of 18 years old to 21 years old to be conscripted into its military under the Equality Amendment of 2000. Women in the Israel Defense Forces take part in a wide variety of roles ranging from combatant to non-combatant positions. Israel's military comprises 33% of female soldiers and 51% female officers. The delegation of Israel also recognizes the significance of non-proliferation and arms control in regards to the safety and security of its citizens and the greater international community. Consequently, the state has signed onto the Chemical Weapons Convention, the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, and the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material to demonstrate its international security cooperation. In addition, Israel is a participant in the Conference on Disarmament showcasing its dedication to preventing arms races and nuclear war in the international community.

Country:Italy
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:
In the midst of the booming era of technological and communicative developments and advancements, with the disbursement of these advancements being intrinsically unequal in their distribution, the international community thus bears the burden of ensuring that the states of this body, regardless of their size and the extent of their resources, have access to the necessary information to provide for their own security. The Italian Republic supports the equitable distribution of such information along regional lines, asserting that this is necessary for the maintenance of cohesion of the international community, allowing for the most free and open flow of information possible amongst these delegations. Recalling the dictates laid out by this council in Resolution A/C.1/73/L.37, The Italian Republic believes it is essential to the maintenance of international peace and the well-being of people around the world that these delegations, with the cooperation of appropriate private institutions, utilize and disseminate information to relevant parties as deemed necessary to prevent conflict from arising. With regular meetings to discuss and decide the extent and scope of the dissemination of such information, these member states may create a free-flowing system that fully utilizes the capabilities of these communicative developments and advancements and further interconnects the states of the international community.

Country:Italy
Topic: Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control
Paper text:
In a world that is becoming increasingly interconnected in almost every aspect of its existence, the need to provide for international security in terms of limiting the possibility for the destructive capabilities of many nuclear arms has never been a more pressing nor relevant issue for the members of this council. Therefore, in service to these ends, The Italian Republic deems it necessary to pursue diplomatic means of settling regional and global disputes that have perpetuated far too long, and in service to these goals, come to conclude discussions on deals of nuclear disarmament, working towards a minimum safe state of non-proliferation as is outlined under Resolution A/C.1/73/L.5. While pursuing this minimum safe state, the Italian Republic asserts that the members of this council must also work towards more secure and lasting measures to ensure our international security, with safeguards in place that provide incentive for disarmament for all involved. Moreover, recognizing the disparate impacts that large-scale and light weapons alike have on women and children, adhering to the prescriptions of Resolution A/C.1/73/L.21, it becomes the duty of this council to limit the scope of these weapons, as well as creating avenues through which women may integrate themselves and therein integrate their ideas into the arena of disarmament and international security. In recognition of this, it then becomes necessary that this council act to these ends to provide for a safe and secure international community in which the threat of mass destruction may not be leveraged for individual purposes.

Country:Japan
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:
The International Community has seen an alarming rise of the malicious use of information and telecommunication technologies to damaging effects. These exploitations are a growing threat to international security and commerce. Japan commends the past work of the United Nations to address this growing concern. Although in the past the International Community has found common ground, no substantial action came of it. However, with the increasingly devastating effects that not addressing cybersecurity threats brings, it is time to collaborate on solutions that all member states can agree upon to ensure international peace and security. Japan looks forward to creating a foundational start to building transparency and cooperation between member states in the field of information and telecommunication technologies. Japan believes this can only happen if there is a globally agreed upon framework for advancing responsible state behaviour in cyberspace. Japan hopes to realize the proposition submitted by Japan and over 40 countries last year to create a Programme of Action for advancing responsible State behaviour in cyberspace with a view to ending the dual track discussions and establishing a permanent UN forum to consider the use of ICTs by States in the context of international security.

Country:Japan
Topic: Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control
Paper text:
Japan strongly agrees with the Secretary General in that the International Community can no longer exclude one half of humanity from international peace and security. The disproportionate effects of armed conflict on women without women’s representation in their national and regional coordination mechanisms on disarmament-related matters stands in the way of not only the United Nations’ goal to achieve gender equality, but also stands in the way of the realization of peaceful societies and building justice for all. The United Nations has previously acknowledged the full and effective participation of both women and men is one of the essential factors for the promotion and attainment of sustainable peace and security. Japan knows this and with the election of a new prime minister earlier this year, a new cabinet has been selected that increases the number of women in cabinet by 50 percent. Japan recommends that fellow member states follow suit and work to increase women’s opportunities to participate in discussions surrounding the fields of disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control to facilitate new perspectives and create long-lasting solutions to these issues as it pertains to gendered violence.

Country:Kuwait
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:
Kuwait firmly supports information and telecommunication technology regulation. Our vision is to protect our and all nations national interests by maintaining a safe and strong cyber space. We have seen the frequency of phishing and ransomware attacks rise dramatically over recent years. As a small nation it might be thought that we would see fewer cyber- attacks than larger countries, but due to the economic value of the region we are prime targets for sophisticated attacks. Strong internet security will allow Kuwait and all other members of this assembly to reach greater social and economic heights. For this to be possible measures must be put in place to ensure and maintain a safe environment. Kuwait believes that an internet without proper regulation would allow these cyber-attacks to continue to propagate. We cannot allow the web to become a new theater of war. Nations have shown that they are capable and willing to launch cyber-attacks against others who are not prepared. Just this June we saw the Southern United States oil supply crippled as a result of a single ransomware attack. In our evermore interconnected world, the need to protect all nations is clear. Kuwait would propose that this committee build an international internet security framework for both government agencies and those in the private sector. It should be a security structure that would first promote a culture of cyber security and provide training to employees to understand and avoid attacks, secondly it should protect, monitor, and regulate critical internet infrastructure and communication networks, and thirdly encourage cooperation and sharing of information in the context of cyber security.

Country:Kuwait
Topic: Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control
Paper text:
With the recent hostile takeover of Afghanistan, the increasing hostility between Israel and Palestine, and uncertainty in Syria, the demilitarization of national entities would be a travesty this day in age. United defense agreements between nations to protect trade and increase security in turbulent areas would benefit the world far more than reducing nations ability to protect international interests. The focus of any arms control that would take place in the world should be on the reduction and limit of arms sales between nations. The increase in limitations on bulk sale of weapons systems, and the increased taxation of their import would decrease the amount of arms a third party would gain access to. It is Kuwait's position to decrease the trade of arms around the world and to increase the united response of nations to crises both natural and man-made. Kuwait proposes two things. Firstly, we heavily recommend the strengthening of collective security agreements throughout the world. We as a nation have dedicated a large portion of our foreign relations activity to ensuring our nation’s security by way of multiple agreements with the United States, Great Britain, France, Russia, and China (PRC). We believe that with a bolstering of the United Nations peacekeeping abilities, they will be able to mature into a force capable of achieving their namesake: keeping peace in war-torn areas and allowing for the resumption of civilian activities without fear of danger. Secondly, we strongly advocate for a comprehensive arms control regime that will regulate the sales of arms between nations. This will reduce the amount of arms any form of independent hostile parties would be able to gain access to and would serve to significantly bolster international security. We also call on nations to respect arms embargoes against nations that have been deemed a threat to international security, as long as that embargo was passed with the consent of a majority of world nations.

Country:Luxembourg
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:
The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg remains vigilant on the vast new world of information and telecommunications. With the rise of digital warfare and cyberattacks, the Luxembourg Directorate of Defense in cooperation with the NSPA (NATO Support and Procurement Agency) seek to meet the challenges of these unprecedented times. It’s within the best interests of this Assembly to be on the forefront of maintaining a steadfast network of communications in the field. The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg will support all recommendations made by the Committee that help strengthen and maintain a more inclusive, ethical, and transparent world. The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg supports sanctions against nations that refuse transparency in communications. Make no mistake, the world is at a telecommunications crossroads and facing imminent danger that threatens global peace. The threat of cyber-attacks and the sabotage of information is real. The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg urges this Assembly to adopt strong positions to help mitigate these dangers and to ensure greater cybersecurity throughout the world.

Country:Luxembourg
Topic: Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control
Paper text:
The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg has always been a supporter of disarmament, non- proliferation and arms control. Since the 1925 Geneva Protocol, the will of Luxembourg citizens is to limit and end any conflict in the world. The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, will support recommendations put forth by the committee that serves to prevent any hostile events from occurring. This Committee must reaffirm its commitment to resolution 2427 in protecting children from war zones and preventing them access to weapons. The Committee must also reaffirm its commitment to resolution 2242 in having women play key roles in peacekeeping missions. We live in a modern world in which a person’s gender shall not be a tool of discrimination. With the world’s most deadly and catastrophic war (WW2) still within living memory, it is not wise, nor is it right for the sake of humanity, to escalate global tensions. The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg supports sanctions against any nation that continues to undermine world peace. We know that the recent buildup of military forces around the world is of great concern for this Committee. In 1991 the cold war ended subsequent to the fall of the Iron curtain. Sadly, it appears that once again, the world is falling back into darker times. We should not and simply cannot abandon all the progress this Committee has made since the end of the cold war. As world leaders navigate diplomacy in the Middle East, it would not be within the best interest of humanity to maintain or increase military arms to reflect resolve. Instead, the Committee should seek new resolutions in disarmament and preserve global peace.

Country:Malaysia
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:
With the turn of the century, the internet’s rise to prominence also brought cybercrime with it. Today, cyberattacks from nation states are a common weapon used maliciously to gain access to state secrets, nuclear plants, confidential voter information, and more. The potential for global disaster as a result of bad-natured cyberspace actions is the main driver in the need for a comprehensive mass cyber disarmament treaty. The delegation of Malaysia has taken the stance to defend Malaysia’s sovereignty against all attacks that threaten it and its territorial integrity. The key objectives needed to maintain peace within this cyber world have been formulated into five strategic categories that will set the status quo in Malaysia until 2024.The five strategic categories are: effective governance and management; strengthening legislative framework and enforcement; catalyzing world class innovation, technology, R&D and industry; enhancing capacity and capability building, awareness and education; strengthening global collaboration.
The delegation of Malaysia calls on large nation states to sign onto the adoption of a new international legal regime for the cyberspace to help monitor and fight crime and threats on all fronts. In addition to this, Malaysia calls on all nations to help strengthen international deterrence policy through the development and distribution of new technologies to fight both individuals and nation states acting with malicious intent. Lastly, Malaysia sees the value in helping other small countries develop cybersecurity infrastructure to protect sovereignty and integrity at all levels.

Country:Malaysia
Topic: Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control
Paper text:
According to the Internal Displacement Monitoring Center (IDMC), half of the world’s 41 million refugees are women. This data excludes four countries of ten with the largest internally displaced populations due to absence of data and reporting indicating that the actual value is much higher. Malaysia condemns all violence against women. Although violent disruptive conflicts plague many countries, Malaysia does not bear this issue. Malaysia supports the endeavours of the UN through the Gender Action Plan adopted by the Office of Disarmament in 2003 to facilitate collective disarmament.
Malaysia continues to make strides in affording women the opportunities to be active members of peace negotiations, humanitarian planning, and post-conflict peacebuilding through educational and financial support to both the UN and ASEAN. At an international level, Malaysian membership with ASEAN promotes these goals through the Joint Statement on Promoting Women, Peace and Security adopted in 2017 and the current development of a new Regional Plan of Action on Women, Peace and Security for 2021- 2022. While reaffirming Malaysian commitment to the UN’s Women, Peace, and Security Agenda, the Joint Statement recognizes the disparate effects violence has on women both directly and indirectly.
The delegation of Malaysia encourages member states to contribute financially to outreach operations that would be centered around recruiting women for Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration (DDR) programs as registration poses a barrier. With greater input from women, the delegation of Malaysia speculates that roles in peacebuilding will also rise. Support must also extend to each nation’s education sector to fight gender- based norms that pervade individual autonomy. The delegation of Malaysia also asks member states to contribute financially to help more fragile states in this task. Ensuring the safety of women through the eradication of gender-based violence and through disarmament should be a priority for UN member states in this decade.

Country:Marshall Islands
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:
According to the United Nations, disarmament is defined as "the balanced reduction of armed forces and of conventional armaments, based on the principle of undiminished security of the parties with a view to promoting or enhancing stability at a lower military level, taking into account the need of all States to protect their security." Committing to disarmament is crucial for international security, and heavily militarized states must take steps to reduce their armaments and armed forces in order to diminish the threat that they will be used against other states. Disarmament not only impacts individual state leaders who must make the decision to reduce the military the capability of their country, but it also impacts the general citizenry who would be drafted, displaced, or even killed if their country went to war. This is especially true in reference to nuclear disarmament, as the use of nuclear weapons has wide-ranging and long- lasting effects which are not limited to the country the nuclear weapon is used against.

Country:Marshall Islands
Topic: Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control
Paper text:
The cornerstone policy concerning disarmament is the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), the goal of which is to "further the goal of achieving nuclear disarmament and general and complete disarmament". The NPT, adopted in 1970, has 93 signatories and a safeguard system monitored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons (I.C.A.N.) has been a historically important grassroots organization calling for disarmament, and is involved with around 100 different countries and has received Nobel Peace Prizes for its work.
The Marshall Islands has been severely impacted by nuclear arms proliferation, as it served as a testing site for U.S. nuclear weapons from 1946 to 1958. Between these years, the U.S. tested 67 nuclear weapons with payloads 1,000 times that of the nuclear bomb dropped on Hiroshima. Parts of the Marshall Islands remain uninhabitable because of radiation, and Marshallese people suffer from high cancer rates as well as large numbers of birth defects.
Republic of the Marshall Islands calls on U.N. member states to ratify the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). The treaty has not yet entered force because eight of the 44 countries that need to ratify it have not, one of which is the United States. From the U.S. specifically, the Marshall Islands would like a formal, presidential apology, as well as aid to help the Marshall Islands manage the negative effects that the nuclear testing continues to cause. These funds would specifically go to environmental clean-up measures, as well as the Marshallese healthcare system.

Country:Mexico
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:
Over the past hundred years, technology has evolved rapidly, with the international community being more connected than ever before. However, with these advancements have come new dangers and threats to international security. These advancements have allowed bad actors to target both states and vulnerable populations within States. Cybersecurity, sustainability, and resilience are necessary not only for the safekeeping of the international community, but they are also important factors in the social and economic development of States. We acknowledge the presence of barriers that States face with the development in the field of information and telecommunications.
One such barrier is the fact that many States do not have up to date infrastructure that can fight bad actors and protect their interests. However, it is important to strike a balance between national security concerns with defense and intelligence extensions and protecting privacy rights, freedom of expression and association of citizens. The delegation of Mexico is eager to work with Member States that want to protect international security, but not at the risk of national sovereignty.

Country:Mexico
Topic: Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control
Paper text:
The process of disarmament impacts women in ways that have only become a part of the conversation in recent years. Nuclear arms and armed conflict disproportionately affects women in nuanced ways, and the United Nations and the international community has taken steps to allow a gendered perspective to guide discussions and decision-making. This includes but is not limited to the United Nations Programme of Action in 2001, the Gender Action Plan drafted in 2003, and Articles 6 and 7 under the Arms Trade Treaty. The delegation of Mexico recognizes that while these documents have been key in taking steps towards including women in talks of conflict-resolution and have allowed for more women to advocate for gender mainstreaming, the participation of women still falls short, especially in Disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR) programs.
The delegation of Mexico suggests two solutions to be able to navigate these issues. First, the delegation suggests the creation of an international summit that would allow women in decision-making positions to be able to speak on the issue of disarmament and encourage other women to enter the field of discussion. This would be one way out of many towards achieving Sub-Goal 4 of the Gender Action Plan - “support equitable participation in disarmament discussions.” Secondly, the delegation of Mexico offers that the body develop a list of recommendations that would highlight the importance of including gendered perspectives on disarmament in committees outside of the Security Council and the General Assembly. Only when gender mainstreaming is accomplished can we hope to see a change in policy-making.
This delegation looks forward to working with other Member States in tackling these issues in a sustainable manner.

Country:Mongolia
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:
Mongolia enjoys strong diplomatic partnerships with states that come down on all sides of cybersecurity issues. Our longest-standing strategic partnership is with the Russian Federation, but we also enjoy strong partnerships with The People’s Republic of China and the United States. However, Mongolia has also pursued a third neighbor policy, making bilateral agreements with the United States, Japan, Australia, and the EU. Due to our neutral nature, and our increasingly strong partnerships with the Russian Federation, The People’s Republic of China, and the NATO alliance, we are in an excellent position to work with all member-states to reach compromises on all outstanding issues relating to cybersecurity. Our second priority will be to secure capacity- building aid and support for smaller states like us, who have been unfairly targeted by cyberattacks in the past.
Mongolia supports the application of international law in cybersecurity. Additionally, we agree with the past positions of the Russian Federation and The People’s Republic of China on updating existing international law to better deal with cyberwarfare. Our policy is that cyberattacks are acts of war that should provoke retaliation from affected states. At the conference, we will move to keep the Open-Ended Working Group (OEWG) as the primary deliberative body for this issue, over another Group of Governmental Experts (GGE). We will not support the new Programme of Action brought forward by several states in 2020 on ICTs until there can be a broader consensus on the programme. Building up ICT technology and data security, with the knowledge and financial support from more developed nations, is a priority for us. Finally, resolutions in the past have lacked appropriate accountability measures. We will support resolutions to add accountability measures in the future.

Country:Mongolia
Topic: Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control
Paper text:
Mongolia will seek to play a supportive and conciliatory role during the conference on the issue of Women and Disarmament. Our first priority is to secure international support and aid for small states’ capacity to empower women, reduce gender-based violence, and meet international agreements. Our second priority is, out of a genuine concern for conflict-ridden states, to improve the ability of United Nations Demobilization, Disarmament and Reintegration (DDR) programs to address gender-specific needs of women and girls and reduce armament and conflict.
First, we will work to ratify the Arms Trade Treaty (ATT), while simultaneously working for aid to meet the financial and administrative demands of the ATT. Mongolia, like many smaller states, has interests perfectly in-sync with the goals of the ATT; however, we do not possess enough administrative resources to implement the treaty fully within our territory. To fulfill the ideals of the ATT, we believe that larger states should be willing to support capacity-building measures and aid to smaller states who share those ideals and goals like Mongolia. Mongolia will also seek to cooperate with the Secretary-General and member-states on improving sex-disaggregated data to inform policy both domestically and internationally. Through our support of Resolution 75/48, and other First Committee Resolutions on Women, Disarmament, Arms Control and Non- Proliferation, Mongolia is fully committed to stronger United Nations efforts toward studying the relationship between armament and violence against women. Mongolia has also contributed greatly to United Nations peacekeeping operations such as DDR programs. We will seek to improve DDR programs because we believe in the value they bring to conflict-ridden societies everywhere. Finally, Mongolia will seek to address the gendered needs of women—especially rural women and girls suffering through violence and trauma.

Country:Myanmar
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:
Let us begin by saying that Myanmar’s previous government joined the international Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons in 1992, and the nation of Myanmar is still a part of this treaty in its aspirations to promote disarmament and non-proliferation of these weapons of mass destruction. All sovereign nations should be allowed to pursue their own interests, and it is in the interest of every nation to have less nuclear weapons in the world. When speaking on the topic of the pursuit of one’s interests, one must remember that every nation should also be able to defend those interests and their sovereignty, something the nation of Myanmar and its delegates wholeheartedly as well. When asked about the greatest changes to our world in the last twenty years, my delegation agrees that chief among them are the advancements that have been made, for better or worse, in the proliferation and manipulation of information technology and its effect on telecommunications. With the unprecedented anonymity that comes with the internet, misinformation and malicious intent in its uncountable servers has thrived, peddling in distrust and fear to break down the relationships between fellow countrymen. So malignant has this threat become in some instances however, that it has even begun gnawing away at the relationships of nations, fellow constituents here at this assembly, exacerbated by the fact that many nations have already taken steps to weaponize this misinformation in the pursuit of their own interests. So virulent is this new strain of thinking where distrust is the status quo, brought about by misinformation, that fear mongers have been running rampant through Myanmar. The lies that have been brought to the ears of our people by a radical and misled minority have the potential to destabilize an entire country in its most important and transformative years. This is no doubt the desire of these radicals, but the steps necessary to combat this new threat have been taken in Myanmar. When deliberating on the topic of information, all nations should realize that we must first deliberate on cybersecurity, and the hope of this delegation is to introduce discussion on how best to create rules of engagement in cyberwarfare that can be enforced, as well as to discuss ways in which to promote secure and reliable sources of information and punish those who would strive to create unreliable sources of information or take advantage of neglected systems.

Country:Namibia
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:
Namibia, being a developing nation, values cyber security issues. The nation believes that the future of the internet and ICT is quickly developing and does not want to be left behind by other nations. Namibia seeks to participate in security aid and policy creation, thus ensuring that cyber security and information safety are maintained globally. The government and the world greatly depend on information and communication technology to carry out government commerce, banking, and trade activities. Furthermore, other activities such as information storage and connecting with family and friends are also greatly dependent on ICT. The United Nations has utilized ICT and other government agencies as a peace and security tool. The UN has also looked at how to develop cyber security. In 1998 the UN first addressed the issue of cyber security after Russia had addressed the agenda to the committee. Member States were called upon to provide reports on their stand on Information and Cyber Safety by Resolution A/RES/53/70.

Country:Namibia
Topic: Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control
Paper text:
Namibia believes that the non-discriminative implementation of the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty is vital in achieving disarmament. Namibia also supports adopting the International Court of Justice advisory opinion that nuclear weapons are against international law. Over the years, the number of women taking part in arms control, non-proliferation, and disarmament has steadily increased in Namibia. The topic is directly essential to this United Nations committee since it is directly associated with security and weapons of mass destruction. Further, security issues are a global concern. The first committee is responsible for making recommendations and policies concerning the safe and proper disposal of weapons. Since safe disposal of weapons affects peace and is a worldwide concern, the committee gives vital advice on handling safety matters to the Security Council.

Country:Nepal
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:
The Republic of Nepal stands in strong affirmation of the notion to increase policy initiatives with the motives of increasing cyber security on a global scale. Currently, enforcement of international cyber security is not the top priority of many nations; this must change. Yearly Group of Government Experts (GGE) meetings are not as effective as they should be, due to the lack of policy action and enforcement. As the cyber world develops, our action and oversight in cyber security must improve as well. More participation from states not involved in GGE meetings is needed, and will greatly increase the proliferation of the spread of awareness of cyber security and the dangers of cyberattacks. Expanding current funding in ICT’s and the creation of more programs that require the use of ICTs will greatly impact every state. Quotas should be made to meet certain standards in the GCI (Global Cybersecurity Index). More observation on every state's score and the enforcement of these quotas will ensure more cyber security policy actions to be made in the future. The problem with the 2001 Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons was there were no formal mechanisms through which states had the ability to monitor the transferring of Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALW). Countries more susceptible to the violence that SALW brings, such as The Republic of Nepal, will benefit greatly from a monitored council that’s mission is to protect the states a part of the committee. Although past programs had little to no success, a program being established in the present with the motives of enforcing the monitoring of countries’ transfer of weapons is a positive step forward. The enactment of a monitoring program will better benefit states affected by arms trafficking and will ensure a safer world for all states.

Country:Nepal
Topic: Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control
Paper text:
Unregulated and irresponsible arms trade has led to regional instability, facilitation of human rights abuses, and the hindering of social and economic development. Thus, The Republic of Nepal signed on to the Arms Trade Treaty to regulate international trade of domestic arms. Proper domestic arms use will reduce the chance that arms will be used violently against women which promotes regional stability. Furthermore, The Republic of Nepal’s constitution reaffirms women’s rights and guarantees equality for women. For example, The Republic of Nepal is working on integrating women into jobs of peace and security in the region. Specifically, disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) processes are being taken to help female ex-combatants. These programs help smoothly integrate women socially and economically as they leave the structure of the military. Thus, Member States without DDR programs should implement them. Moreover, DDR programs could be improved by being more inclusive. For example, a more expansive definition of women who can access these programs would result in positive benefits for society. Furthermore, they should recognize that women and men experience combat differently and that reconciliation is crucial in any reintegration program.

Country:New Zealand
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:
New Zealand is deeply disturbed with what many democracies are focusing on for the future of International Security. Believing the threats of the future to be in cyberspace and cyber communications. Reviewing the advances in technology in our democracies opposed to other non democratic states we are confident we need to focus our attention on the advancement in 5G, Artificial Intelligence, Quantum Computing and Semiconductors. International Security is in jeopardy if we fall behind and are not able to regulate the access that is available to states with advanced technology. New Zealand intends to push an act to regulate cyberspace, the first committee asks that there be increased funding for international Police. The funding will go towards cybersecurity in hopes of policing cyberspace and making firm international law in the world of cyberspace. The International laws should be focused on preserving the peace and function of cyberspace as it is essential to the world economy and world peace. To increase the knowledge and advancement we must fund technology corporations that share democratic values. We look at the 2001 programme to prevent, combat and eradicate the illicit trade of small arms and light weapons in all aspects. This programme made it possible to track small arms and light weapons if they were to be illegally traded. Making a programme similar but with the focus on cybersecurity we will see a more peaceful and prosperous future.

Country:New Zealand
Topic: Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control
Paper text:
New Zealand is alarmed with the increasing threat in which crimes against women are happening and the rate at which they are reported. Women have long been essential to the UN and so we call upon the Security Council to focus on bringing justice to women and put forth effort to encourage women to come forth and report said crimes. The Security Council adopted resolution (S/RES/1325) this resolution ensured the place women have in the international Relations especially in the places such as conflict resolution, peacekeeping and important humanitarian problems. The resolution also called to “ take special measures to protect women and girls from gender-based violence, particularly rape and other forms of sexual abuse, in situations of armed conflict” (S/RES/1325). In regard to disarmament, we should measure the amount of military forces each state needs in comparison to their vulnerability to an attack and then regulate each as necessary. New Zealand believes some states have lost focus on the importance of diplomacy in the race of arms control and power. We must increase security and be stricter in the face of unprovoked attacks and decrease the chance of nuclear warfare with the defunding of nuclear weapons internationally and putting that money towards education for developing countries. Many member states put billions into the study and usage of nuclear weapons. New Zealand believes that this money would be better spent in the advancement of education in developing countries which will lead to their advancement as a state and place internationally. We believe that the more countries that can benefit from our organizations we will acquire more allies and voices for the future of international relations.

Country:Nicaragua
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:
The topic of cybersecurity is a fairly recent one that the United Nations has confronted, with it only just being added to the agenda of the General Assembly First Committee in 1998; since then, however, the topic has gained greater significance, especially in the realm of international security, as information and telecommunications not only advanced rapidly in the years since the start of the new millennium, but new methods to utilize such technologies for malicious purposes developed alongside them. Concerned by the threats posed to their security through cyberspace, States pushed for the establishment of several Groups of Governmental Experts (GGEs) and an Open-Ended Working Group (OEWG) to discuss the applicability of international law to cyberspace and the establishment of norms for States to adhere to when using or developing information and communication technology. The government of Nicaragua is committed to use of information and telecommunication technology to not only assist in social and economic development within and between States, but also to assist in creating and maintaining international peace and security, as we have demonstrated in our recent agreement with the Russian Federation on this topic, as well as with our participation in the previous Open-Ended Working Group on the topic. We denounce the use of this technology for malicious acts against the sovereignty of States and we encourage all members within the United Nations to come together in the second Open-Ended Working Group set to start this year and finally establish a set of norms and regulations to “disarm” cyberspace and ensure professional usage of it by States as they interact with each other.

Country:Nicaragua
Topic: Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control
Paper text:
Since the middle of the Cold War, much progress has been made on not only the topic of disarmament and arms control, but also in examining the effects that war have on women, with such breakthroughs as the Strategic Arms Limitations Talks (SALT) and the two Strategic Arms Reduction Treaties for the former, and the passing of the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women and the Gender Action Plan for the latter. However, in recent years, geopolitical tensions amongst nuclear powers have seen a number of treaties related to disarmament either being abandoned or thrown into question, while States that had previously not been nuclear powers either seek to or have acquired this technology themselves; additionally, although resolutions and treaties passed within the United Nations such as the Arms Trade Treaty have pushed for greater gender equality in terms of female participation in disarmament, arms control and peace negotiations, progress is still rather slow among Member States to ensure full gender equality on the topic. To this end, the government of Nicaragua reaffirms its commitment to total nuclear disarmament of the world and encourages other States to do so as well. We stand by our decision to sign the Treaty of the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons brought forth to the General Assembly and encourage any State that has yet signed or ratified the treaty to do so, especially the major nuclear powers of the world. We believe that this issue can only be solved through diplomacy and dialogue between nations, rather than through brinkmanship and saber-rattling; all nuclear powers of the world- rather than just the two largest powers- must come together and formulate a clear and concise plan to reduce their nuclear arsenals over the coming years, if not to completely eliminate them. Additionally, Nicaragua recognizes the need for greater gender equality on the matter of disarmament and arms control, as too many of our own women are the victims of street violence and conflict between security forces and drug cartels; therefore, as we take action in our own country through programs such as our “Rhetoric to Reality” program, we also urge Member States to reaffirm their commitments to resolutions and treaties passed within the General Assembly to ensure full gender equality in matter such as disarmament and arms control.

Country:Niger
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:
As a nation struggling with poverty, our government lost billions of dollars to financial hackers. This money was going to be used to help protect our citizens to develop infrastructure, but sadly the money was stolen, and our nation continues to be affected by this day. As a nation that has suffered various cyber-attacks across our government servers, Niger has created the Cybersecurity Department, as a response to cyber incidences and breaches (NITDA). This initiative was created to stop financial breaches and protect the security and privacy of our citizens and government (NITDA). We still have many goals to help secure our country’s future, but we are unable to reach this objective due to financial constraints. We believe it is necessary for other nations to join this initiative to create guidelines and standards to help protect the cyber world online internationally (NITDA). There must be international laws to standardize the cyber world and its securities, to help protect everyone. Niger can provide intellect for standards that can be created for all nations, but we must receive funding to further expand cybersecurity across our nation. Our nation has a wide range of qualified workers to develop MDAs to counteract threats in the cyberspace. Working with other nations will allow us to create an international database to help keep cyberspace standardized (NITDA). We have already done this state-wide through our Cybersecurity Department, and it has proven effective. We have countered thousands of potential cyber threats to our nation and our citizens.

Country:Norway
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:
Norway would like to acknowledge the increasing global effect of technology on the daily lives of governments and the citizens they govern. Norway is in support of using technology to promote peace and safety for all. Norway has supported the Strategy for the Digital Transformation of Peacekeeping in their efforts to improve the way technology has been used to promote peace. Norway also supports the Department of Peace Operations through funding in their pursuit to use technology to protect civilians by the United nations. Norway would also like to draw attention to the rise of cyber-attacks over recent years. Cyber attacks pose a serious threat to safety and freedom and need to be addresses. Norway calls for open discussion on the current impacts and potential for future issues regarding this field.

Country:Norway
Topic: Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control
Paper text:
Norway believes that making the world a safer place must be a priority and that discussion must continue in good faith. Norway believes that more should be done to regulate illegal arms trade. Women are disproportionately affected by violent conflict in war torn areas. Norway would like to empower the security council to address this issue with diligence. Norway also recognizes the affect armed conflict can have on children. One way this occurs is through attacks on education. In war torn areas children and women are persecuted for trying to get an education. In order to combat this Norway calls for support of the Global Coalition to Protection Education from Attack (GCPEA) in their efforts to combat violence against education and the children and women that are affected by it.

Country:Pakistan
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:
Pakistan is no stranger to the dangers of the cyber world, with the state having numerous attacks in the past years that have released private information of the people and put said individuals in danger. The delegation of Pakistan understands the safety assistance that ICTs provide a state in terms of international security, especially in this technological advancing age, however the dangers that it brings with cyber attacks and other such threats must be taken into high consideration moving forward. The delegation would also like to state Pakistan’s support towards the GGE and OEWG and their importance towards the discussion of international security. At this time, the delegation feels that the GGE and the OEWG should put forth outcomes that help improve the security of states through technological means, such as suggesting for the UN to adopt rules that would regulate a state’s behavior on the use of ICTs as well as coming to an agreement about adopting a platform that promotes cooperation for assisting other states in cyber security. The delegation feels that more prominent action from the participants is the best way to promote the safety of not only our state, but also every country involved in the UN.

Country:Pakistan
Topic: Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control
Paper text:
Pakistan is no stranger to armed conflicts. Our neighbors have been both friends and enemies. Immediately following the inception of the state of Pakistan in 1947, Pakistan experienced its first war as a United Nations recognized state with the state of India. During this and the subsequent three wars with India, Pakistan has learned the brutality of these conflicts. After the riots following the partition of Punjab Province, it is estimated that fifty thousand Muslim women were raped by Hindu and Sikh men. Additionally, roughly thirty-three thousand Hindu women were raped during this conflict. The human toll on lives from this conflict was also immense, ranging from estimates of hundreds of thousands to two-million lives lost in the form of religious genocide. In the Aftermath of the cold war, tensions with the state of India have persisted and are still critical.
We the delegation from Pakistan see the present and future security of our state as a matter of the utmost importance. Consequently, the topics of disarmament, non-proliferation, arms control, and women are all salient matters of discussion in the context of global security. While disarmament seems like an ideal solution, we are not living in an ideal world. Pakistan sees our nuclear weapons program as first and foremost a method of deterrence from other states that wish to infringe on the sovereign territory or do us harm. Pakistan will maintain its policy of Minimum Credible Deterrence (MCD) as a method to ensure that other states do not wage war against Pakistan or attempt to annex our rightful territory. Minimum Credible Deterrence allows for our state to deter threats of violence and war from neighboring states while maintaining the minimum amount of nuclear weapons necessary and stipulating a no-first-use policy.
The delegation of Pakistan at this time is not open to disarming out of fear of other Member states’ unwillingness to disarm and out of general concern for the safety of our people. Pakistan would also be willing to discuss the validity and importance of arms control in the global context. While Pakistan has not ratified the Nuclear Proliferation Treaty of 1968, this delegation feels that Minimum Credible Deterrence is necessary for the well-being and safety of our citizens and would be supportive of allied states implementing similar policies. In addition, the topic of women in global security is especially paramount. The Islamic Republic of Pakistan’s constitution proclaims Islam as the official state religion. As such, the delegation of Pakistan echoes support and advocacy for the safety of all women and their rights to practice Islam.

Country:Palestine (Observer)
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:
Since the end of World War II and establishment of UN, the international community has seen a new era with rising technologies and infrastructures. On the other side, the uneven rise of cyber power and deprive of access to better information and communication technologies has hindered the peace in many parts of the globe. The State of Palestine strongly wishes that UN and all states work to help nations develop their technologies to protect information and promote peace and security. This work’s first major step would be to facilitate states with advance technological resources which enables complete surveillance of the flow of digital information within the states, as well as surveillance of the information flow across the states. This strong surveillance, in addition to active monitorization, strong firewalls, and advance intrusion detection systems, can tremendously help in reducing the threats and violence spread through the digital world. The State of Palestine also support and strongly encourages other states to support the UN initiative of Group of Governmental Experts (GGE) and Open-Ended Working Group (OEWG) to apply the international law in cyber space with various adaptations. The most important adaptations needed, but not limited, in the international law for secure cyberspace are nonintervention in other state’s digital space, common understanding of coercion and consequences, strategic detection of exploitations followed by patching the vulnerabilities in states’ information systems. The State of Palestine believes in the changes from this work and is willing to work with states make the digital space secure and fights threats that disturbs the peace.

Country:Palestine (Observer)
Topic: Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control
Paper text:
The State of Palestine firmly believe in the urgency of working to curb the illicit traffic in arms as well as supporting the states in need. Moreover, we wish to stress the need of the full collaboration and engagement of the members from international community in this matter. Many states have developed and prospered with peace, development, and growth after World War II. While other states moved forward in peace, many states were faced with devastating and adverse war due to regional, governmental, and other conflicts. The State of Palestine has been continuously trying to restructure and reform government and the nation to bring peace and development in our nation, but the violence and armed conflicts in State of Palestine as well as with other conflicted states has pushed peace and development further and further away from us. Changes and cooperation are needed for the control of arms traffic to reduce possible violence and adverse consequences from armed conflicts. In mere of the cooperation for the change, we are in favor of a strict adherence to the regulations regarding the checking and licensing of parties seeking to purchase weapons or weapons-based technologies. In addition, we are committed to seeing weapons transactions across international borders made public and records of those transactions readily available. Despite UN resolutions led to creation of UN Register of Conventional Arms (UNRCA), states have repeatedly moved forward without notifying this register when accessing or destroying arms. Palestine strongly supports and encourage other members to support and participate in the improvement of bodies like UNRCA. If we want to see the world in peace, we want to control the arms that brings adverse fatalities and violence.

Country:Peru
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:
Being a smaller country and on top of that being a smaller country in South America has its disadvantages. As the third most cyber-attacked country in South America, this hostility towards us has been extremely harmful. 4.7 billion attacks as of September 2021 towards our country are outlandish. The question arises on how the enforcement of international law be changed to effectively regulate state behavior in cyberspace and preserve international peace and security. Cyber warfare is to be deemed on par with damage created to small scale arms and other warfare in general. The issue with cyber warfare is that the global South has a severe disadvantage to its Northern counterparts and would cause exponentially more harm to global Southern countries than the global North. Our thoughts on what lessons from the 2001 Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons can be applied to a new Programme of Action on cyberspace is that the international community should reduce their hold on cyber weapons and cyberwarfare as it can cause damage on par with weapons such as small arms as many countries are already reducing their armaments worldwide. Likewise, on the worldwide scale, the UN should enforce the buildup of cybersecurity defenses, in specific on the global South. On top of this the UN should continue to enforce the tracing of small arms and light weapons as many weapons are smuggled mainly from Colombia and other countries in South America. We as a country are not focused on the international level risk of arms used due to our own people fighting against our government. In all honesty in reference to the Arms Trade Treaty, we as a country do not believe it to be a significant issue as we have worked with the United Nations Regional Centre for Peace, Disarmament and Development in Latin America and the Caribbean (UNLIREC), in cooperation with the National Regulatory Entity for Security Services, Firearms, Ammunition and Explosives for Civil Use (SUCAMEC) of Peru.

Country:Peru
Topic: Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control
Paper text:
Women's participation must be increased in the United Nations and Member States in the field of disarmament and be prioritized in the education systems of underdeveloped countries and in doing so will create a more educated generation of women to push for participation in not just the UN but world governments in general. On 11 December 2020, the United Nations Regional Centre for Peace, Disarmament and Development in Latin America and the Caribbean (UNLIREC) held a Virtual Conference with young people and students, entitled “Inspiring a new generation of youth: women leaders in disarmament share their experiences, challenges and recommendations with future generations”. This is significant because this has helped pushed our notion for a more diverse and equitable Latin America and shows that our younger generations are striving for this change. “Forces of Change III: Latin American and Caribbean Women Share Experiences on Disarmament, Security and SDG Implementation”, a publication by UNLIREC and the third edition of an innovative initiative highlighting the role of women as agents of change in the field of disarmament, arms control, and non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction in Latin America and the Caribbean. Having women included and start their own programs/events such as the one stated before help not just us but Member States as well to push women into accessing DDR programs.(Disarmament, Demobilization,and Reintegration).

Country:Philippines
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:
The International Community, in recent years, has seen both the frequency and profile of attacks in the information and telecommunications space rise. Disturbingly just between 2019 and 2020, ransomware attacks rose by 62 percent (Jeffery 1). The Philippines understands this topic to be a very urgent international security concern for protecting the nation's critical infrastructure and the prevention of information manipulation (Peñaranda 1). Unfortunately, the Philippines has a firsthand experience with this issue after our government websites were subject to hacking and defacement attempts in 2016 (Peñaranda 1). So, to create and maintain world peace and stability, the Philippines believes that this process begins at home (Natividad 1). The Philippines, like many other states, has adopted goals and taken measures to increase its security in the telecommunications sphere. The Philippines' four primary goals include maintaining continuous operation of critical infrastructure, cyber resilience, coordination with law enforcement, and having a cybersecurity-educated society (National Cybersecurity Plan 2022). At the international level, the Philippines encourages international and regional cooperation, working with industry and academic leaders, and implementing existing norms from previous UN efforts (Azucena 1). However, as Philippine Delegate Ericka Abad notes, the need "to be guided by the requisites of state sovereignty and the imperatives of domestic laws when considering a binding instrument on cybersecurity" (Peñaranda 1). Nevertheless, the Philippines remains supportive of the work done to address this issue, such as in the Open-Ended Working Group (OEWG) and is pleased with the level of participation that has been exhibited so far.

Country:Philippines
Topic: Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control
Paper text:
The Philippines takes the importance of building trust and confidence in matters of disarmament and non-proliferation seriously. Unfortunately, "The global health crisis is setting back our efforts in disarmament and non-proliferation," which only complicates the global security environment (Manalo 1). Therefore, The Philippines continues to support bringing to bear the full force of the law to end the flow of illicit weapons along with continuing work in the sphere of non-proliferation and disarmament (Del Rosario 1). The Philippines shall continue its path towards these goals by highlighting women's roles in shaping the narrative of these issues (Rosario, " The Philippines " 1). This goal will be achieved through the continued implementation of CEDAW and Goal 5 of the Millennium Development Goals (Rosario "The Philippines" 1). Eventually, we aim to surpass the 10% and 20% deployment target for women in our troops and police (Rosario "H.E. Albert" 1). Additionally, the Philippines was the first in the Asia – Pacific region to produce a National Action Plan on women, known as the Magna Carta of Women (Yparraguirre 1). Therefore, with firm commitments to disarmament and non-proliferation coupled with the indispensable role of women, the promotion of a robust, peaceful, and prosperous world can be achieved.

Country:Poland
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:
As of recent years, telecommunications and information sharing have shown themselves to have a very real impact on a nation’s national security and ability to maintain internal stability and security for its citizens. This is a major concern for Poland, in no small part due to having one of the largest telecommunication networks in Europe. The Republic of Poland is confident that the best solution to tackling the impact telecommunications has in the modern world is to be directly involved in combating this modern threat to national, and international, security. To insure the safety and best interest of the people, we approved a counter terrorism law on June 10th that gave our intelligence agencies the rights to not only block websites that are deemed a risk to national security, but also allows them to monitor foreign citizens for up to three months with no prior court notice. It is in our state’s best interest to arrest any foreign national or body that threatens the livelihood of our great nation and would use such methods to destabilize Poland through either direct attacks or through the use of terrorists and other bad actors. We have also limited the freedom of assembly in the hopes that the impact of terrorism will lessen. Finally we have restricted most forms of communication, to where citizens must provide their social insurance number to even buy items such as prepaid phones. These are simple but effective examples of ways to limit and potentially negate the impact of the use of telecommunications by bad actors to jeopardize national and ,by extension, international security.

Country:Poland
Topic: Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control
Paper text:
The Republic of Poland recognizes the drastic impact that activities such as the proliferation of arms only lead to unnecessary devastation and destruction throughout the world, especially in the case of nuclear warheads. This is best shown by Poland being a signatory of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). However, The Republic of Poland finds that total disarmament can only be achieved by every Member State if every Member State adheres and abides to making such an effort. Due to Poland’s geographical position with other nations and history pertaining to them, it is clear that any attempt at disarmament would only be feasible if all Member States near Poland agreed to total disarmament, and can thus sympathize with Member States in similar unfortunate locations not wishing to commit to total disarmament for fear of potential retaliation by other nations and/or potential international bad actors incentivized to disrupt and destabilize a Member State. Unless every Member State commits to total disarmament and working towards that goal at a sufficient pace, there will always be an imbalance between Member States that would give at least one an advantage over its neighboring Member States to the point where potential hostile actions that were seen as too costly or unfeasible in the past could become more appealing and considered to be worth the effort. Thus, the Republic of Poland finds this to be of the utmost importance when considering any proposal on the potential for global disarmament or non-proliferation of weapons. When it comes to issues of women and women's rights, the Republic of Poland strongly favors that women be allowed as they wish that is in line with Roman Catholic morals and ideals for how all human beings should be treated by their fellow man and live their lives by. Poland finds this to be the best way for not only women, but any citizen to live their lives.

Country:Republic of Korea
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:
The Republic of Korea is involved with supporting the Science, Technology, and Innovation program, committed to supporting better innovation and technology and research across the Republic of Korea and the world. The Republic of Korea served on the resolution committee for resolution A/70/174 concerning the impacts and developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of national security. Lastly, the Republic of Korea has participated in several partnership works with other nations in the GGE (Groups of governmental experts) and the OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) to tackle issues related to cyberattacks and other international security challenges. In terms of telecommunications, the Republic of Korea recently amended its telecommunications business act that restricts certain payment systems. Additionally, the Republic of Korea has the Personal Information Protection Act (PIPA) that protects people’s personal information across telecommunication devices.

Country:Republic of Korea
Topic: Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control
Paper text:
The Republic of Korea has endorsed and promoted consecutive policies that focused on gender equality. After the adoption of Resolution 1325, a profound resolution for the Women, Peace, and Security (WPS) agenda, The Republic of Korea increased its aid in support of gender equality. This aid financed institutions that dealt with issues that concerned things such as women’s abuse and other gender inequality-related issues. The Republic of Korea plans to increase its funding in the Ministry of Defense to purchase aboriginal weapons. This will be a productive strategy to sustain policies that concern disarmament on the international affairs spectrum. The Republic of Korea participated in the Final Report of the Seventh Conference of States Parties to the Arms Control Treaty, and it serves on the management committee for these goals. Those goals are to regulate international trade of conventional arms. The Republic of Korea is involved with supporting the Better Life for Girls initiative, which works toward bettering girls' education, health, and professional development. Additionally, the Republic of Korea is a member of the Equal Pay International Committee, supporting Sustainable Development Goals 1,4,5,8,10, and 17.

Country:Russian Federation
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:
As technology and information continues to advance at a rapid pace during the 21st century we need to be aware of the severe security risks it poses. Where there are many Member States that are in agreement with us that there needs to be monitoring and restrictions at the state level, as well as the international level, there are many Member States that vehemently oppose these ideas. With the marriage of the cyber sphere with state infrastructure, there is a high risk for cyber attacks and it is up to each Member State to provide security through regulations, if not this may lead to mass destruction of a Member State. Creating regulations at the international level will promote world wide peace and security while providing truthful information. Some countries believe that there should be no regulations for fear it will harm them economically. While these countries tend to hold the rest of the world as economic hostages it is high time for them to become part of the global community and agree to rules that will promote peace. Many countries that are still developing may not have much of an opinion yet, but with continued research by both the United Nations Group of Governmental Experts (UNGGE) and an Open-Ended Working Group (OEWG) we will be able to evaluate the impact of cyber security on global peace. We ask that the assembly acknowledges the findings of these committees and we use this information to create a resolution that will promote international regulations that promote peace and security for all nations.

Country:Russian Federation
Topic: Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control
Paper text:
It has been proven that women are disproportionately affected by armed conflict, with 96% of all conflict related sexual violence targeting women and girls in 2019 alone. Along with this, many of the places that are targets for combat tend to be places where women traditionally operate, such as markets, all while having little input on the availability of, and use of, weapons. This has led to a new push to involve women, as it has been found that disarmament aids women in both their safety as well as their equality. This does not mean there have not been problems, however, as in many countries it is socially stigmatized for women to be involved in military affairs, especially regarding placing restrictions on said militaries or conflict. This added on to the fact that many militaries, or organizations like militaries, will intrinsically be against disarmament leads to success being much more limited than it could be. It is stigma like this that prevents many women from registering with disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) programs, especially at higher levels, which means many of the benefits of these programs are lost. It is for all the reasons mentioned above that the Grand Assembly passed a resolution in 2010 that focused solely on women’s roles in disarmament, and part of the reasoning behind the 2013 arms trade treaty (ATT). While the amount of women involved in disarmament has certainly increased, they are still a minority, making up 32% and 24% of members of disarmament meetings and delegation heads in the General Assembly First Committee, the Conference on Disarmament and the Non-Proliferation Treaty preparatory committee meetings respectively. It is clear that more improvements will need to be made before more change can be done, although it would most certainly be best to stay the course and be patient, allowing for a slow but long lasting change to occur.

Country:Saint Vincent & the Grenadines
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:
Governments, private businesses, and individual citizens across the world now rely on ICTS or information and communication technologies in almost all aspects of life. Information and communication technologies have helped governments around our world by providing space for government services and by communicating public safety information throughout the pandemic. The Nation of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines has long stood in favor of expanding Information and communication technologies even winning the “Connect the Caribbean Project” through the Caribbean Association of National Telecommunication Organizations via the smart project which involves an agreement between the government of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and the telecommunications provider LIME to provide internet access to over 340 households throughout Saint Vincent and the Grenadines for a monthly bill of $10. The Delegation of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines strongly believes that information and communication technology is going to play a vital role in the Caribbean and the world and that we are in an excellent location to offer a range of services like off- shoring and developing and promoting creativity, culture, and rich local content. In the 75th session of the United Nations Saint Vincent and the Grenadines proudly supported and sponsored resolution agenda item 56 the Global Media and Information Literacy week which was highlighting global concerns about the exponential spread and proliferation of disinformation and misinformation, thereby increasing the need for the dissemination of factual, timely, targeted, clear, accessible, multilingual and science-based information, and emphasizing the need for all Member States to stand together to address the challenge of disinformation and misinformation. Saint Vincent and the Grenadines will work with our allies and mutual beneficiaries to create space towards working and mobilizing communication technologies to greatly benefit all countries including our own in terms of solving cyber security issues and creating new communication technologies. Saint Vincent and the Grenadines also is of the opinion that communication technologies offer many benefits towards globalization and economic, political, and social developments as we look towards working with others to develop solutions to cyber security and internet access for all as well as expanding communication technologies to least developed countries through resolution writing and working with allies and trade partners.

Country:Saint Vincent & the Grenadines
Topic: Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control
Paper text:
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines have long stood in favor of disarmament and signed and ratified the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in 2017 being among the first 50 nation-states to do so. In accordance with Article 2 of the treaty, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines submitted a declaration to the UN secretary-general on 1 February 2021 confirming that it does not own, possess, or control nuclear weapons, has never done so, and does not host any other state’s nuclear weapons on its territory. Saint Vincent and the Grenadines were among 127 states that endorsed a “humanitarian pledge” in 2015–16 to cooperate “in efforts to stigmatize, prohibit, and eliminate nuclear weapons”. Saint Vincent and the Grenadines look forward to working alongside other delegations to further our positions on international security and nuclear disarmament as well as finding refuge in our p5 partners during the conference and other Caribbean states that hold similar positions on the topic. Saint Vincent and the Grenadines will work through solutions by working together with the United States, Great Britain, and our Caribbean neighbors. Saint Vincent and the Grenadines also will relish our history of favoring disarmament and our signing and support of the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons as well as looking toward getting other nations to sign this treaty or ones like it in the near future as it is the belief of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines that a safer world is possible through disarmament. Saint Vincent and the Grenadines will position themselves not through force or coercion but through mutual protection, mutual benefit, and mutual trust towards writing solutions and getting trade partners involved in joining the nuclear disarmament process as well as abiding by current arms control treaties. Saint Vincent looks forward to working with our allies and others towards a safer, more secure world through nuclear disarmament.

Country:Saudi Arabia
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:
This particular topic has been the concern of the General Assembly since it was introduced in 1998, but with technological advancement occurring evermore rapidly in our society today, it remains a most pressing issue. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia would like to emphasize its dedication to solving the problems of our world in diplomatic forms such as the General Assembly. On the issue of digital security, it is most important for this body to recognize how crimes such as hacking and theft of digital information can violate a member state’s sovereignty. Chapter 1, Article 2, of the United Nations Charter details the importance of state sovereignty, and particularly the right of nations to defend themselves and secure their own borders. On matters of technological security, the charter makes it clear that member states have the right to ensure that their citizens and technological infrastructure remain untarnished by outside threats. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is in agreement with UN Resolution 73/27, adopted in 2019 that emphasizes the rights of state sovereignty in these matters. In addition, it states that “the right and duty of States to combat, within their constitutional prerogatives, the dissemination of false or distorted news, which can be interpreted as interference in the internal affairs of other States or as being harmful to the promotion of peace, cooperation and friendly relations among States and nations.” The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia affirms its support for the right of states to ensure that false information is not being spread, particularly if that information is of a grave security nature. It is important for this body to consider the influence of hostile terrorist organizations that attempt to undermine a nation’s digital infrastructure as another primary reason to be especially concerned with security. Furthermore, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia will look favorably upon any debate that centers these concerns and prioritizes digital protection in the modern world.

Country:Saudi Arabia
Topic: Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control
Paper text:
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia recognizes that vulnerable populations, such as women and children, are more likely to have harmful experiences online. This is a matter of great concern to the royal family, and the National Cybersecurity Agency has partnered with the UN on the crown prince’s “Safe Children in the Cyber World” initiative to protect children and young women from the dangers posed by the online world.
In regard to the proliferation of nuclear weapons, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is primarily concerned with such actions taking place in the unstable Persian Gulf region. Nuclear weapons in this region add a further element of conflict in areas such as Yemen that are already very deadly. As a signatory of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia believes that ultimate caution should be exercised in regard to this issue.
On the issue of general arms, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia would once again refer delegates to the state sovereignty clause of the UN charter. It remains most crucial in today’s divided age that nations have adequate opportunity and resources to defend themselves against hostile threats. In particular, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is rich in oil resources that other countries may wish to procure for themselves. Consequently, it remains of the highest priority to ensure that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is able to defend itself against potential attempts by others to strip it of its valuable resources. In addition, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia respects the research and technological advancement that can come from development in defense, which encourages innovation that may be of use to all. Finally, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia welcomes the opportunity to address these issues in formal debate and hopes that all forthcoming negotiations will be productive in solving these problems.

Country:Serbia
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:

The Republic of Serbia sees the issue of information security and its implication on an international scale a heavy focal point of our nation. This can be seen in our instatement of the Commissioner for Information of Public Importance and Personal Data Protection (the “Commissioner”) who’s position is kept highly functional even in the COVID-19 pandemic. With the ever growing and evolving field of technology. It is important that a nation can keep their technology and information as safe as possible.
While the Republic of Serbia’s technological infrastructure is just blossoming, it is also one of its largest exports. Serbian usage of technology is well above the average of the EU, as the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia lists 75 percent of Serbia’s population using the Internet and 60 percent owning a computer. This makes it one of our fastest growing industries, as well as our legislation surrounding it. With protections on personal and business information/technology as seen in “RS Official Gazette", No. 87/2018, otherwise known as the PDP law.
The Republic of Serbia believes in its status as a fast growing yet infantile infrastructure and would hope to see global efforts like those seen in the “Serbia Innovates Project” to both provide and enhance our many nation’s capabilities. We hope to be working on a scale equivalent to other developed nations within the next few decades.

Country:Serbia
Topic: Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control
Paper text:
The Serbian Republic recognizes the need for improvement throughout the world for women’s rights. The Serbian Constitution guarantees equality for men and women. Serbia elected our first homosexual and female Prime Minister, Ana Brnabic, in 2017. Through these advancements in our women’s rights, we still recognize the need for improvement in the world. Serbia believes in the importance of implementing the Sustainable Development Goals and sees Goal 5 and Goal 16 of high importance. The Serbian Republic is a signatory of the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. The Serbian Republic wants to reaffirm the goals set place in the CEDAW and push all nations to make sure of this document's importance.
The Serbian Republic was ravaged by Wars through the 1990’s and early 2000’s, these wars brought large amounts of weapons to the nation and stockpiles of these weapons still exist. The Serbian Republic urges all member states of the United Nations to recognize illicit arms dealings as a plague on long term peace in the World. The Serbian Republic challenges all members states to work towards cracking down on arms dealings to allow for peace in the world. The Balkans hold a large portion of the world's illicit arms stockpiles and calls for more UN peacekeeping operations to be conducted to fight this problem. UN peacekeeping missions into all countries to check for large amounts of illicit weapons is the strongest short-term solution. We must challenge the problems these weapons dealings cause.
The Serbian Republic recognizes the large amount of distress nuclear weapons brings to world peace. The Serbian Republic does also recognize the stability nuclear power plants can bring to the world but urges all members to use nuclear materials for good. Nuclear weapons can only bring about world destruction and calls on those members states owning nuclear weapons to fully disarm and allow for peaceful talks to conduct about these materials.

Country:Somalia
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:
Telecommunication allows for a more interconnected global world. Efforts toward improving telecommunications can be a platform which nations can better understand one another. Telecommunication ventures were able to grow in Somalia through a combination of funding both domestic and foreign. Telecommunications is worth investing in and other nations should put similar efforts into doing so. Cybersecurity is within each nations self interest. Securing lines of communications is a common measure taken to protect valuable information.
The Republic of Somalia recognizes the importance of Security Council Resolution 773. In 1992 Somalia began its efforts of disarmament. Although Somalia was experiencing high volumes of arms trading prior to the Resolution, since then Somalia has been successful in controlling that number.

Country:Somalia
Topic: Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control
Paper text:
The Republic of Somalia recognizes that sexual violence tends to impact women greater. Finding ways to reduce violence against women is a priority. The Republic of Somalia acknowledges the Sustainable Development Goals that relate to this topic. Through addressing gender based violence it relates to human trafficking. These missions carry into the Millenium Development Goals as well.

Country:South Africa
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:
As information technology continues to drive the counter-instability mission pertaining to the international community, South Africa is developing a greater anti-fraud platform pertaining to both land based infrastructure, maritime infrastructure, and monetary systems. South Africa’s ports are known for a vast amount of economic transfer pertaining to but not limited to all forms of petroleum, transportation, and monetary assets. As companies such as Space-X structures and prepares the activation of the STARLINK system, the request for premier Information and Communications Technology is paramount given the heightened state of black mail via hacking operations. Tandem cooperation with South African partners both domestic and abroad will greatly mitigate the disruption at not only critical ports, but also at banking institutions around the region. Malicious intent is quite evident and poses risk to hospitals and sensitive documents. South Africa fully supports all efforts to not only develop, but to also maintain and build upon the cyberwarfare capacity that is necessary to protect STARLINK and various platforms not mentioned above. With 94% of the total population utilizing various energy sources, primarily electricity, we can further deduce the significant problem focusing around the Information Communications Technology. Further looking into South Africa’s infrastructure capability, their Hydro-Electric power is a staggering 1% however, this hydro facility is located in Cape Town which is a critical metropolitan center. What is interesting is South Africa's Telecom capability is the most advanced on the Continent and implements 5G networks from China. This alone is a significant issue as China boasts a staggering Cyber capability that South Africa or its allies do not currently host. Resolution 53/70 brings great views to this topic.

Country:South Africa
Topic: Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control
Paper text:
Women equality is essential in the unification of member states as numerous figures have continued to demonstrate increased activity in the trafficking of women and children across the globe. Reflecting on the pandemic, we can also infer that roughly 10 million women and children will be forced into early or childhood marriage. The offset of the pandemic is not only astonishing but also a major blow to the morale of the member states. Looking further into the topic we also believe that community violence reduction programmes are paramount in reducing the level of trafficking. Often, weapons and drug trafficking are conducted in tandem with human trafficking and the Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration (DDR) will greatly contribute to this reduction as they pertain to these affairs. Geo-political efforts must not only be enacted, but continuously enforced in order to sustain this important and influential level of diplomacy. Where women are trafficked, we know that a rise in armament is a tandem process. This poses a significant policy to enact a disarmament of particular weapons pertaining to certain regions. This coexistence is nothing to shy away from. In 2019 alone, roughly 96 percent of conflict related sexual violence targeted women and girls. Explosive weapons also often target marketplaces which is known to be the second highest location for civilian casualties. This is another target rich environment that disproportionately affects women and girls who are often shopping for their respective family or families. A significant contribution to the distribution of power should implement a higher ratio of male to female voting as it pertains to this issue. Referencing the 2003 Gender Action Plan, ample referencing should be referenced from the aforementioned material.

Country:Sudan
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:
In a multitude of contexts, information and communications are extremely vital; our world is built around the high-speed transmission of information between people. Additionally, the world is seeing ever-increasing use of ICTs (Information and communications technology) in a malicious manner. This is not only cause for concern for companies and economies, as it can affect supply chains and security, but also for the security of the international community. Conflicts are fought less and less with traditional methods, and more with cyber attacks. As such, securing communication while also ensuring international security is a necessity.
There have been multiple resolutions brought by the Groups of Governmental Experts (GGE) to the General Assembly of the UN, with great reception by almost all member states. In particular, the 2015 report of the GGE was adopted by consensus in resolution 70/237. This resolution “calls upon Member States to be guided in their use of information and communications technologies by the 2015 report of the Group of Governmental Experts.” This report detailed multiple suggestions for member states to take regarding ICTs and security, including increased exchange of information between states, not engaging in or encouraging the malicious use of ICTs, working with the private sector and extra-governmental groups, and increasing education and knowledge regarding ICTs and security. One important recommendation was that a State should not conduct or knowingly support ICT activity that intentionally damages or otherwise impairs the use and operation of critical infrastructure. States should also take appropriate measures to protect their critical infrastructure from ICT threats.
Sudan suggests that all members of this committee keep these suggestions in mind going into this conference, and endeavor to cooperate multilaterally in an effort to address the rising threat of malicious ICT use, as well as building international precedent of ongoing cooperation in this area.

Country:Sudan
Topic: Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control
Paper text:
The topic of arms disarmament and non-proliferation has been an ongoing dialogue since the very creation of the UN. It’s a topic that affects almost every member state, regardless of location, development, or history. Only recently, however, has the international community recognized that gender plays a role in how people are affected by conflict and efforts around disarmament.
Since the turn of the century, multiple resolutions and related UN documents have been released regarding the importance of women in the discussion of arms. One such resolution that passed early in the century was Security Council Resolution 1325, which affirmed the importance of women in the conflict resolution and peace-building processes as well as encouraging larger representation of women in multiple UN bodies and further action towards female representation throughout the international community.
Sudan looks forward to discussing what further action the UN can take to ensure the representation and contribution of female voices in the UN and in all conflict resolution processes.

Country:Thailand
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:
Thailand believes that the safety of nations and the world is vital, especially in a rapidly changing world. This includes acting in order to limit potential threats that can include both physical and cyber weapons. We understand that weapons of a cyber nature can lead to damage not only to the cyber realm but also to physical structures. Therefore, we believe taking actions to limit the potential for cyberweapons to be used to damage nations across the world which can include making a similar set of rules to those that have been made for other weapon types in the past and limiting other forms of access often used for gathering information from other nations. Therefore, we strongly encourage the adoption of rules for cyberweapons that are like those already in place for physical weapons. Many cyberweapons can have both direct and indirect effects on citizens of nations around the world as well even if the people affected were not the original targets of these attacks. Thailand encourages action to be taken to limit the effect cyberweapons have on civilians and other non-combatants should an attack occur including preventing them from becoming the targets of cyberweapons. We also believe that it is necessary to take action to keep physical borders secure. This includes preventing weapons from being used against civilians. We encourage increased limits on physical weapons as well which would limit the hazards these weapons can cause along with the potential direct and indirect harm to civilians although these increased limitations would result in limits on what Thailand can do as well. Weapons of various natures are not the only threat we recognize in the world as it is right now.
Thailand also understands the need for security not only at the level of individual nations but also at the international level. This includes the need to once again act on matters in the cyber realm. Even actions that may not appear to cause harm to anyone can lead to disaster very quickly and that programs can cause damage to hospitals and other critical systems through manipulation of mechanical devices which can also lead to many people being injured. Threats can also come from individuals across the globe. Thailand strongly encourages the United Nations to form and prepare a team to better handle international cybercrimes and cyberattacks. We understand this matter requires the cooperation of nations to make it possible.

Country:Thailand
Topic: Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control
Paper text:
The unchecked and illegal movement of small arms and other related weapons that are categorized as “small arms”, are a threat to international security. Cooperation with other members of the United Nations is paramount to curb the illegal trade of weapons to regions of civil unrest and violence and the potential threat, they pose to the stability of their neighboring states. Through the cooperation in the first committee, Thailand will establish clear resolutions that are meant to halt the continued spread of unmarked weapons and their related components from entering nations without national and international regulations. Thailand will also hold accountable the manufactures of small arms and their related components to well-regulated and ethical practices in the sale, distribution, and instructions of these weapons in compliance with these international regulations and aim to hold states and state actors that choose not to comply with these regulations to be met with condemnation and to face justice from the United Nations, in cooperation with other member states. It is Thailand’s conviction that compliance with these resolutions will create global stability.

Country:Togo
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:
Togo is very much involved and supportive of the UN and the resolutions that are made in it. This is no exception when it comes to security in information and telecommunications. Togo takes on a similar position to the majority of other UN countries when it comes to Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security. Togo takes a stance that the UN and the countries in it need to move towards more information and communications technologies security internationally as the world moves into a more digital age especially for developing nations that are still gaining access to widespread connectivity. Togo affirms that nations that need and request for help should be given it by other UN nations and that it is more important than ever for there to be more security in preventing the usage of information and communications technologies by criminals and terrorist organizations. It is imperative for nations to respect the freedoms of peoples usage of information and communications technologies, and to further develop these technologies for peaceful means.

Country:Togo
Topic: Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control
Paper text:
Women have long been neglected in societies across the globe. The Togolese congregation recognizes this, and we recognize the abuse women face within our own society as well. Fourteen years ago, Togo passed a law prohibiting sexual assault, early and forced marriages, and sexual harassment. Regardless of this effort, these heinous acts still occur. The Togolese Fourth Committee of the General Assembly reaffirms our commitment to promote women’s rights. We recognize the disproportionate violence that women face during armed conflicts. 2,500 cases of conflict related violence were against primarily women and girls across 18 countries were reported by the UN in 2020. As a country with an epidemic of sexual violence against women and girls, and` history of colonization and civil war, we have experienced devastating violence. During our own civil war in the 1990s, civilian demonstrators and opposition leaders were gunned down by pro-Eyadema forces. The Togolese people witnessed first hand the violence created by war, and we realize that nuclear armament only serves to increase the devastation and suffering that a potential war could bring. We advise the international community to learn from the mistakes of the past and support nuclear proliferation and disarmament in the favor of saving civilian lives.

Country:Tunisia
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:
A modern set of issues facing the international community resides in cyberspace. The breaching of digital ICTs, by internal or external actors, has led to the tampering of state institutions and their respective digital usage. While this issue is not physical, it requires tangible solutions for the issues faced now. The state of Tunisia has addressed this issue internally through key motions, such as our National Cybersecurity Strategy 2020-2025, to become a contributor in assisting the international shaping of cybersecurity’s future. Tunisia’s strategy aligns with identifying criminal usage of ICTs, increasing the stability and security of digital frameworks, and learning to produce a safe cyberspace. Tunisia is involved with UN Specialized Agencies and Organizations such as CD, CTBTO, and ITU. Furthermore, recognizes the efforts and actions of the United Nations on this issue. The reports carried out by the GGE and OEWG have been detrimental in understanding the issues states have been subject to, it appeals in Resolution 73/266 of 2018. As of 2021, the backing from all states of the OEWG report, A/AC.290/2021/CRP.2, speaks to the urgency of this global problem. The 2001 PoA on Small Arms and Light Weapons has been influential in international security, an equal counterpart in the digital hemisphere is needed. Tunisia emphasizes the need for such a PoA, along with the GGE and OEWG. Additionally, collaboration among groups like the CTC in the SC, or the CD. In this effort, to curate a detailed digital record surrounding state sensitive ICTs, similar to the tracking of 2001’s PoA, to potentially elevate state CMBs and reliability. While this effort cannot fix this issue, it will provide a blueprint for future situations. The world’s use of technology and communications can be secure in cyberspace, through the international cooperation of states.

Country:Tunisia
Topic: Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control
Paper text:
Gender inequality is an issue that still persists throughout the world in conflicts that emerge or environments that shelter the problem. Furthermore, the imbalance of gender inequality in the disarmament and relations to arms speaks to this truth. Women continue to be left out of pivotal conversations and decision-making processes, often being victims of the said unchanged culture. In the past decade, Tunisia has recognized the disparities in gender in the regional area, which has fostered growth. As of 2021, Tunisia has nominated the first woman to the Prime Minister seat, Najla Bouden. Tunisia, in collaboration with UNHCR and the Arab League, played a role in the Ministerial Conference on Belonging and Identity. This process created the Arab Declaration on Belonging and Identity. This declaration serves to eliminate gender discrimination laws, as well as assisting in gender reforms. Tunisia acknowledges the past international work on this matter, specifically the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women in 1979. Additionally, the work of the Office of Disarmament Affairs in their adoption of the Gender Action Plan in 2003. Most importantly, the Arms Trade Treaty (ATT) in 2013. The work of the Commission on the Status of Women (CSW) and ECOSOC have established themes and actions to prioritize this issue; it has produced Resolution 2018/8, Resolution 2006/9, and Resolution 1987/24. Tunisia supports UNW/2021/6, item two on the provisional agenda for 2021. The Strategic Plan 2022-2025 emphasizes on the effort to reach gender inequality and the empowerment of women. Tunisia encourages the implementation of quotas for gender equality throughout institutions and programs, like DDR, to be gender responsive going forward. Keeping in mind, the contributions and work from WPS and CEDAW have paved a way forward in gender disparities, Tunisia is committed to resolving this issue.

Country:Turkey
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:
In the field of information and telecommunications in regard to international security, Turkey has an invested interest. Turkey hosts the most malicious software of any European nation, and this has put substantial strain on our internet infrastructure. Turkey is committed to building up our internal cyber defense infrastructure, especially after major cyber attacks in 2015 and 2016. From 2017 to 2020, the Turkish nation has faced 325,000 cyber attacks of varying levels of detriment to national security and the day to day life of our citizens. Turkey has taken steps in updating our operating systems, and in creating safeguards to limit the scope of cyber attacks on our nation. Turkey believes in the importance of working with both the private and public sector to increase cyber security and to limit cyber attacks. This is outlined by Turkey’s three-year (2020-2023) National Cyber Security Strategy and Action Plan. As part of this plan Turkey has created the National Cybersecurity Intervention Center, which works with internet service providers and telecom operators to protect the Turkish nation from cyber attacks and malware. Through these actions, Turkey hopes to prevent future cyberattacks against the nation and our citizens.

Country:Turkey
Topic: Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control
Paper text:
The future of our democracy is building to create peace, not malevolence. Understanding the roots of fundamental terrorism in our region is a profound issue that we desire to continue tackling the goals of disarmament of destructive weapons. With the reverse trend of disarmament making its way around our land, it should be clear that the treaties others have signed should not be subverted. By working together to subdue these campaigns by investing more time into building international confidence between us by agreeing to the loyalty of their treaties. By working together, the importance of equality for women and men are fundamental. Everyone is entitled to rights and freedom without distinction sex. Women in poverty is a concern to the foundations of human rights and should have the opportunities to obtain the needs. Note the great contributions women have brought to the welfare of family by sharing the equal responsibilities as the procreator of children of the future. Spreading the establishment of international order will help cure the boundaries that have not been breached. The maintenance of democracy and removal of weapons of mass destruction in order to prevail mankind.

Country:Turkmenistan
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:
The Republic of Turkmenistan has made significant progress in previous years towards the betterment of security in communications and telecommunications alike from both domestic and international perspectives. Turkmenistan has taken active involvement to establish and grow telecommunications with other member states to ensure the ease of communication across borders. Namely, the fiber optic cables in progress and previously constructed allow for secure and swift communication between member states such as Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, and soon many more with the subsea Trans-Caspian fiber optic cable project. Turkmenistan has additionally created and funded a new department for certification of cybersecurity in technical software manufactured in the republic and abroad, under government jurisdiction. In all, Turkmenistan aims to further its development of fiber optic cables with other member states for the betterment of mutual communication and to decrease the ability for criminal or terrorist activity by continuously advancing Turkmenistan’s cybersecurity program.
In 2019, Turkmenistan signed an agreement with Azerbaijan to initiate a project for a subsea Trans-Caspian fiber optic cable to develop high-speed communications and internet services between the two states in addition to connecting Turkmenistan to a majority of Europe and Asia. This project is continuously being enacted as of the current date. Furthermore, this significant improvement in the telecommunication system will open doors for neighboring members as well, including Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India. Thus, Turkmenistan and other member states in the region will be one major step forward to being on par with international standards for communications. Turkmenistan has taken great strides towards setting proper standards and providing education for cybersecurity in its recent creation and implementation of the Turkmenistan cybersecurity certification. Cybersecurity, as an ever-increasing issue in international security, is a primary aspect of needed improvement for Turkmenistan which will be strengthened with this certification program, allowing for government employees and other Turkmen to be knowledgeable in the technological information of all vital software and equipment regarding computer security. With increased education in this crucial field, Turkmenistan intends to be able to support and assist other member states against cybercrime activity. With the massive step towards development in communications through the Trans-Caspian fiber optic cable with Azerbaijan and the implementation of the cybersecurity certification program, Turkmenistan intends to be on level with other member states’ standards of technological telecommunication. The republic, although with much work at hand, is rapidly improving its ability to combat criminal activity and its ability to transmit information at a much higher, modern speed.

Country:Turkmenistan
Topic: Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control
Paper text:
The country of Turkmenistan recognizes the importance of women’s rights under our Constitution. From the domestic standard to the global scale, we are pleased with the progress we have made as a country. It is important to realize the impact women have in our society. Women in our country are safer than in any other Middle Eastern country as we have the lowest rate of crimes against women. The country of Turkmenistan also acknowledges the dangers and fears associated with WMDs (Weapons of Mass Destruction) and the illicit trade of firearms. To promote global peace and welfare, our country has adopted some of the strictest gun laws and is a signatory of multiple United Nations treaties regarding nuclear weapons and arms control.
In 2005, Turkmenistan ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination for the first time. During our first multicandidate election in 2007, President Berdimuhamedow made a vow that cooperation with international organizations was his number one issue. He has repeatedly expressed his commitment to fulfill Turkmenistan’s international obligations in respect to human rights. As of 2018, Gülsat Mämmedowa became the first female Chairperson of the Turkmen Mejlis, and one of the few women in government in the Middle East. In 1995, we signed onto the 1995 Review and Extension of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, and the 1996 CTBT (Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty). We realized it was a necessary step to achieve global peace and lower the chances of a nuclear weapon mishap. In 2010, it was our country who initiated the talks of a Nuclear Weapon Free Zone in Central Asia and hosted the International Conference on Disarmament in Ashgabat. This treaty between our country and four other Central Asian countries (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan) was the first step in finding stability in Central Asia and the Middle East. Since the founding of our country, Turkmenistan has bolstered its positive neutrality and maintained practical relations with all member states of the United Nations. We have always focused our attention to matters that are worthwhile to our country and avoided external conflicts. However, our country is open to building stronger cooperation and contributing more to international peacekeeping efforts. This will create more opportunities for us to participate in finding resolutions to problems facing our world today.

Country:Uganda
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:
Existing in an era where peace has become scarce to many people, we find it imperative for all nations to generate a robust counter-action methodology against all threats to security, stability and inclusion. We believe in an equal right of people to possess the most basic rights of stability and enjoy the sanctuary of their own homes. As a state committed to promoting and supplementing international peace, we have been an active participant in the peacemaking mission of the United Nations. Its dedication to aspire progress can be reflected through the UN Charter and its provisions. Our people, the troops and civilians, have shown their commitment to serve in peacekeeping operations in Somalia, in collaboration with Burundi, by supporting its mission to restore peace and stability after decades of war. It is not unknown that the gruesome nature of the Somali conflict has brought countless losses upon the nation, therefore, aside from raising the spirits of our Somali comrades, Ugandan soldiers also provide medical assistance and distribute humanitarian supplies. With this in consideration, Uganda, being the head of the UN authorized African Union Mission (AMISOM) and chair of the regional peace progress, sees it her duty to the international community to promote peace and stability in regions. Just as a Ugandan proverb states, “When thrown into the sea, the stone said, “after all, this is also a home”,” we see the rest of the world as our home and are committed to ensure its safety and peace.

Country:Uganda
Topic: Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control
Paper text:
In recognition of the potential for a global future characterized by peace, we would like to acknowledge the imminent need for nuclear disarmament. Uganda has been consistent in the mission to eliminate the nuclear threat because these weapons are used as a manipulation tool that symbolizes global destruction. We have endorsed a humanitarian pledge with an intent to stigmatize and prohibit this global threat of terrorism. Further, no country should have nuclear weapons in their possession because it encourages catastrophic harm because of disagreements which could and must be solved through diplomacy. Let us not forget the devastation and a long-term health emergency situation which was brought upon Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Let us learn from history and make sure it does not repeat itself. As a consequence, we must ensure that no country has more power than the other and emphasize the importance of peaceful negotiations. To supplement this stance, Uganda voted in favor of the UN General Assembly resolution which strongly encourages nation-states to sign, ratify, and accede to a document which prohibits the weapons of mass destruction. This effort in eliminating nuclear weapons aligns greatly with our anti-terrostism mission which confronts racism, xenophobia, discrimination as catalysts for fascism and therefore part of terrorism. As stated earlier, Uganda has a strong sense of duty to make it our mission to preserve world peace.

Country:United States of America
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:
Throughout the 21st century, information and communication technologies (ICTs) have continually been advancing to meet the needs of the world today. From providing the infrastructure that provides electricity to homes to maintaining international peace and security, ICTs have proved to be fundamental to connect and expand global citizens around the world. Despite all the benefits ICTs can provide, there are a number of dangers that the existence of ICTs brings about. For example, malicious actors have worked to hack nation states’ digital infrastructure to gain access to high-level information and secrets. The United States of America (USA) is no stranger to this as they have dealt with numerous attacks from various parties over the years. Knowing this, the USA has instituted a number of policies in order to combat the danger that ICTs hold. One of the main policies is Executive Order 13873, “Executive Order in Securing the Information and Communications Technology and Services Supply Chain,” which prohibits certain agreements that involve telecommunications equipment constructed or supplied by actors that are deemed as “foreign adversaries.” The USA has also released two recent executive orders in 2021 focused on supply chain resilience for four critical sectors, and one cybersecurity-focused set of directives that includes security requirements for vendors supplying the federal information technology infrastructure. Not only is the USA promoting policies domestically, but internationally, the USA is also a leader. As a member of the Group of Governmental Experts (GGE)which is under the the United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs (UNODA), the USA has contributed to a number of substantive reports such as, A/65/201, A/68/98*, and A/70/174. These reports are invaluable to the United Nations and the world’s efforts to combat ICTs that are dangerous to the peace and security of the international community.
Despite all the work that has been done by the USA and the global community, there is more to be done. The USA calls upon nation states to use the 2001 Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons as reference to create a new Programme of Action for advancing responsible State behavior in cyberspace. The USA also invites nation states to review the International Tracing Instrument (ITI) as it can provide a framework for weapon tracing and cyberspace security, as well as put nation states on track for 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Lastly, the USA urges other nation states to review the Digital Strategies in Pacific Alliance Countries to gain new insights on regional cooperation that has not only advanced technology, but also combats it. The USA looks forward to working with nation states to provide a safer and more secure cyberspace for the international community.

Country:United States of America
Topic: Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control
Paper text:
Civilians especially women and children are disproportionately affected by armed conflict. Globally, 264 million women live in 36 countries classified as fragile and conflict-affected by the World Bank. Weapons and attacks in conflict-affected areas and markets affect women where they are responsible for buying food and goods at markets. Peace agreements that involve women are 35% more likely to last at least 15 years which proves the advantage women bring when building sustainable peace. Seven out of every ten peace processes still do not include women participants. The United States acknowledges the success the role of women have in disarmament, non proliferation, and arms control. The U.S. is a supporter of the UN Security Council Resolution 1325 for full involvement of women in decision making regarding arms control and gender based violence.
The continued failure to implement women leaders in the peace process and ignoring the disproportionate effect armed conflict has on women is a key issue the United States seeks to combat. The United States is committed to breaking down systemic barriers preventing women from providing leadership in peace negotiations. The United States is aware of the lack of representation in conflict-affected countries and continues to promote leadership in our own country. Women in the U.S. have played a major part in locking down nuclear material, in Iran agreements, etc. The United States will continue to advocate against gender gaps all around the world and in all levels of negotiations.

Country:Uruguay
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:
Uruguay also demonstrates commitment to its international security, in collaboration with the advancements in the field of information and telecommunication, as its Security Services utilize the contemporary powers of GPS beacons, satellite phones, mobile apps, texting and calling in order to achieve personal security primarily, and international security on a wider scale. Uruguay’s Armed Forces, managed by the National Defence Ministry, is responsible for providing personnel for UN peacekeeping missions. Although there is some criticism that Uruguay’s cyberspace protection efforts are not advanced enough resulting in vulnerability to attack, Uruguay has long be hailed one of the most developed countries in Latin America in terms of e-commerce, and, with its commitment to digitalising all government services by 2020, the sophistication of its infrastructure will improve vastly in upcoming years. Indeed, the ICT sector needs some attention in order to achieve impenetrable security and keep up with the fast pace of the technology and telecommunication sector, hence the IDB loan given to Uruguay is paramount to the prevention, detection and response strategies in the event of a cyber-attack which threatens national security. Ultimately, in relation to issues of international security and telecommunications, and, in line with UN Charter Articles 1(1), 11(3), and 43(1) in particular, Uruguay is committed to the maintenance of international peace through making a social security council available and calling it to attention in situations which are likely to endanger international peace and council.
Importantly, Uruguay has demonstrated its proven commitment to resolution 70/237 which ‘calls upon Member States to be guided in their use of information and communications technologies by the 2015 report of the Group of Governmental Experts’, in combination with the creation of the Open-ended Working Group in 2018, through its adoption of educational guidelines concerning the best practices for the implementation of sophisticated cybersecurity, and the adjustment of data protection laws in line with the introduction of GDPR in the region in May 2018. Therefore, in recognition of the importance of these structures in the prevention of the malicious use of ICTs by state and non-state actors, all member states should continue to utilise these bodies. Uruguay also invites the Member States to recognise and employ the power of the 2018 Agenda for Disarmament, as it strives to ‘engage with Member States to help foster a culture of accountability and adherence to emerging norms, rules and principles on responsible behaviour in cyberspace

Country:Uruguay
Topic: Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control
Paper text:
With the adoption of the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women in 1979, the UN recognised the importance of complete disarmament in achieving full equality between men and women, as armed conflict so disproportionately affects women. Following this, in 2003, Uruguay’s Office of Disarmament Affairs adopted a Gender Action Plan in order to further the exploration of the unjust connection between disarmament and gender equality. Importantly, the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals in 2015, and, in particular through, Goal 5 on gender equality and eliminating gender-based violence, and Goal 16 on reducing illicit arms traffic, the UN has demonstrated continued commitment to marked progress in this complex area. Thus, in line with the Sustainable Development Goals, as well as Article 1(2) and Article 8 of the UN Charter concerning respect for the principle of equal rights, Uruguay accepts the pressing need to create effective infrastructure for this prevalent issue immediately. Uruguay indeed affirms the commitment to Goal 5 of the SDGs demonstrated through its declaration of a national emergency on gender-based violence in 2019, however, unfortunately, within the timeframe of the Covid-19 pandemic, Uruguay has seen this issue to be exacerbated to an extent. Ultimately though, as a result of previously being praised internationally for its adoption of a plethora of progressive policies in recent years, Uruguay is confident this issue can be tackled with efficiency and commits to perseverance in the resolution of this extremely important issue of inequality. In light of the goals set out in the Preamble of the UN Charter Preamble, Uruguay also assures the UN of its commitment to ‘saving succeeding generations from the scourge of war’ and uniting the strength to maintain peace and security through nuclear disarmament, as demonstrated in its 2015 statement on behalf of the Member States of the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR). Uruguay wishes to further raise concerns caused by the lack of legislation prohibiting nuclear weapons, resulting in diminished security, thus indicating the need for such arms to be banned entirely. Uruguay recognises this is a tentative issue though and therefore implores the need to at least ‘significantly reduce’ illicit financial and arms flows by 2030, in line with Target 16.4 of the Sustainable Development Goals. Uruguay thus welcomes the introduction of a resolution similar to that of the 2019 UN ‘Silencing the Guns in Africa’ initiative under the guidance of the UN Coordinating Action on Small Arms with particular reference to the ramifications on women and girls.

Country:Uzbekistan
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:
As the world advances, so does its reliance on information and communication technologies. to support government, the military, and healthcare systems. Such systems however, have become the focus of attacks and malice intent from states and non-state actors to interfere or disrupt countries' infrastructure. Although this topic has been discussed by the UN before cyberspace regulations and cyber security is a constantly evolving subject.
Uzbekistan has dealt with cyber security issues before and wants to better protect citizens of threats and risks of cyberspace. Uzbekistan hosted a cybersecurity workshop with experts from eleven countries to help all citizens be better prepared while using the internet. Uzbekistan does not have a very big digital infrastructure and for many citizens it is expensive and slow to have. The internet is also very limited with multiple sites being restricted from the public. This is because of the rapid amount of cybercrime in the country and the lack of ability to control it. Uzbekistan had 8% of their computers infected in 2013. In Uzbekistan they have created multiple governmental groups to respond to these cyber threats, the Computer Emergency Response Team was started in 2005 and the Information Security Center in September 2013.
Uzbekistan would like to see more laws and regulations passed to punish states and non- state actors who commit cybercrime against other states. The UN already acknowledged this threat in UN resolution 55/63 where it is recognized that developing countries such as Uzbekistan cannot effectively communicate internationally or combat cybercrime. Uzbekistan wants to create more cooperation between states on technology to prevent cyberattacks. Also, member states establish cooperative investigatory groups to help combat cybercrime.
Uzbekistan hopes to implement stricter punishment for committing cybercrimes against governments, to establish international cybercrime investigations, and that technology infrastructure help can be provided to less developed states to help secure cyberspace.

Country:Uzbekistan
Topic: Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control
Paper text:
Information and telecommunication are almost inseparable from defense and security in our modern world. That being said, there is a large gap between wealthy states and those states that are still developing. That gap only continues to grow wider as technology advances. It is imperative that all member nations work together to close this gap. If allies and agencies cannot communicate in an effective manner, response time for defensive or preventative actions can suffer; lives can be lost. The General Assembly agrees.
On 12 December 2019 the General Assembly passed resolution 74/29 regarding our current topic: developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security. This was the resolution that set the provisional agenda for our session this year. The resolution highlights the importance of addressing the information and communication technologies (ICT) gaps throughout the world. The United Nations emphasizes that it is in the interest of states to develop ICTs for peaceful purposes. This body also recognizes how important it is to combat the use of ICTs for terrorist acts and organizations. Resolution 71/28 of the same name, adopted on 5 December 2016, acknowledges that this technology can be used conversely to harm infrastructure or communication in both civil and military operations. This committee has recognized the importance of this topic since 1999, when the topic was first introduced to the General Assembly. It has been a recurring topic in this committee numerous times since. This is a discussion of great concern for all member nations and The Republic of Uzbekistan is excited for engaged and productive debate on the topic.
Uzbekistan has a perpetually evolving need for security within our nation. As a land-locked country in a region known for instability, we rely heavily on more powerful member states to help Uzbekistan maintain security within the state and region. With Uzbekistan’s recent election to the UN Human Rights Council, we would like to stress the importance of security in tandem with the need to protect human rights. Governments that are ill-prepared to combat attacks on ICT infrastructure are governments that are ill-prepared to maintain security as a whole in the 21st century. Uzbekistan is a country that is rapidly developing and transitioning into a society that enjoys and relies on the same technology that others in many member states utilize in their day to day lives.
We hope that wealthy and powerful members in the United Nations will commit to easing the transition for rapidly developing nations. ICT issues pertain to all members, but smaller and developing member states are particularly vulnerable when it comes to ICT’s as they relate to security. Uzbekistan is no exception; since we gained our independence, Uzbekistan recognized the importance of development in the ICT sector. We created The Ministry for the Development of Information Technologies and Communications of the Republic of Uzbekistan in 2015 to address these issues. The Ministry is working implement an “e- government” that will help bring the government into the digital age while unifying communications for the intelligence and logistics sectors. These are just a few of the many important objectives of the Ministry.
Uzbekistan, however, cannot achieve all that is hoped without the help of the United Nations. The United Nations has developed the ad hoc committee to elaborate a comprehensive international convention on countering the use of ICTs for criminal purposes. Uzbekistan is hopeful that the ad hoc committee will have similar goals and aspirations as The Ministry for Development of ICTs in Uzbekistan, though an official committee or council on the pertaining topic should be considered in the United Nations. We look forward to communicating with fellow delegates to brainstorm a more holistic approach to information and communication security in the modern world.

Country:Venezuela
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:
The Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela fully supports efforts focused on aiding the development of international security, particularly given the current era of information technologies that have changed global communications. The ability to connect with the members of this international community is of great importance to the people of Venezuela. The people of Venezuela also recognize the importance of a government role within telecommunications and other information-sharing technologies and greatly support the ability of sovereign nations to remove harmful and false information from social platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, Snapchat, and Instagram. The Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela would like to focus the international community’s attention on the ability of these information-sharing platforms to act as destabilizing presences that violate the sovereignty of our nations, allowing external actors to misinform and cause unrest within our populations. This harmful influence of outside media can be seen in the United States’ recent attempted fascist coup, and the recent news regarding Facebook’s servicing management. The Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela looks towards a future where the interference of international media no longer harms the sovereign right of each of our nations, as well as protects our people against manipulation. Our nation has taken the first step through the introduction of the “Constitutional Law Against Hatred, for Peaceful Coexistence and Tolerance,” which allows those who post hate speech, and messages that create tension or unrest to be removed from society to prevent further harm.

Country:Venezuela
Topic: Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control
Paper text:
The Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela is firmly committed to the practice of disarmament and arms control. Our international security agenda puts disarmament as our top priority because the existence of nuclear weapons presents a massive risk of inflicting unfathomable destruction and pain on humanity. To prevent this inhumaneness, our Security General negotiated in the TPNW, in accordance with Article 2 at the UN, a confirmation that we do not own, possess, or control nuclear weapons. We have also declared that we do not have nuclear weapons within other states. We firmly believe that this rule should be imposed on all countries, as the existence of nuclear weapons is a threat to humankind. We have also initiated a nationwide disarmament ban on top of the gun ban we had set in place in 2013 in order to decrease the crime rate––which it has. This practice of strict small arms control has protected our citizens from unjust death. As President Maduro diplomatically puts it, the result of this ban is that “[w]e are building peace from within, and for that, you need disarmament.” In the interest of building peace and stability in the world, we are committed to worldwide disarmament and stricter arms control, and we call all states to increase their efforts to strengthen their disarmament. We are in favor of building a world where humankind is not threatened by nuclear weapons and excess small arms by imposing treaties and agreements in order to create a united, globalized world. It is also important to note that per the UN “Gender Perspectives” campaign, women and men are both affected by the improper control of small arms. Talking about different combat roles within different conflicts.

Country:Viet Nam
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:
Viet Nam is actively working towards the modernization of its internet infrastructure and ensuring the safety and security of the internet for its citizens. Viet Nam is working on balancing the innovation power that information on the internet provides with the security of its citizens and government. Viet Nam is still attempting to control information in an attempt to reduce and prevent criticism of their one party government system. Viet Nam is willing to allow social media sites like Facebook and Youtube, but have requested certain information be pulled down from these sites.
Viet Nam is working on getting more of their citizens on the internet, and currently has wifi in many towns and cities across the country.

Country:Viet Nam
Topic: Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control
Paper text:
As the world comes out from under the pandemic, now more than ever must peace be a priority. Viet Nam has and will always be greatly in favor of a complete disarmament of all world powers. Viet Nam is also greatly invested in the use of nuclear material not for weapons but for power. Viet Nam believes that a strong emphasis and possibly even a large incentive should be placed both on the disarming of nuclear weapons, but also on the conversion to nuclear energy. Viet Nam is also a strong proponent of arms control. Viet Nam believes that the governments of the world must pay closer attention to the firearms in their countries and make efforts to curtail the illegal passage of such weapons into the hands of criminals.
Viet Nam wishes to usher in a new age of peace and prosperity in the coming decades using more diplomacy and less force of arms.

Country:Zimbabwe
Topic: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Paper text:
Telecommunications have allowed for increased international communication which has impacted politics, economics, and international relations. While this is generally positive, it does create increased risk and security threats. Information security has been an important issue at the UN beginning with resolution 53/7 which promoted the consideration of threats in information security. Since 2004, there have been five Groups of Governmental Experts (GGE) that have studied the threats posed by Information and Communications Technology (ICT). The GGEs focus on: existing and emerging threats, how international law applies in the use of ICTs, norms, rules and principles of responsible behavior of States, confidence-building measures, and capacity building.
In Zimbabwe, the Information Communication Technology and Courier Services work “To transform Zimbabwe through use of information and communication technologies into a knowledge based society so as to enhance the country’s competitiveness in the world in order to stimulate and sustain economic growth”. This is done through the development of regulatory frameworks, infrastructure, and international links. With the rise of cyber threats, specifically targeted at African businesses, exacerbated during the Covid-19 pandemic, it is important to maintain the current security and regulatory frameworks while developing and promoting security infrastructure around the world. Over 57% of African businesses have registered an increase in cybersecurity threats since the beginning of the pandemic. A large part of this increased risk is from employees working from home during the pandemic which creates vulnerabilities in networks.
Zimbabwe believes that cybersecurity threats are of utmost importance and should be addressed in a way that does not overlook smaller countries. In light of the effect of the coronavirus pandemic on already existing and growing cybersecurity threats on companies in Africa, Zimbabwe recommends increasing security and surveillance to maintain the protection of individuals and businesses. Zimbabwe urges other states to devote resources to the development of telecommunications and information technologies to combat rising cybersecurity threats. Zimbabwe also encourages increased education both about ICTs and using ICTs as a learning tool.

Country:Zimbabwe
Topic: Women, disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control
Paper text:
Non-proliferation is important because the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology creates security risks for all member states. Zimbabwe is committed to non- proliferation with signing the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CNTB) in 2019, and its Ambassador's statements on the continued need for effective nuclear weapon free zones in the Middle East and recognition that, “the promotion of the use of nuclear technology for peaceful purposes is an inalienable right of all states enshrined in Article IV of the NPT.” Since 2010, Zimbabwe has been at the forefront of defending and strengthening the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and its principles. The role women can play in extending non-proliferation through STEM can not be understated. Because of the disproportionate effect of violence on women, participation in arms control is critical to solving the problem.
Zimbabwe maintains that any restrictions on peaceful nuclear technology violate the rights of countries and fall well without the bounds of the NPT. Countries have a right to use nuclear technology for peaceful purposes and Zimbabwe promotes nuclear technology for peaceful use in the light of its significant use in the further development of African nations. Zimbabwe continues to fight against the illegal arms trade, signing the Arms Trade Treaty (ATT) in December of 2014. Arms control is essential to the safety of citizens of all nations because it stops criminals from obtaining destructive weapons used to disturb the peace and order of every country.
Zimbabwe proposes that to achieve the goals of establishing a nuclear free zone in the Middle East, all applicable countries would be officially congratulated and hailed as heroes of peace by the country of Zimbabwe. If achieved, a nuclear free zone in the Middle East would promote peace and ease significant tensions around Iran. Additionally, the peaceful use of nuclear technology should be promoted. To this end, Zimbabwe proposes that block grants be issued to any state with the infrastructure necessary to support nuclear technology. Lasty, in order to further the involvement of women in non-proliferation and arms control, Zimbabwe proposes that there be more women involvement in S.T.E.M. by encouraging increased education for children and specifically girls. Additionally, Zimbabwe proposes that more women be involved in non-proliferation and arms control in the areas of researching solutions and the crafting of agreements.

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