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Historical Security Council of 1993

Members Members

Brazil
Cape Verde
China
Djibouti
France
Hungary
Japan
Morocco
New Zealand
Pakistan
Russian Federation
Spain
United Kingdom
United States of America
Venezuela

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Introduction Introduction

The Historical Security Council (HSC) of 1993 will simulate the events of the world beginning on 23 May 1993. The Secretary-General of the United Nations was Boutros Boutros-Ghali. Historically, the key international security concerns at the time revolved around the situations in Bosnia, Somalia and Rwanda, ongoing peacekeeping operations in Africa and the Middle East, and disputes over unpaid dues to fund those operations. However, the Council may discuss any issue involving international peace and security. Representatives should have a broad knowledge of the world and world events as they stood on 23 May 1993. The Security Council can, at its discretion, involve other States or parties to the dispute on a particular topic. Possible parties to the dispute may include Bosnia and Herzegovina, Haiti, Rwanda and Somalia.

The brief synopsis presented here offers merely introductory coverage of prominent international issues that can direct representatives’ continued research and preparation.

For each topic area, representatives should consider the following questions, which should assist them in gaining a better understanding of the issues at hand, particularly from their country’s perspective:

  • How did this conflict begin?
  • Is this a new conflict or a reignition of a previous conflict?
  • How have similar situations and conflicts been peacefully resolved?
  • What State and regional actors are involved in this conflict? If there are non-State actors involved in a conflict, are there any States supporting them? If so, which ones?

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The Situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina The Situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina

The Kingdom of Yugoslavia, formed from territories of the former Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman Empires, was invaded by German, Italian and Hungarian forces on 6 April 1941, driving its monarch King Peter II into exile. Thousands of Yugoslavian Jews, Serbs and Romas were sent to death camps. During the occupation, Josip Broz Tito led his resistance group, the Partisans, across Yugoslavia, successfully gaining territory back from opposition forces throughout World War II.

In 1945, an election was held to determine the future government of Yugoslavia: communist or monarchal. Seen as Yugoslavia’s liberator during the occupation, Tito won with overwhelming support and became its first Prime Minister. He restructured the state into the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Tito enjoyed widespread, popular support as Prime Minister, President, and finally as President for Life. Breaking from Stalin in 1948, Tito positioned Yugoslavia between the Eastern and Western blocs, becoming the first Secretary-General of the Non-Aligned Movement in 1961 and enjoying outsized international prominence as the East and West’s go-between.

However, as economic disparity increased between the republics beginning in the late 1970s, which continued after the death of President Tito in 1980. As the Cold War came to an end the Socialist Federal Republic faced a wave of nationalistic movements and began to disintegrate into its component republics of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Slovenia.

In the late 1980’s, Slobodan Milošević rose to power as the leader of the Serbian nationalist movement, becoming Serbia’s President of the Presidency on 9 May 1989. Milošević expanded his influence across Yugoslavia and, by January 1990, he effectively controlled the government of Montenegro, as well as the Socialist Autonomous Provinces of Kosovo and Vojvodina (all with significant Serbian populations), giving President Milošević four of the eight votes in the collective head-of-state of Yugoslavia. President Milošević advocated for a unified Yugoslav state; all other republics sought independence.

By 1992, only Serbia and Montenegro had not declared independence. Republics declaring independence clashed with the Yugoslav’s People’s Army (at this point, President Milošević’s forces) as well as with Serbian factions within their own borders. International bodies attempted to create conditions favorable to a peaceful dissolution of Yugoslavia. The European Communities pressured Croatia and Slovenia to suspend independence claims for three months after their declarations of independence on 25 June 1991. On 25 September 1991, the Security Council implemented a “general and complete embargo” on arms deliveries across Yugoslavia in an attempt to quell the increasing violence. Despite these actions, civilian casualties and the number of internally displaced persons (IDPs) rose at an alarming rate, primarily within Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina.

The Security Council established the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR) on 21 February 1992. UNPROFOR’s initial mandate was to monitor the ceasefire in Croatia and provide humanitarian aid to Bosnia and Herzegovina. It included military, police and civilian components deployed in three United Nations Protected Areas (UNPAs) to secure humanitarian aid: Eastern Slovenia, Krajina and Western Slavonia, with military observers deployed in certain parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

On 29 February 1992, the Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina passed a referendum for independence. At the time, Bosnia and Herzegovina was inhabited by 44 percent Muslim Bosniaks, 33 percent Eastern Orthodox Serbs and 17 percent Catholic Croats. Political representatives of the Bosnian Serbs boycotted the referendum and rejected the results, and began mobilizing to secure territory within Bosnia.

On 6 April 1992, Bosnia and Herzegovina received international recognition as an independent state. That day, Bosnian Serb forces began shelling Sarajevo, and within the month, all of Bosnia was engulfed in war. Alliances within the conflict are complex and dynamic. Currently, the primary belligerents are the forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the irregular forces of Herzeg-Bosnia (supported by Croatia), and the irregular forces of Republika Srpska (supported by Serbia). Both Herzeg-Bosnia and Republika Srpska have additional elements of foreign volunteer forces, and the regular forces of Croatia and Serbia (the Yugoslav People’s Army) continue to be active in Bosnia. At the beginning of the war, Bosnia and Herzegovina were allied with Herzeg-Bosnia, however tensions have increased such that all three forces are openly fighting each other within the borders of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Reports of mass killings, ethnic cleansing and other violations of international humanitarian law by Croatian and Serbian forces have been widespread and credible. On 22 February 1993, the Security Council determined that an international tribunal is necessary to prosecute those responsible. The Security Council is waiting for the Secretary-General to report on options to establish a tribunal. On 20 March 1993, Bosnia and Herzegovina filed an Application with the International Court of Justice instituting proceedings against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) in respect to alleged violations of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide.

The Security Council has expanded UNPROFOR’s mandate three times in 1992 and 1993, first to provide aid to Sarajevo, then to escort aid throughout Bosnia, and finally to protect Sarajevo as a “safe area” free “from armed attack or any other hostile act.” The conflict has forced out thousands of refugees from territory under Serbian control. Violence against non-Serbs, particularly Bosnian Muslims, has surged. On 22 January 1993, the Croatian Army launched an offensive in a number of UNPROFOR’s “pink zones;” areas adjacent to and surrounding UNPAs. Three days later, the Council adopted resolution 802 (1993) which demanded an immediate cessation of hostilities against UN personnel and UNPROFOR-controlled areas.

In an attempt to negotiate peace between Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia and Serbia, the United Nations and European Economic Community (EEC) sent UN Special Envoy David Owen and ECC Representative Cyrus Vance to Bosnia. The Vance-Owen Peace Plan involves the division of Bosnia into ten semi-autonomous regions. The plan remains highly controversial, with the United States as the primary opponent, and was rejected by referendum on 16 May. With no formal peace plan agreed upon between the parties, the Council continues to strengthen the mandate of UNPROFOR and violations against humanitarian law continue otherwise unabated.

Bibliography Bibliography

UN Documents UN Documents

  • United Nations, Security Council (1993). Bosnia. 6 May. S/RES/824.
  • United Nations, Security Council (1992). Bosnia. 30 May. S/RES/757.
  • United Nations, Security Council (1992). Bosnia. 15 May. S/RES/752.
  • United Nations, Security Council (1992). Bosnia. 21 February. S/RES/743.
  • United Nations, Security Council (1992). Bosnia. 8 January. S/RES/727.
  • United Nations, Security Council (1991). Bosnia. 24 November. S/23239.
  • United Nations, Security Council (1991). Bosnia. 24 November. S/RES/713.

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The Situation in Somalia The Situation in Somalia

Though ethnically and religiously homogeneous, Somalia’s population has a strong division between ancestral clans. Political power was distributed amongst clans under British and Italian colonial rule to reinforce divisions, and continued under the dictatorship of President Mohamed Siad Barre after his bloodless coup in 1969. By the late 1970’s, military power was also distributed along clan lines, again used to stoke inter-clan competition and conflict to ensure Barre’s overall control. Following Somalia’s defeat in the Ogaden War with Ethiopia in 1978, discontent began to spread amongst clan leaders. Barre responded to a failed coup attempt later that year with reprisal killings of 2,000 civilians.

The Somali government became increasingly oppressive through the 1980’s. The Isaaq clan in particular was targeted by the government as a scapegoat for general unrest. Between May 1988 and January 1990, an estimated 50,000 to 60,000 people were killed, with roughly 80% estimated to be civilians, and 500,000 people were displaced due to the genocide. The campaign was expensive both in munitions and in international support, with significant pressure leading to the United States reducing its arming of the Somali government.

A number of clan-based militias rose to power and consolidated regional control throughout Somalia. Militias like the United Somali Congress (USC) and Somali Patriotic Movement (SPM) began to attack Somali armed forces directly. At the end of 1990, the USC launched an offensive on Mogadishu, and on 27 January 1991, Barre fled the capital city of Mogadishu, leaving no clear political authority of Somalia.

President Ali Mahdi Muhammad is currently the nominal President of the Interim Government of Somalia, but his hold on power is limited to international recognition and Mogadishu. The central government is essentially nonfunctional. General Mohammed Farah Aidid, who helped oust Barre in the 1991 revolution, commands the armed factions of the USC and directly vies with a dozen other, smaller armed factions throughout Somalia.

The civil war has destroyed much of Somalia’s agriculture. Between 1991 and 1992, over three hundred thousand Somalis died of starvation. Compounding the issue, up to 80 percent of international food aid is being stolen by armed gangs to secure the loyalty of clan leaders or to be exchanged regionally for weapons. In July 1992, President Muhammad and General Aidid signed a ceasefire in Mogadishu, and the United Nations deployed 50 peacekeepers to observe of the ceasefire and to provide security for United Nations personnel and humanitarian aid. In August 1992, Operation Provide Relief began to provide humanitarian relief for the people of Somalia. However, as with earlier humanitarian efforts, relief flights into Somalia were often looted as soon as they landed. Relief workers reported sophisticated commercial operations funneling stolen food into the black market. On 27 November 1992, the Secretary-General, in his letter to the President of the Security Council, reported rapidly deteriorating support across all factions within Somalia for any efforts to secure humanitarian aid. He outlined a cycle of “extortion and blackmail” that must be broken to permit the distribution of relief supplies.

The United States offered to provide the majority of 37,000 troops to establish the Unified Task Force (UNITAF) to secure relief efforts in southern Somalia. The Security Council accepted the offer and authorized UNITAF to use “all necessary means” to ensure the protection of relief efforts. While the United Nations Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM) sought to negotiate a political end to the conflict, UNITAF was a United States-led, United Nations-sanctioned force tasked solely with the immediate security concerns of Somalia, intended to be a temporary use of force to establish a security zone first in Mogadishu and then throughout the surrounding regions of southern Somalia.

By March 1993, UNITAF had secured an expanded security zone around Mogadishu, but had not yet established a security zone and trade routes throughout southern Somalia. Despite this the United States signalled a drawdown of its commitment to UNITAF. On 26 March, the Security Council established UNOSOM II, with a mandate to seek a political end to the conflict and to rebuild the nation. The Security Council granted UNOSOM II enforcement powers under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter though across the entire country.

UNITAF was dissolved on 4 May, and UNOSOM II formally took over relief and nation building efforts in Somalia with a force of 22,000 United Nations peacekeepers.

Bibliography Bibliography

UN Documents UN Documents

  • United Nations, Security Council (1993). Somalia. 6 June. S/RES/837.
  • United Nations, Security Council (1993). Somalia. 26 March. S/RES/814.
  • United Nations, Security Council (1992). Somalia. 3 December. S/RES/794.
  • United Nations, Security Council (1992). Somalia. 24 April. S/RES/751.
  • United Nations, Security Council (1992). Somalia. 17 March. S/RES/746.
  • United Nations, Security Council (1992). Somalia. 23 January. S/RES/733.

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The Situation in Rwanda The Situation in Rwanda

After Belgium accepted a League of Nations mandate to govern Rwanda in 1916, it created identification cards that classified people according to ethnicity. The Belgians gave the Tutsis, an ethnic minority, the majority of political power in the mandate, as well as greater educational and occupational opportunities than the Hutu, the ethnic majority. Over time, Hutu resentment toward the Tutsis escalated and resulted in a series of riots in 1959, which caused the death of over 20,000 Tutsis and pushed refugees across the border into Uganda. Three years later, when Belgium granted Rwanda independence, the new government was dominated by the Party of the Hutu Emancipation Movement, which promulgated policies of ethnic supremacy.

In 1987, the Tutsis who had fled to Uganda as a result of the 1959 riots established the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) and an armed segment called the Rwandan Patriotic Army (RPA) . Three years later, on 1 October 1990, the RPA invaded northern Rwanda. This initial invasion proved unsuccessful, but after retreating and taking time to regroup, the RPA began a more successful insurgency campaign. On 28 March 1991, a ceasefire was signed in Zaire between the RPF and the Rwandan government. Unfortunately, the ceasefire was broken almost immediately.

The war continued, despite several rounds of negotiations. On 16 April 1992, Rwandan President Juvenal Habyarimana authorized opposition parties to join the Rwandan government, creating a coalition government. Three months later, on 12 July 1992, an additional ceasefire agreement was signed in Arusha, Tanzania. The ceasefire agreement formally went into effect on 1 August, and the parties rejoined on 10 January 1993 to reach a power-sharing agreement based on the creation of a transitional government.

This ceasefire was violated by an RPF offensive on 8 February. By this time, the number of internally displaced persons had reached nearly one million. The parties agreed to reinstate the ceasefire on 9 March, and the Council adopted resolution 812 on 12 March, which dispatched an observer mission to the Uganda-Rwanda border. Peace talks resumed in Arusha on 16 March. Recently, the Permanent Representative of Uganda reaffirmed that his Government is prepared to accept the stationing of a United Nations observer mission on the Ugandan side of the border. An interim report of the Secretary-General on Rwanda dated 20 May 1993 states that the current round of negotiations between parties covers military issues, refugees and displaced persons, along with outstanding political matters such as the amendment of the constitution.

Bibliography Bibliography

UN Documents UN Documents

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The Situation in Haiti The Situation in Haiti

Following years of increasing discontent and pressure from Pope John Paul II and the United States, Jean-Claude Duvalier peacefully departed Haiti on 7 February 1986 after 15 years as President for Life, ending his dynastic regime. Four years of coup d’etats and elections marred by violence and accusations of fraud followed, and in 1990 the provisional government of Haiti requested the United Nations to observe its elections. The General Assembly established the United Nations Observer Group for the Verification of the Elections in Haiti (ONUVEH) on 10 October 1990. Haiti held general elections in December 1990, which were seen as fair and successful both by ONUVEH and Haiti. President Jean-Bertrand Aristide assumed office on 7 February 1991.

On 29 September 1991 Lieutenant-General Raoul Cédras led a coup d’état, deposing President Aristide. Reaction to the coup was violent, and Haiti plunged into disorder and violence. Civil unrest resulted in the massive displacement of an estimated 300,000 Haitians, sending tens of thousands of refugees to neighboring countries.

On 30 September 1991, the Permanent Representative of Haiti sent a letter to the President of the Security Council requesting an immediate meeting to “consider the situation in Haiti and its consequences for regional stability.” At its 3011th meeting, on 3 October 1991, the President of the Security Council stated that the events in Haiti “represented a violent usurpation of legitimate democratic authority and power” and “deserved to be strongly condemned.” All speakers participating in the meeting echoed the sentiments of the President.

On 15 March 1993, the General Assembly adopted resolution 47/143 which called for the restoration of President Aristide, the full application of the National Constitution and the full observance of human rights. It also requested the Secretary-General to take the “necessary measures” in order to assist the Organization of American States (OAS) in solving the Haiti crisis. In February 1993, the OAS, with approval from President Aristide, established the International Civilian Mission in Haiti (MICIVIH) to verify respect for human rights as laid down in the Haitian Constitution, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the American Convention on Human Rights.

Efforts to resolve the Haitian political crisis have centered around three issues: the return of President Aristide, the appointment of a Prime Minister to head a Government of national concord and the resolution of the question of amnesty. The Secretary-General’s special envoy to Haiti, Dante Caputo, has facilitated negotiations between Cédras’ government and Aristide, but negotiations are stalled.

MICIVIH observers began deployment to Haiti in March 1993. In his 24 March 1993 report to the General Assembly, the Secretary-General recommended the establishment of the United Nations component of MICIVIH. The General Assembly authorized United Nations participation with the OAS in MICIVIH on 20 April, reiterating the need to have the Aristide government restored to power and continuing dialogue with Caputo.

To date, the Security Council has not acted to address the current political and growing humanitarian crisis in Haiti. President Aristide remains in exile in the United States.

Bibliography Bibliography

UN Documents UN Documents

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The Situation in the Middle East The Situation in the Middle East

There are currently four ongoing United Nations operations in the region, representing an array of peacekeeping and observer mandates and functions.

United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) was established in March 1978 after Israel occupied significant territory in the South Lebanon conflict. UNIFIL is tasked with “confirming the withdrawal of Israeli forces, restoring international peace and security and assisting the Government of Lebanon in ensuring the return of its effective authority in the area.” Israel has long since withdrawn from its positions held during the invasion that prompted UNIFIL’s creation, but fighting continues between Israeli forces, local Lebanese militias, and Hezbollah, resulting in the displacement of hundreds of thousands of civilians. Five thousand peacekeepers are currently deployed in Lebanon. In January 1993, S/RES/803 extended UNIFIL’s mandate to 31 July 1993.

The United Nations Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF) was established on 21 May 1974 to implement the ceasefire that ended the Yom Kippur War between Israel and Syria. UNDOF continues to monitor the ceasefire and maintain the buffer zone between the States with 900 peacekeepers. UNDOF’s mandate has been extended every six months since its inception. Its mandate currently extends to 31 May 1993, via S/RES/790.

The United Nations Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO) was the first United Nations peacekeeping mission, established 29 May 1948 to observe a four week Israeli-Palestinian ceasefire. It has since become its own subsidiary body of the Security Council, and now provides support to other peacekeeping efforts in the region. It is particularly adept at rapidly deploying observers to developing crises in the region, providing a core of observers around which more lasting peacekeeping operations are built. UNTSO currently provides military observer support to both UNIFIL and UNDOF.

United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission (UNIKOM) was established on 9 April 1991 to observe the demilitarized zone (DMZ) between Iraq and Kuwait following of the Gulf War. Its mandate was most recently modified in February 1993 by S/RES/806 which militarized the observer mission, in response to repeated incursions into the DMZ by Iraq in January 1993. In addition to supplementing UNIKOM’s 300 observers with 900 armed peacekeepers, the Security Council granted UNIKOM the power to actively prevent violations in the DMZ. Under S/RES/689, UNIKOM’s mandate must be reviewed every six months, but the mandate will automatically extend without a resolution from the Security Council. The next review is scheduled to take place in April 1993.

UN Documents UN Documents

  • United Nations, Security Council (1993). The Middle East. 5 February. S/RES/806.
  • United Nations, Security Council (1993). The Middle East. 28 January. S/RES/803.
  • United Nations, Security Council (1992). The Middle East. 25 November. S/RES/790.
  • United Nations, Security Council (1992). The Middle East. 26 August. S/RES/773.
  • United Nations, Security Council (1992). The Middle East. 30 July. S/RES/768.
  • United Nations, Security Council (1992). The Middle East. 29 May. S/RES/756.
  • United Nations, Security Council (1992). The Middle East. 9 April. S/RES/689.

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United Nations Peacekeeping Budget United Nations Peacekeeping Budget

Peacekeeping costs for 1993 are expected to rise by more than a third to $3.7 billion. The failure of Member States to pay their share of peacekeeping costs is a major problem. By the end of April, unpaid peacekeeping dues totalled $1.5 billion. These unpaid dues cast serious doubts about the United Nations’ ability to finance future peacekeeping operations

The current United Nations mission in Somalia, UNOSOM II, is expected to cost $1.2 billion a year. If the Serbs in Bosnia can be persuaded to accept an international peace plan, the United Nations plans to deploy some 70,000 troops to the area, which could cost an additional $2 billion a year.

Bibliography Bibliography

UN Documents UN Documents

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