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Position Papers by Committee

Position paper for General Assembly Fourth Committee


Country:Afghanistan
Topic: Assistance in mine action
Paper text:
Decades of warfare have left many countries around the world plagued with the blemishes of landmines. Often indiscriminately placed, they present a danger both during times of conflict and in the aftermath. In Afghanistan, nearly 724 million square meters of land are carpeted with these instruments of death. Landmines, although often intended for use in warfare, have been proven to produce exorbitantly higher casualty rates for the civilians who reside near the combat zone. In 2000, it was estimated that roughly eighty-eight civilian casualties were occurring monthly in Afghanistan. With Afghanistan now under Taliban rule, the new government intends to maintain the previous stance of opposition to the use of landmines, no matter the circumstances. Within this meeting, the nation of Afghanistan, intends on furthering the agenda of the United Nations Mine Action strategy, and to join in with the many other nations in the world to eradicate this threat. Afghanistan also would also advise other foreign nations to accompany the majority of the world in adopting a position to end the proliferation and use of landmines. Lastly, the new Afghanistan would like to appeal to the rest of the world for continued support in the demining of our nation. If Afghanistan is to succeed as a developing country our future hinges on the removal of the remains of warfare.

Country:Afghanistan
Topic: Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
Paper text:
Decolonization is one of the largest feats of the United Nations. Since its establishment in 1945, fifty-five nations have inherited individual sovereignty with the assistance of the United Nations. However, as the UN moves into its sixth decade of operation, the remaining seventeen nations still seek their independence from foreign powers. As a former colony of the United Kingdom, Afghanistan has experienced the tumultuous passage of nation building in a post-colonial environment. As the new operating government under Taliban rule seeks to rebuild the country from decades of warfare, we also intend to support the United Nations mission in ending colonial authority throughout the world. Afghanistan intends on joining with the C-24 committee in the Fourth International Decade for the Eradication of Colonialism, by building an action plan for the elimination of remaining colonialism throughout the world.

Country:Argentina
Topic: Assistance in mine action
Paper text:
Argentina affirms the need for mine assistance. Argentina also reaffirms the existence of anti- personnel mines in the Malvinas. The need for assistance in their destruction and safe removal is needed. Argentina also welcomes the support for assistance in the Malvinas. As a signatory of the Ottawa Convention, Argentina gives full support to Mine assistance programs. Since the Malvinas are under illegal occupation by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland we remain unable to fulfill the obligations of any mine assistance agreements. Argentina is ready to safely remove any APM’s in the Malvinas with proper access and sovereignty of the areas.

Country:Argentina
Topic: Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
Paper text:
The implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples is heavily supported by the Argentine Republic. The Declaration was adopted in 1960 to encourage self-determination of countries that had been colonized. This Declaration is meant to smoothly transfer power from the colonizer country to the newly formed nation. The Argentine Republic has voted in support of the Declaration since its adoption in 1960. While we support self-determination for the other sixteen non-self-governing territories, Argentina cannot support self-determination for the Falkland Islands. When it comes to the question of the Falkland Islands, Argentina does not see this situation as an issue of self-determination, but a territorial dispute. The reason that Argentina does not see this as a self-determination issue is rooted in the fact that when the Falklands were taken over in 1833, the Argentinian people and governing body were driven out. The people that currently inhabit the Falkland Islands are not natives being subjected to a colonial power so they do not fall under the category of needing self-determination. The United Kingdom has continuously avoided bilateral negotiations with the Argentine Republic since 1982 so the territorial dispute has not been settled. Argentina will support the other sixteen non-self-governing territories in their path to self-determination. Argentina is also in favor of providing assistance to non-self-governing nations in their path towards independence and is willing to work with other nations to achieve this goal. As a former colony, the Argentine Republic has gone through our own experience on the journey to independence and is willing to assist the non-self-governing countries in any way our nation can. Argentina calls for the removal of the Falkland Islands from the list of the non-self-governing territories and in response, Argentina will fully contribute support for the implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples.

Country:Armenia
Topic: Assistance in mine action
Paper text:
While Armenia recognizes the goals of the United Nations in moving towards a mine free world by 2025, we also recognize that acting in a manner of “cleaning up” conflict can only be done after the fact, and so long as areas in which such mines exist remain under conflict, nothing can be done to prevent these deadly weapons of war from taking more lives. It is the position of Armenia that the United Nations should focus less on the documentation of the devastation of these mines and ordinances amongst regions which agree on their terrible nature, and more on encouraging the compliance of less agreeable regions in coming together to move towards a better world with more respect for the human and social costs of such weapons. It is Armenia’s will to be able to sign on to such treaties and resolutions as the Mine Ban Treaty which was created at the Ottawa Convention, however, we find ourselves limited by our neighbors and cannot agree to any restriction of our own security without the assurance that they will follow the same restrictions. Armenia values the world and its people, but it owes a duty to its own citizens to not hand over an advantage to those who would endanger their lives and homes.
Armenia does not produce such weapons nor purchase them modernly, but we cannot take any steps further than that unless assured that our neighbors in conflict will do the same. Armenia would be strongly in favor of moving towards disarmament for the well being of not just its own citizens but the worlds, if conflict were not a danger that it had to consider. Furthermore, while Armenia has some capability in removing and mapping its own mines, it would encourage the support of the United Nations in providing more modern equipment that could be used towards such goals, assuming that progress towards disarmament can be made.
Armenia has regularly voted in favor of pro-ban resolutions, repeatedly showing that it is our position that this is a strong and important step forward for the safety of the world, but it's caveats and difficulties must not be underestimated regarding the security of the nations involved.

Country:Armenia
Topic: Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
Paper text:
It is the position of Armenia that decolonization is a crucial world issue and that motions should be made as rapidly, and strongly, as possible towards achieving a successful total implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and People. We believe that the eradication of colonialism requires more active participation by the International Community, and that one the simplest methods that should be taken is the education of non-self-governing territories of their opportunities of self-governance. It is difficult to take the first steps of freeing oneself from an overbearing colonial nation if one does not know what the first steps are. Therefore, Armenia is in favor of providing education to such territories as to their opportunities of self-governance, and offering a guiding hand to lead the way to the total eradication of colonialism in this world, hoping that the fourth decade of this goal will be the last one.
Armenia also holds the position that Economic Support generally and especially in the case of serious disasters (such as naturally caused urban destruction and disease such as COVID-19) is a necessary action by the International Community to ensure that we are not merely setting up these territories for failure as we assist them in achieving self-governance. Therefore, Armenia would be in favor also of an international fund of support or some other kind of economic action taken in the intent of supporting these nations as they pursue the options available to them.
Armenia recognizes that there are many diplomatic barricades to a swift and easy transition from a world of colonialism to a world without, but it believes that through international communication and the pressure of what is good and right, those diplomatic barriers will be able to be broken down, and the plague of colonialism eradicated for good.

Country:Australia
Topic: Assistance in mine action
Paper text:
The government of the Commonwealth of Australia is in support of the United Nation’s continued efforts in the removal of anti-personnel mines as well as its effort to end the production of said mines. Australia is a signatory on the “Mine Ban Treaty,” also known as the Ottawa Convention. According to the Landmine Monitor 2019, Australia is one of forty-one states that has ceased the production of anti-personnel mines. Under the Mine Ban Treaty, Australia retained the use of landmines only for training usage and by 2015, all but five mine stockpiles were destroyed. After an international audit, the final 5 stockpiles were destroyed in November of 2016. Australia has also now stopped the use of mines in training and has turned to alternate technologies. The military has stopped the use of mines completely and is now researching the use of alternate technologies aimed at preventing the return of this inhumane style of warfare.
The Australian government is also a supporter of The United Nations Mine Action Service. In the years 2010 to 2011, Australia provided UNMAS with $15.3 million, making it the 8th largest contributor. Earlier this year, Australia reaffirmed its support of the program, and provided UNMAS with 3,000,000 AUD to further the organization's efforts in stabilizing retaken land in Iraq. This brought up their total contributions over the last 5 years to 21 million AUD. The Australian government understands the devastation that landmines can have on local populations for years, or even decades, to come after a conflict. They have supported previous anti-mine work as seen with the UNMAS and stand willing to aid other countries in their efforts to remove landmines.
One of the most important things that the international community must realize is the pain and suffering that the use of landmines inflicts on civilian populations during and after a conflict. One way to get other nations to sign onto the Ottawa Treaty is to work together to create better options for using mines. As mentioned before, the Australian Armed Forces are experimenting with new technologies to avoid and prevent the use of landmines entirely, and Australia would be more than happy to share its technology with friendly nations in order to encourage them to sign onto the Ottawa Treaty and to assist with further efforts in removing landmines from former combat zones.

Country:Australia
Topic: Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
Paper text:
The Commonwealth of Australia is a firm supporter of the independence and self-determination of all peoples, as outlined in General Assembly Resolution 1514 and in the foundational principles of the United Nations described in the Universal Declaration on Human Rights. As a former colonial dependency, the government of Australia deeply understands the need of all peoples to exercise self-governance in accordance with the democratic ideals that underpin modern society, and celebrates the success of the United Nations in broadly achieving the goal of decolonization since its inception in 1945.
While the United Nations has seen much success in this field over the past 76 years, there is still much work to be done to make certain that the promise of self-governance is being upheld by all nations in the global community. The Government of the Commonwealth of Australia, as a member of the United Nations General Assembly 4th Committee on Special Political Matters and Decolonization and as a nation, reaffirms its commitment to the right of all people to engage with their government and to rule themselves through the democratic process. As seen in its continued membership in this committee since its inception in 1993 and through its membership in international organizations like the Pacific Islands Forum, Australia is an active member in the global discussion around the impacts of colonization and seeks to continue this legacy of support for current and former colonies in reaching self-governance.
Central to the goal of continuing to ensure the freedom and autonomy of all people is the continued focus of the 4th Committee on applying the principles of the United Nations toward decolonization. In order to best accomplish these goals, it is the opinion of the Australian government that the United Nations maintain the course of action established in the “Report Regarding the Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples by the specialized agencies and the international institutions associated with the United Nations” delivered to the 4th Committee during its 71st Session in 2016. In addition to maintaining these policies, this committee should endeavour to expand these already established efforts with additional funding, especially points 17 and 19, regarding giving assistance to non-self-governing territories in disaster preparedness measures and directing additional focus from the all U.N. organizations towards helping to prepare them for independence and self-sufficiency.

Country:Austria
Topic: Assistance in mine action
Paper text:
The Republic of Austria unconditionally advocates for the global eradication of landmines and other Explosive Remnants of War (ERWs). In 1996, we stood among some of the first nations to domestically ban the use, production, development, and stockpiling of Anti-Personnel Mines (APMs) and Anti-Vehicular Mines (AVMs). Austria also spearheads initiatives to emulate this prohibition on an international scale. In 1997, representatives from our government authored the unofficial draft of the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and their destruction (“Ottawa Convention”). Subsequently, we quickly ratified the Ottawa Convention. At the United Nations (UN), Austria supports all efforts that aim to reduce the international prevalence of landmines and their destruction. Within the Fourth Committee, we voted in support of the crucial resolution 74/80, which encourages mine- affected states to more diligently survey contaminated areas, and more transparently report the results of those surveys. However, with over an average of 5,000 global ERW-caused casualties still occurring each day, we regard the work done by the Ottawa convention and resolutions like resolution 74/80 as beginning steps in an ongoing process of mine action.
Austria enters the 76th session of the General Assembly aligned with the goals of the Mine Free World by 2025 campaign. We have positioned our primary objective as strongly encouraging all states to ratify the Ottawa Convention. We imagine this incentivization can be achieved by stressing mine action’s compatibility with the 17 Sustainable Development Goals, which we understand are central to many Member States’ agendas. Additionally, Austria will support resolutions that suggest stronger regulations around the implementation of mine action. We maintain that states should accomplish mine action criteria, as they are laid out in the Ottawa Convention and the Maputo Action plan, in more timely manners and with greater transparency. However, we do not believe this burden should fall entirely on mine-affected states. Austria supports a multilateral approach to mine action, with unaffected states contributing aid to affected states as well as UN programs such as the UNMAS.

Country:Austria
Topic: Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
Paper text:
The Republic of Austria affirms Non-Self-Governing Territories’ (NSGTs) inalienable rights to self- determination, and we condemn all existing forms of colonization. For these reasons, we voted in 1960 for the adoption of resolution 1514, or the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and People (henceforth referred to as “the Declaration”). We materially agree with the contents of that Declaration as it positions colonial states’ withholding of self- determination from NSGTs as an infringement upon the UN Charter. Furthermore, we concur with the Declaration that contemporary forms of colonization act as human rights violations. Austria applauds the work the United Nations has already done since its founding to restore sovereignty to 55 non-self-governing-territories. Additionally, we support the efforts of C-24 to oversee the humane and effective implementation of decolonial processes, such as transitions of power. Looking forward, we argue that the Fourth Committee of the General Assembly ought to adopt resolutions that better incentivize administering Powers to relinquish colonial power in NSGTs, rather than merely admonishing those Member States.
In deliberations on the implementation of the Declaration, Austria is eager to act as a bridge builder between administering Powers and Member States that strongly advocate for urgent decolonization action. We maintain vital and thriving diplomatic relations with several of these Powers. As a result, we will be able to write resolutions that anticipate the interests of those Member States, and invite them to positively participate in decolonial processes. We anticipate that the framing of the Declaration as a Sustainable Development measure (NSGTs disproportionately struggle to fulfill the 17 Sustainable Development Goals)will incline administering Powers to commit to its gradual implementation. However, though we are interested in achieving multilateral cooperation with colonial states on this issue, our priorities primarily lie with the liberation of NSGTs. We will support all resolutions that promote the self- determination of those Territories, and uphold the human rights of their people.

Country:Bahrain
Topic: Assistance in mine action
Paper text:
The United Nations General Assembly, Fourth Committee was founded to address a number of topics relating to decolonization, the use of mines and refugee issues. This session the committee has been tasked with addressing the role of mines in the modern world. The two issues that Bahrain believes should be at the forefront of the committee’s considerations are first how to handle the explosive remnants of war (ERW) and second the increased use of improvised explosive devices and the introduction of loitering munitions in modern conflicts.
According to a 1994 U.S. State Department report there are upwards of one hundred and ten million explosive remnants of war across the globe. The effects of this can be seen in the same report where it is stated that the sheer number of ERWs has resulted in “Thousands of lives ... lost to explosions; entire regions ... denied basic services because repairs to infrastructure are impeded; humanitarian aid shipments ... disrupted; and societies ... thrown into chaos.” The fact that ERWs are preventing entire regions and nations from properly developing is unacceptable and requires the attention of the fourth committee.
While Bahrain is not a signatory to the Ottawa Treaty, Bahrain has supported and endorsed the treaty as a promising avenue for addressing modern mine use and ERWs. The Ottawa Treaty should be used to set the tone for conversations in the United Nation surrounding mine action. The largest issues that have kept Bahrain from signing is that the treaty does not cover all types of ERWs, lacks realistic member states proper funding mechanisms and deprives smaller nations of a cost effective area denial system. Going forward to the issue of ERWs, Bahrain would like to see a United Nations lead effort to remove all forms of ERWs. This could be done my creating a series of international and local organizations with the expertise to make real progress on the removal of ERWs.
The second major issue the fourth committee should address is the use of improvised explosive devices and the introduction of loitering munitions in modern conflicts. Mines are traditional seen as explosives on land and in the ocean. As contemporary conflicts have evolved into the air and the use of automated loitering munitions is on the rise as a cheap area denial system, Bahrain would like to see loitering munitions fall under the same restrictions as traditional land and sea mines.
One of the main concerns that Bahrain has on the regulation of all mines, IEDs and loitering munitions are two of the most most effective land denial systems available to lower income nations. Bahrain as a smaller nation would like the United Nations Generally assembly to adopt measures to restrain the stockpiling of these weapons rather than see them entirely removed. Bahrain would further like to see efforts made to reduce the use of IEDs in conflict zones as they are significantly harder to detect and disarm as they are homemade and follow no traditional construction methods. This session Bahrain seeks action on how to handle the extensive amount of explosive remnants of war (ERW) and the increased use of improvised explosive devices and the introduction of loitering munitions in modern conflicts.

Country:Bahrain
Topic: Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
Paper text:
One of the main goals of the United Nations when it was created in 1946 was to end colonization and to work toward self-determination for all. It is evident that decolonization does not happen overnight, because of this, administering powers are tasked with protecting the inhabitants, aiding in the creation of self-government, and promoting peace. After the C-24 was created, Special Committee on the Situation with Regard to the Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence of Colonial Countries and Peoples, many non-self-governing territories were able to be free. Since 1990, there have been continuous “international [decades] for the eradication of colonialism, with little to no real impact for the seventeen countries affected. Non-self-governing territories should be guaranteed the right to self- determination, a plethora of freedoms, and autonomy, but European and North American colonizers still have a hold on them. The country of Bahrain was only recently freed from its colonial holder, the United Kingdom, so the country only strives for the freedom of others.

Country:Bangladesh
Topic: Assistance in mine action
Paper text:
The People’s Republic of Bangladesh considers mine action to be a crucial part in protecting the safety of its citizens and troops, and the safety of peoples around the globe. Mines are not only a threat to those embroiled in a conflict, but also to those who are not engaged in it. Like many other countries, Bangladesh has had an unfortunate history with landmines and electronic resistance welding (ERW). Since 2018, there has been a border war with Myanmar regarding the placement of landmines. Myanmar denied the production and use of mines and neighboring state parties continue to deny the efforts by Myanmar. The mines were placed to stop a mass exodus of the Rohingya people but proved to be fatal to the peacekeepers of Bangladesh as well. As such, Bangladesh is firm in its position against the use of mine action. Bangladesh has stood in this position for some time, specifically focusing on it in the last couple of decades of the 20th Century and throughout the 21st century. Notably, with the adoption of the Ottawa Convention on May 7, 1998, and its ratification on September 6, 2000, Bangladesh was the first South Asian country to do so; and has worked on ridding itself of all forms of mines, including ERW’s. Bangladesh has since annexed Protocol V, in 2005, which is responsible for tracking and clearing ERW’s. Other important steps forward that Bangladesh has taken include participating in the Oslo Plan of Action and acting as a staunch supporter in providing help with clearing mines in Kuwait.
In order to appropriately tackle the problem of mine action, Bangladesh sees the need for a wider acceptance of the Ottawa Convention and a general removal of landmines from all states, especially those in Myanmar. The adoption of the Ottawa Convention is necessary but requires lesser reservations on the part of the documents themselves. Stricter mandates should be in place to slowly extinguish mines from the countries who have not signed the treaty. Countries, such as the United States of America or the Russian Federation, may demand the right to hold power in any form but Bangladesh recognizes and is horrified by the loss of human life that has been caused by the increase in mines. The effects of landmines are starting to be seen on a global scale with mine-related casualties increasing by seventy five percent. Restrictions on the part of countries not a part of the Ottawa Convention is prudent in protecting the lives of the citizens now and into the future. Bangladesh also sees the need for all countries to receive and enact the United Nations Mine Action Strategy (2019-2023). However, Bangladesh recognizes that some countries may be unable to follow through with the proposed actions on their own and looks forward to continuing to participate in international cooperation to act against the threat of mine action.

Country:Bangladesh
Topic: Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
Paper text:
The People's Republic of Bangladesh is completely committed to decolonization and restoration of the rightful sovereignty of peoples suffering under occupation by colonial powers. How could we not, when our culture, peoples, and lifeways have been violated by colonial powers and those who acted under their advisement. As a country that has had to undergo the process of decolonization, Bangladesh strongly believes that the Fourth International Decade for the Eradication of Colonialism should be the last decade that is needed to be called as such. Bangladesh has continually voted towards helping the non-self-governing territories work toward achieving self-determination, with a continuous record of "Yes" votes on the Dissemination of Information on Decolonization and the Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and People. As a country that is a leader in peacekeepers and one that is currently suffering from another government’s problems, Bangladesh sees the need for a strong multilateral approach that addresses the lack of movement in self-determination over the past two International Decades for Eradication of Colonialism. And just as Bangladesh affirms their belief in the right of sovereignty and self- determination of the Palestinian people, so too does Bangladesh fully champions the right of non-self-governing territories to hold self-determination in all forms and achieve sovereignty if they so choose.
Bangladesh seeks to implement a neutral committee to independently review the current understandings of the rights to self-determination in non-self-governing territories with the hopes that it will allow for a complete understanding of what problems these territories face in that regard. Bangladesh notes that there have been calls for this in the past, both from member states and from activists in the non-self-governing territories and so considers this to be of high priority. It is with that goal that Bangladesh would also like to achieve a multilateral campaign on awareness of the rights to self-determination in these countries, with the current governments of these territories unequivocally making the rights to self-determination completely known and available to the people. Bangladesh also seeks to see that the people of these territories be put first in priority over the need for militarization from their current governing powers and considers that disarmament of the territories may be necessary if there is to be full transparency and access to self-determination of the territories. Finally, Bangladesh once more calls for vaccine equality to be undertaken across the world and specifically in the non-self-governing territories. This is done with the understanding that Covid-19 is a critical concern in the non-self- governing territories and may be act in the future as a contributing factor to a lack of awareness or ability to reach for the right of self-determination.

Country:Belgium
Topic: Assistance in mine action
Paper text:
Belgium is a member of the European Union (EU) and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), who both support mine action. So far, Belgium has donated two million eros towards the United Nation Mine Action Service (UNMAS). This action will and have provided for mine clearance, risk education, and victim assistance specifically in Iraq and Syria. The support of mine action helps nations to rebuild themselves after war; agriculturally and allows the population to continue to relocate into these areas once again. Similarly to how we have acted in the past, Belgium will continue to work closely with the United States on these actions. The United States is an adamant supporter of this action, creating the U.S. Humanitarian Mine Action Program. Belgium has always and will continue to provide whatever support necessary to continue to support mine action around the world. We have decided to pair with the U.S. and provide financial support as well as man-power if necessary to remove mines in third world-countries, educate on mine safety, and provide medical care and homes to those impacted by the mine crisis.

Country:Belgium
Topic: Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
Paper text:
Belgium stands strong with the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and People. With Belgium's troubled past with colonialism a new Belgium stoves for freedom, equality, and sovereignty. We will continue to support any and all action that sides with these beliefs. European nations as a whole have had a troubling past with colonialism and it is our responsibility to amend these past actions.

Country:Bolivia
Topic: Assistance in mine action
Paper text:
The Landmine Monitor, reports that there are about 50 million anti-personnel mines stockpiled around the world in 2019. Although, a significant reduction from the 160 million estimated before the 199 Mine Ban Treaty. We believe that the high capacity for harm that arises from land mines is far too great. Our outlook on mine action is, and continues to progress towards the successful pursuit to find solutions to this global issue. According to the 13 June briefing ( 2017 Security council), we, the country of Bolivia, have expressed interest against landmines and their anthropoid threats in numerous nations. From countless deaths of civilians and peacekeepers to massive destruction caused by ERWS( explosive remnants of war) and the IEDs (improvised explosive devices), we call upon immediate collaboration with other nations who are not involved in the UNMAs (United Nation Mine Action Service) to help establish/fund UNMAs programmes to assist nations who are prone to explosive mine catastrophes and are still have active landmines. By doing so, peacekeepers will be given pertinent equipment and training in their operations and eliminate continuous use of explosive machinery. This project has been successfully implemented into plentiful pro-UNMAs countries such as Palestine and Somalia to help avoid health and environmental issues in their nations. We invite other nations to join our fight to end this detrimental aftermath of landmines towards saving future generations from our past failures.

Country:Bolivia
Topic: Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
Paper text:
As a formerly colonized country, the country of Bolivia stands with colonial countries seeking independence and will support the granting of independence and sovereignty to current non-self governing territories. The steps toward independence are not easy, however. Colonized countries today are kept by the colonizing powers for the economic benefit that territory might provide them, but those powers do not care for the domestic issues affecting colonized countries or peoples. Having gone through this experience in the past under colonial rule from Spain, we know colonized powers do not need colonized territories and are significantly harming, rather than helping, colonial countries and peoples. This being said, an established relationship has been formed between colonized countries and the colonial power, so an outright withdrawal might also hurt the colonized country. We encourage that all colonial powers not only relinquish control of their states, but also help implement a government that can function without the necessity of the colonizing state. In order to help move non-self governing territories toward independence, Bolivia will support the facilitation of non-violent turnover of power.

Country:Cambodia
Topic: Assistance in mine action
Paper text:
The Kingdom of Cambodia directly suffers from land mines hence it holds a very serious stance on disarmament. Cambodia suffered from many years of conflict and worked with Norwegian People’s Aid to disarm mines. Since 1979, mines have killed or injured over 64,000 Cambodians. CMAC (Cambodian Mine Action Center) and CMAA (Cambodian Mine Action Authorities) have worked tirelessly with the goal of fully de-mining the country by 2025. Cambodia would appreciate any cooperation to achieve a mine-free world.

Country:Cambodia
Topic: Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
Paper text:
The Kingdom of Cambodia, also a previously colonized country by the Republic of France and Japan, insists upon reparations to previously colonized nations. Cambodia has seen the disastrous effects of colonization firsthand hence Cambodia urges all previously colonized countries to come together and work towards resolutions that help alleviate the effects of colonization.

Country:Canada
Topic: Assistance in mine action
Paper text:
For the past two decades, Canada has remained committed to mine action, having donated over $450 million to the efforts of universalizing the Ottawa Convention, which was signed in 1997 and is focused on clearing landmine-affected areas and enabling those communities to return to a safe existence, as well as increasing mine education and improving the representation of women and youth in participating in mine action. Since 2018 we have allocated millions of dollars in funds to improve conditions in landmine-infested territories such as Iraq, Afghanistan, Sri Lanka, Colombia and Ukraine. Our efforts, combined with the efforts of several nations and territories around the world, have helped reduce the impact of mines in these areas, but there is still much work to be done. To date, 32 nations have not signed the Ottawa Convention, and others are threatening to leave the treaty.
We believe that every nation should be a signatory to the Ottawa Convention, which has set a reasonable baseline for mine action. In addition, every country should increase their funding of mine action in disproportionately affected regions, focusing resources on landmine-clearing, increased awareness of mine safety, and victim care. These are already areas of focus, but it’s clear we need to do more, as over 5,000 people die of landmine-inflicted wounds each year. Advanced detection technology must become an area of research, and every nation must participate in order to maximize lives saved.
Attainable targets for gender equality in mine action should also be a priority. Women have a lot to offer in this field, and historically they have been largely excluded. It is our position that this meeting of the United Nations should come together to agree upon strict yet achievable goals to reduce mine action around the world and enable communities once stricken with destruction caused by landmines to see real economic growth and social recovery.

Country:Canada
Topic: Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
Paper text:
Colonialism refers to when a country or nation grants power over other regions, lands, or territories outside of their borders. The people of former colonial countries who have been granted independence still feel the effects of colonialism many years later. Issues such as the spread of disease, economic instability, ethnic tensions, and violations of human rights are caused by the effects of colonialism. Colonial countries often lack the opportunity to develop politically, economically, and socially due to the external power’s presence. Though decolonization comes with instability in post-colonial political systems, granting independence to colonial countries allows the affirmed right for self-determination and self-sovereignty.
The Constitution Act of 1982 granted Canada independence from the former colonial power of the United Kingdom. Though there was knowledge of Canada’s desire to become independent, there were still millions of Canadians that remained loyal to the British empire. Originally, Canada chose to remain in the commonwealth of the United Kingdom out of fear of takeover by the United States, though it does so today because it values its alliance with the United Kingdom and other commonwealth nations.
As the delegation of Canada, we believe that countries overtaken by colonial powers shall be granted independence. However, independence can come with many complications. We suggest that aid to establish a strong economy should be provided to newly independent countries. We also believe that support to create a stable government and political system should be granted as one of the main sources of failed decolonization is the instability of the new government implemented in the post-colonial country. However, this risk of instability has greater benefit than having those countries remain under colonial rule. The United Nations should gather to create plans to grant independence as well as provide aid to the newly- independent countries.

Country:Chile
Topic: Assistance in mine action
Paper text:
Humanitarian efforts coming from organizations such as the “white helmets” play an ever- an important role in protecting and helping civilians gravely in need. The International community, without any hesitation, should support the work of this initiative. As the delegation from Chile, our current stance on “white helmets,” has yet to change. We commit to continue supporting and backing any funding for humanitarian efforts. As members of this committee, we need to be aware of the continuous work of the “white helmets” and their push for resolving humanitarian conflicts and mending barriers such as political turmoil and financial restraints that conflict with basic human necessities.
Our delegation's previous support for the Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 10 December 2015, 70/105 (A/RES/70/105) proves our stance on the matter. This adopted resolution aids those who are less fortunate, establishes emergency humanitarian relief, and enforces a commitment of comradeship with one another. Topics such as food security, poverty, and malnutrition are covered in this resolution and our delegation is honored to support efforts such as these. The support behind this resolution illustrates the International community’s support for humanitarian aid and assistance, and we applaud these efforts.
The Republic of Chile will continue to support the “white helmets” and organizations corresponding with the “white helmets”. Our delegation's previous and current support on bills like the (A/RES/70/105) display this stance.
The Delegation from the Republic of Chile believes in the initiatives of lending a helping hand to those in need of humanitarian assistance. We strongly believe that this is in our republic's best interest to combat world issues such as poverty, hunger, and natural disaster rescue relief. Chile stands behind those who serve the people and have our world's inhabitants’ best interest at heart.

Country:Chile
Topic: Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
Paper text:
As the relationship between the state of Israel and the Palestinian people continue to undergo peace negotiations, Palestinians currently under Israeli occupation have been faced with several injustices and human rights violations. Palestinians have been killed by Israeli soldiers and civilians, have become victims of harassment and ill-treatment, and continually face wrongful persecutions in what they perceive as their homeland. This, naturally, results in civilians escaping as refugees. This blatant disregard for human rights of both the Palestinian and Arab people along with refugees, on part of the Israeli state, must be met with force by the members of the International community. It is our responsibility and our obligation to provide adequate support for any initiative or provision that upholds and protects human rights in the region.
Although we applaud the work of multiple refugee assistance and support groups, such as the United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA), reports indicate that conditions in these humanitarian refugee camps continue to worsen. Basic infrastructure is poor, camps are overcrowded, the school system is inadequate, and disease is running rampant. We strongly encourage the International community to increase their financial support and commitments to provide these suffering refugees with basic human necessities.
As the delegation from the Republic of Chile, we are ardent supporters of basic human security and rights for Palestinians, Arabs, and refugees. Additionally, we strongly believe that all member states must play a role in upholding and protecting these rights. We are adamant about protecting this influx of refugees along with combating the rise of crimes committed against Arabs and Palestinians in the occupied territories.

Country:China
Topic: Assistance in mine action
Paper text:
A continuing issue in the modern world is the existence of active landmines, IEDs, ERWs, and other explosive ordnances. Thousands of people die each year from these devices, the significant majority of whom are civilians, including children. While the United Nations has attempted to curb this issue with the Ottawa Convention, 32 countries have not signed, including the United States of America. Many of these countries are currently in a state of conflict or have been in recent years. The United Nations has developed the United Nations Mine Action Service to provide humanitarian aid to those affected by mines and similar technology, with limited success. China has developed multiple highly efficient techniques and highly effective equipment for demining and it is willing to share these techniques and technologies with the United Nations and its member states. China has most recently donated a significant number of demining resources to Cambodia. Over the last twenty years, China has cleared its entire border with Vietnam of all landmines, lowered the number of stored landmines from 110 million down to 5 million, and destroyed, halted production, and placed a moratorium on all landmines that are non-compliant with the CCW Protocol II Amendment. The United Nations and its member states would benefit greatly from the usage of Chinese technology and technique in their demining efforts. The United Nations should subsidize the purchasing of demining resources for member states that are unable to afford them, and also directly provide demining resources to member states. They should additionally provide training and education in demining techniques by facilitating expert-led seminars for member- states demining leaders to attend. The Chinese delegation strongly supports peaceful resolution to all conflicts, and the beginning of demining efforts in these zones. As a once mine- affected state, China strongly supports all efforts by the United Nations and its member states to demine all mine-affected states.

Country:China
Topic: Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
Paper text:
Over 60 years after the passage of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples, 17 non-self-governing territories remain under the administration of largely Western powers. It is clear that the greed-filled legacy of colonization continues to influence global politics, impacting the lives of roughly 2 million people who have been denied self-government. These territories have not been integrated into their administering countries or freely chosen to associate with them, and they remain dependent on administering powers. Thus, any actions that can be taken toward the end of eliminating colonial rule are deemed necessary and will be supported by The People’s Republic of China. Steps toward educating citizens of Non-Self-Governing Territories (NSGTs) on their right of self-determination are especially pertinent at this time. Availability of information is a major component of any effort to change the current situation. This information must be provided to both government officials and residents of the territories in question. China proposes that the United Nations (UN) should establish a semi permanent presence in each NSGT. From these embassies, the UN will have a greater opportunity to observe the conditions in each region and to make more informed recommendations on the course of action for the UN. The ambassadors in each region will have the ability to disseminate information to the people, encourage a spirit of self- determination, and carry out further mandates of the general assembly more efficiently.

Country:Colombia
Topic: Assistance in mine action
Paper text:
Every day lives are destroyed by anti-personnel landmines. The International Campaign to Ban Landmines reports that nearly 7,000 people were victims of landmines in 2018, of whom 71% were civilians and half of these were children. The International Committee of the Red Cross reports that in 2020, Colombia had 389 victims of landmines and other explosive remnants of war (ERW), a four-year high. Additionally, the continued presence of unexploded ordnance restricts access to food and water, and makes land unusable for cultivation. Colombia is a proud signatory of The Ottawa Treaty of 3 December 1997. The treaty resulted in a “marked reduction of casualties, an increased number of mine-free States, destroyed stockpiles, and improved assistance to victims.” Production and use of anti-personnel mines have been drastically reduced. More than 40 million stockpiled mines have been destroyed and assistance has been provided to communities and survivors. Colombia supports S/RES/2365 and its call for States to comply with international law on mine action. However, many challenges lie ahead as the Secretary General’s report (S/2018/623) made clear. Tens of millions of landmines and ERW are still circulating, so Colombia calls upon member States to intensify efforts in destroying stockpiles, educating people on risk mitigation measures, providing greater assistance to victims and affected peoples, and contributing greater logistical and financial support towards mine clearance. Colombia supports the goal of a mine-free world by 2025 as stated at the Oslo Review Conference of November 2019. If member States commit to advancing the goals of the Ottawa Treaty as well as S/RES/2365 and earlier General Assembly resolutions A/RES/72/75, 70/80, 68/72, 66/69, and 64/84 with renewed engagement, then we can achieve a mine-free world by 2025.

Country:Colombia
Topic: Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
Paper text:
The Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples was introduced to the United Nations on December 14, 1960 with the goal of eradicating colonial practices and securing the right of self-determination to Non- Self-Governing Territories (NSGT). The Republic of Colombia fully supports the goals of the 1960 Declaration while also affirming resolution 75/123 of December 10, 2020, which sets the framework for the Fourth Decade of Eradicating Colonialism through the years 2021 to 2030. Colombia recognizes the work of the Special Committee on Decolonization (the C-24), in its important strides towards a fully independent global community. Colombia fully supports the endeavors of NSGTs in their mission to independence and maintains that the future of a completely decolonized international community is possible. Because a large population of NSGTs exists within the Caribbean and the Atlantic, Colombia has a deep interest in seeing the success of these territories politically and economically in order to support strong regional connections. Like most developing countries, Colombia firmly believes that NSGTs should be assisted in organizing not only a sustainable crisis response system, but also should be equipped with the knowledge and resources necessary to maintain an independent system of governance. While there is an end goal for NSGTs to reach self-determination, these territories must have a reliable system of government and support for their peoples that will not diminish once complete independence is attained. Engaging in economic activities and trade programs will also assist in building strong relationships for NSGTs with other Member States. Colombia believes this will not only foster regional alliances for budding independent states, but will also create a basis for a stable economy necessary to support the society of a newly sovereign state.

Country:Cuba
Topic: Assistance in mine action
Paper text:
Our nation supports the eradication of colonialism, and wishes for all states to have their own sovereignty. We reiterate our historical commitment to decolonization and desire to reduce the power of past colonial powers. On the topics of land mines, we believe in the right to self-determination. We believe a state should designate how landmines can be used within their borders. However, if another country is operating within another state’s borders, they should not be able to use landmines without the host state’s permission. We firmly support a sovereign state’s right to use landmines for defensive purposes, within their own borders. If the United Nations declares that states cannot use landmines, we believe that this body is overstepping previously set boundaries in the UN Charter, and failing to uphold state’s sovereignty.

Country:Cuba
Topic: Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
Paper text:
The number of Non-Self Governing Territories has significantly decreased since the foundation of the United Nations. One of the grounding principles of these United Nations has been, and will continue to be, the united effort to end colonialism. We stand with the guiding document this organization was based on, and support the continued effort to end colonialism and grant independence to both countries and peoples. Specifically, we support the previous efforts of the UN with the passage of resolution 75/122 that outlines a committee with the purpose of decolonization of non-self-governing territories. We support further resolutions to assist in the establishment of constitutions in Non-Self- Governing Territories. We support resolutions asking the special committee to deliver reports on these regions, to better understand their individual cultures. We support resolutions that would economically empower these regions, especially in regards to helping these regions achieve the sustainable development goals outlined in 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. We would be accepting resolutions to assist in maintaining the environments of these regions, as well as creating new environmental regulations in these regions, with special care taken due to vulnerabilities created by climate change.

Country:Cyprus
Topic: Assistance in mine action
Paper text:
The country of Cyprus supports the efforts of the United Nations Mine Action Service (UNMAS) and the United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP) to clear landmines from key transportation routes. Over 25,000 landmines have been discovered in Cyprus’ “buffer zone” over the past decade, and it is believed that large parts of the island are contaminated. To this effect, Cyprus supports providing adequate awareness training to personnel involved in mine clearing and reducing the risk to civilians through the implementation of quarantine zones and public service announcements. Countries with suspected landmine presence and personnel engaged in landmine removal ought to receive expanded UNMAS assistance to reduce potential fatalities. The safety of the miners and support crew is contingent on expanded efforts by the international community in this area. Furthermore, those injured in landmine explosions should receive care; safe access to healthcare facilities must be a top priority as per SDG-3. Cyprus believes that the safety of civilian populations from explosive devices is necessary to protect human rights and dignity.

Country:Cyprus
Topic: Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
Paper text:
The country of Cyprus affirms the right of Colonial countries and peoples to self- determination and believes in an enhanced implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples (DGICCP). As a former British colony, Cyprus’s history is intertwined with that of European colonialism. Although Cyprus escaped much of the economic destruction associated with African and South American colonization, Cyprus is still dealing with antiquated colonial-era land-use agreements.3 Cyprus believes that any adequate implementation of the DGICCP needs to address the legacy of colonialism in the economic and state institutions of affected countries. Simply being independent is not enough; economic capture of assets must be accounted for. To repair the damage caused by post-colonial events in 1974 that affect Cyprus to this day, resources must be allocated towards furthering the political and cultural infusion of Cypriots separated by disagreements with Turkey. Furthermore, investment and support should be provided to former colonies in order to promote regional stability. Cyprus’ internal conflicts have, in part, been fomented by its colonial past; a simple political separation is not enough, though it is a start.

Country:Czech Republic
Topic: Assistance in mine action
Paper text:
Since the inception of the Mine Ban Treaty on December 3rd,1997, and later ratified on October 26th,1999, we have shown our commitment to this treaty by implementing national legislation and by amending the criminal code to provide penal sanctions for any violations. Furthermore, we are strongly committed to ensuring world peace and the regulation of weapons of mass destruction such as anti-personnel landmines. Thus, we continue to submit annual Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 reports and to attend treaty meetings. In December 2018, we voted in favor of the UN General Assembly Resolution 73/61 promoting the implementation of the Mine Ban Treaty. Knowing that landmines pose a major threat to the greater society, our government in 1995 decided to safely eliminate about 2 tones of landmines that were left behind by the Soviet Union troops. These landmines surrounded the Ralsko and Mlada military bases that were once occupied by the Soviet Union troops from 1968-1991. The remaining 300,000 anti-personnel landmines will be disassembled and the parts will be repurposed. However, 4,000 landmines will not be destroyed and will be used by the Czech military for training purposes. Thanks to the regulations in place, landmines no longer pose a serious threat to the Czech society and encourage other nations to do the same. All member states should continue to not only stop the production and the commercialization of landmines but to also decrease their landmine stockpiles and to implement strict regulations of landmines. Without the strict regulation of landmines, these weapons of destruction will continue to pose a global threat. Moreover, World War II and various other conflicts have resulted in countless areas being covered in landmines. In many cases, affected member states do not know the precise location of these landmines. We recommend member states to follow through on the commitments made during the Ottawa Convention, but also recommend the creation of and execution of plans detailing the safe removal of these anti-personnel landmines. In an effort to help reduce the cost to remove unexploded landmines, to start the reconstruction process, and to ensure stability, our government along with the governments of Estonia and the Slovak Republic has recently donated 334,041 to the United Nations Mine Action Service. The UNMAS is responsible for removing hazards such as landmines and they provide technical support and explosive ordnance risk education. Iraq is an example of a member state that is covered with unexploded landmines. ISIL is the terrorist organization behind the installation of these landmines in Iraq. These landmines pose a major threat to the civilians. As a result, with our donation to UNMAS, we hope that countries such as Iraq are able to remove as many landmines as possible. The lives of countless people depend on our ability to act quickly and efficiently to resolve the landmine issue.

Country:Czech Republic
Topic: Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
Paper text:
We support the decolonization efforts of the UN, as it is a deep belief of the right to self governance and freedom amongst our people. The UN has, as a body, been overall supportive of decolonization, and a number of countries have seen Independence. These countries, however, were all subsidized and put on a list with the intention to decolonize them. One of those countries not on that list was the then Czechoslovakia, who had been handed to Germany unceremoniously prior. The instability led to reliance on Russia, which resulted in the eventual invasion, and of course, finally freedom, and a peaceful separation of Czechoslovakia. This military takeover took place in 1961, right after the 1960 treaty from the UN on Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries. Of course, we do not quite fit the definition by the UN for having been colonized, however, perhaps a broadening if this topic is necessary. Decolonization for us, was never truly helped by anyone, and it meant it took years to gain. With support and encouragement, and with an eye on even already self-governing nations, the UN should look to promote full decolonization even when it ruffles feathers, as turning a blind eye towards us for the sake of keeping tensions low is not ideal.
The main concerns for decolonization include insurance that a country may protect itself, or has allies from which to draw from, as well as a stable system agreed upon by its people, not agreed upon by others. Most countries to be either amalgamated or independent since 1946 have followed this pattern, however, as stated before, countries such as ourselves were never helped in this course and we would like to advocate for more. Aid to freedom without expectation of specific outcome such as democratic or socialist would be ideal, as the people of a selected area, if to truly be self governing, should not have incentives upon which to govern in a way not due fit to its people, however, as reflected in the case of our nation, aid is sometimes necessary for the freedoms of a people, but freedom should not be subject to yet another tyranny. Therefore, we support all decolonization efforts, and the elimination of both western and eastern influences on countries from whom this exemption is preferred. Aid to get to this point should be unconditional, granted certain human rights such as those of women and right to freedom of expression are observed.

Country:Democratic People's Republic of Korea
Topic: Assistance in mine action
Paper text:
Because we are not a part of the Convention on Conventional Weapons of 1981 nor the Convention on Cluster Munitions of 2008, we have a stance not shared by much of the General Assembly. We believe that the removal of anti-personnel mines, though a humanitarian concern of the United Nations, would be an infringement on the rights of States to properly insure national security. We maintain that landmines act as an effective deterrent against those who wish to breach state lines, and have no wish to see such a deterrent neutered.
Due to the unique nature of the Korean peninsula’s security situation, we have historically abstained from voting on measures based around anti-personnel mines, believing that the complex circumstances present in the region do not reflect that of the wider world. As such we encourage that the United Nations avoids taking steps that would lead to the alienation of states in such unique situations, and instead takes steps to better understand and mitigate conditions that are conducive to the use of landmines. While we support the goals of the Fourth Committee, we find ourselves unable to accede to the suggestions of the United Nations under the present circumstances.

Country:Democratic People's Republic of Korea
Topic: Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
Paper text:
Recognizing the importance of independence for all peoples to determine their own political, economic, social, and cultural growth, we are in full support for implementing the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples. As this charter states, and we agree, “The subjection of peoples to alien subjugation, domination and exploitation constitutes a denial of fundamental human rights.” We believe colonialism is detrimental to the development of the territories being overseen, resulting in the lack of capability for independence and self-determination. While there has been progress in implementing this declaration historically, this has not been the case in the last 25 years, and there are still seventeen Non-Self-Governing Territories. We support the United Nations’ position on implementing the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples. We would like to see the administering powers of these territories cooperate with the United Nations and Special Committee 24 in order to grant independence to the remaining Non-Self-Governing Territories. We hope to continue to celebrate the successes under this declaration and welcome new nation-states to the UN.

Country:Denmark
Topic: Assistance in mine action
Paper text:
The importance of destroying APMs, AVMs and cluster munitions to prevent their use is an ongoing issue on an international scale. Denmark believes the actions stated in the Oslo Action Plan should be followed and used to help aid countries in the clearing out and destruction of ERWs like APMs and AVMs as well as the growing problem of IEDs. The continued existence of ERWs, APMs, AVMs, and cluster munitions in States further allows State and non-State actors to create, distribute, and use IEDs on civilian and military targets. Denmark strongly encourages the final 32 States Parties to sign the Ottawa Convention and contribute all reasonably acceptable resources to clearing out ERWs, APMs, AVMs and cluster munitions, it is imperative that ordnance clearing is done in a timely manner, respecting the 10-year deadline to remove all relevant ordnances from the State. If relevant ordnances cannot be removed in accordance with the 10-year deadline, article 5.3 conditions from the Ottawa Convention with the Mine Ban Treaty must be followed. Denmark believes that States Parties that continue to manufacture, stockpile, and use these ordnances must be held accountable. All States Parties must clear out these ordnances in accordance with the Ottawa Convention, to further create a safer environment in all States for civilians and military personnel. The use of IEDs, APMs, AVMs and cluster munitions are strictly prohibited, and Denmark believes they must be strictly addressed by the United Nations. The importance for further action in clearing out these ordnances can be seen in countries like Pakistan, where Pakistani soldiers are killed due to IEDs. While IEDs can be created easily, with a variety of substances and methods, the continued existence of APMs, AVMs, cluster munitions, and ERWs, continues to create additional opportunities for the creation of and use of IEDs. Due to continuous casualties of civilians due to mines and ERWs Denmark supports civilians that have been affected by these ordnances and believes they must continue to receive care in medical, economic, and social aspects of life. All casualties relevant to mine use and ERWs must enact care from the State Parties. Article 2.3.2 of the Ottawa Convention must be followed in assisting mine victims, so that these victims are not ostracized due to burden of caring for them. Denmark strongly encourages implementation of the Ottawa convention to help care for mine victims and prevent more casualties in the future.

Country:Denmark
Topic: Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
Paper text:
Today, there are still 17 non-self-governing states. As COVID-19 progresses and continues to affect the world, non-self-governing states are being affected further. These 17 states do not have the right to decide what is best for themselves and make their own decisions on issues like COVID-19 and natural disasters. 2021-2030 has already been declared the Fourth International Decade for the Eradication of Colonialism, and therefore, Denmark believes more progress must be made in the rights of these states to self-govern. Furthermore, these states must not be left behind during the COVID-19 pandemic. Denmark supports that vaccines and proper medical care must be made available to them. It is because of natural disasters and global pandemics like the COVID-19 crisis that progress must be made to grant non-self-governing states the rights to govern themselves. The 17 remaining territories must have their own self-determination and rights to natural resources. Furthermore, the non- self-governing territories are highly susceptible to hurricanes and other natural disasters, to which they are at the will of their governing countries to act. Denmark stands that the 17 non-self-governing territories must be given further will in self-determination and decisions relating to natural disasters and global pandemics like COVID-19.

Country:Egypt
Topic: Assistance in mine action
Paper text:
The Arab Republic of Egypt believes that the UN should safeguard all people against the threat of mines and other explosives left within nations’ borders. Considering that 1/5 of the world’s lane mines are in Egypt, we recognize the grave need to address this issue. Egypt emphasizes the fact that terrorist organizations can use leftover landmines to commit attacks. Egypt’s Permanent Representative to the UN, Amr Abdel-Latif Abul, stated that “abandoned mines and explosive remnants of wars have become a source of access for armed movements and terrorists to find materials for manufacturing improvised explosive devices.” Egypt acknowledges that the context of national sovereignty is an important facet in the dialogue around mine action. With this in mind, we advocate for discussion on the following actions: mapping out the location of landmines in nations, assisting in mine removal and setting goals and transparency standards to ensure nations are properly using funding. Based on the mechanisms created by the Executive Secretariat for the Demining and Development of the North West Coast, Egypt supports a framework of demining, victim assistance, mine risk education, development and advocacy.

Country:Egypt
Topic: Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
Paper text:
Egypt firmly believes in the importance of addressing the state of Non-Self-Governing Territories and creating policies to ensure that the people within these territories can thrive. For centuries, people have colonized these areas which has led to violations of human rights. According to resolution 63/110, we seek to ensure that full independence is granted to all peoples in Non-Self-Governing Territories. Egypt stresses that previous sessions have had resolutions that delegate special agencies for decolonization of Non-Self- Governing Territories, yet effective steps have not been taken for years despite the growth in Non-Self-Governing Territories from 16 to 17. Actions can be taken to review the GA resolution 1654 (XVI) and make suggestions on how to move forward with the issues these territories face. Listening to representatives from such territories, visiting the territories, and organizing regional assemblies can allow these regions a voice in deliberations. We believe that the following issues should be the priorities for the body to address: the rights all Non-Governing-Territories will receive upon being granted independence, how best to move forward with granting independence to these territories, how to ensure transparency by all nations in their plans to follow resolutions, and how to ensure that no forms of colonialism will continue into the future.

Country:El Salvador
Topic: Assistance in mine action
Paper text:
El Salvador has taken great strides in its effort to remove land mines from its affected territories. The violent civil war that took place from 1980-1992 left more than 20,000 mines on the ground, which posed great risks for both combatants and civilians. During the war, more than 200,000 children and adolescents were injured from unexploded devices. However, thanks to the help of ex-combatants, NGOs, and the national government, El Salvador declared itself mine-free in 1996. Since then, Central America began following El Salvador’s example and as of 2010, the region is mine free. The delegation hopes that the rest of the world will follow El Salvador’s example and clear its territories of mines, and prioritize human life over existing differences. To achieve the aims of the Ottawa convention, El Salvador suggests affected countries work with competing factions and NGOs to help with the clearing of land mines. Although it will take time to make peace between fighting factions, that is the only way to ensure that the mines are cleared faster. After peace has been made the country must launch efforts to locate the mines jointly and remove them safely. Military personnel, as well as professional companies, will aid in the endeavor and eliminate the harm posed by the weapons. The solution is not a short-term fix; it is a long- term commitment that will require the effort of multiple individuals to achieve. However, the tranquility and peace brought about by the action will benefit the populace in the long run.

Country:El Salvador
Topic: Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
Paper text:
El Salvador acknowledges the struggle of colonization, be it ourselves and our Central and Latin American countries or the countries of the Middle East who have likewise experienced colonization much to their dismay. While steps have been taken, such as warnings from the UN and many states including the United States of America, countries like Israel continue building Jewish settlements in occupied territories such as East Jerusalem, West Bank, and Gaza. It is no secret that El Salvador stands in solidarity with Palestinians in support of their refugees who fled forced integration into the Ottoman Army. While previously we have been able to accommodate, due to radical climate change and the lingering effects of the Salvadorian civil war both Palestinian refugees and refugees from our borders have been displaced up north. With such an influx of refugees and many countries doing little to accommodate, we must work to reinforce the language set forth by the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples. From a proactive standpoint, ensuring independence for people like the residents of Palestine could have mitigated the suffering of its people; to not fully implement this Declaration only continues suffering. El Salvador encourages this reinforcement by creating a far more adaptive program for our 17 Non-Self-Governing Territories with the implementation of an auxiliary committee within the C-24 member states to include states who have a wider breadth of context for the conflicts that plague these 17 territories. El Salvador believes there are no better allies than those of neighboring states who are plagued by the same issues because until we ensure our committees understand that struggle an understanding of Self-Governing can not be ensured for these Territories.

Country:Estonia
Topic: Assistance in mine action
Paper text:
Several countries with economic and political crises have been fighting for humanitarian development aid. Iraq needed help with mine action activities; therefore, the Republic of Estonia was welcomed by the United States as additional contribution in support of mine action activities in Iraq. We, Estonia have prioritized mine action, including clearance of explosives in areas liberated from ISIS, as essential activities before the rehabilitation and reconstruction work can be carried out and civilians can start to return home safely. Estonia attended the international conference for reconstruction of Iraq in Kuwait on 12-14 February 2018 and pledged the funds toward Mine Action at the conference.
The Estonian Foreign Ministry donated 200,000 kroons to the UN Voluntary Trust Fund for Assistance in Mine Action. From 2003-2007, an Estonian rescue team worked to clear mine fields in Afghanistan. We support the restoration of a normal and safe living environment in Afghanistan because it is one of the most mine-damaged countries in the world. We have actively contributed to Ottawa Convention efforts in recent years and will continue to support necessary efforts for assistance in mine action.

Country:Estonia
Topic: Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
Paper text:
Resolution 1514 (XV) on the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries since 1960 has solidified the United Nations efforts to continue to support the efforts towards the decolonization process of the remaining 17 non-self-governing territories around the world. Estonia has maintained a non-involvement stance in the support of dismantling information about decolonization, but not willing to take any action as for other measures. Estonia believes in each states’ sovereignty, and does not want outside involvement to interfere with that. Considering Estonia’s EU allies have voted not in favor of some of the resolutions towards implementation, It has decided to abstain and stay neutral as to further involvement from the UN, and involvement from Estonia itself.

Country:Finland
Topic: Assistance in mine action
Paper text:
In congruence with our past actions regarding this issue, the Republic of Finland has, and will continue to financially support humanitarian mine action. Through our Fragile States Agenda and Development Policy Programme, the Republic of Finland focuses its efforts in regions coping with the remnants of acute conflict and nations that are least developed. As a nation, we strongly encourage long and healthy partnerships that positively affect and strengthen local authorities and societies in these nations. As outlined in our future financial plans, in the years 2021 through 2025, our nation plans to support Afghanistan, Syria, Iraq, Ukraine, and Somalia in alleviating the devastating effects of hazardous munitions left behind by conflict. Involvement in this continuous, global issue is imperative, and the Republic of Finland is devoted to promoting peace and safety through mine action.

Country:Finland
Topic: Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
Paper text:
As the world moves to a more equal and free society, the Republic of Finland has thoroughly reviewed our past positions regarding the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples. The Republic of Finland deeply regrets abstaining from past votes on this issue. Through the fact of being a colonized nation by Sweden and then the USSR, the Republic of Finland has not had the option to provide an opinion on the matter. While the Republic of Finland favors this declaration and would most likely vote for resolutions that also favor the declaration, we choose to take a less active role in these efforts. Being a colonized nation, the Republic of Finland understands the struggle for independence and supports implementing this declaration.

Country:France
Topic: Assistance in mine action
Paper text:
The Ottawa convention’s purpose is to limit the usage of anti-personnel land mines and remove current mine from areas so that individuals can move freely throughout an area. Land mines have not been used as frequently as in the past, however, the usage of IED (Improvised Explosive devices) have increased. This issue has been on at the forefront of French foreign policy for many years. We recognize that this issue affects many peoples throughout the world, and we should work towards disarming areas around the world. France can use its position as a Sec. Council member to ensure that this is a priority for UN discussion. The Oslo Action Plan of 2019 outlines how the UN can implement strategies to increase security of regions and remove the anti-personnel land mines. France is committed to ensuring the safety and freedom of all peoples and can urge UN members to adopt policies listed in the Oslo and Ottawa conventions to ensure peoples safety. The UN can build an action plan to instruct member states to remove current landmines and prohibit future usage.

Country:France
Topic: Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
Paper text:
France is committed to ensuring the independence of colonized states throughout the world. The United Nations holds this issue as one central to protecting the rights of all people. The United Nations can move forth in working with territories wishing to gain independence and ensure that it done in a peaceful manner. Article 73 of the UN charter remains a key point of attention for the UN and all member states. Non-self-governing territories can work with the UN and member states to ensure that self-determination measures are met correctly and movement towards independence is understood by all states involved. The international community is hindered by the lack of cooperation between states regarding the discussion of independent movements throughout the world. France can be set as an example due to the movement in New Caledonia on independence from France. The French government has been cooperative in efforts to work with the people of New Caledonia towards a peaceful agreement. The Noumea agreement sets out a peaceful democratic transition of power from colonizing powers to independent governments.

Country:Ghana
Topic: Assistance in mine action
Paper text:
Recognizing the destructive effects of landmines and other explosive remnants of war (ERWs), The Republic of Ghana has been at the forefront of Mine Action in Africa since the adoption of the Ottawa Convention in 1997. This convention, contrived by the will of the international community, was fundamental in establishing a foundation for mine action efforts in Ghana and around the world. Building upon the framework of the Ottawa Convention, The Republic of Ghana is one of 110 states to adopt the 2008 Convention on Cluster Munitions (CCM), reaffirming Ghana’s efforts towards sustainable development and a safer world. Ghana is particularly focused on mine action in Africa, as over 18,000 casualties have been recorded throughout the continent from 1999 to 2013.
The Republic of Ghana also worked closely with the United Nations Office to the African Union and the African Union Mine Action and Explosive Remnants of War Strategic Framework Project for the years 2014-2017. This document reaffirms Ghana’s strong position in favor of advocacy for universal compliance to related conventions and treaties, providing support for member states in their efforts to create and carry out explosive hazard management-related programs and activities and threat reduction. Furthermore, Ghana has complied with the CCM by submitting annual transparency reports. In 2013 and 2014, Ghana was co-coordinator on the universalization of the CCM alongside Norway. Beyond the constraints of conventions, Ghana has also historically condemned recent uses of cluster munitions in conflict-affected nations such as Syria and clarified its stance that state parties must not intentionally assist other states with the use of ERWs.
Although not mine-affiliated, meaning that Ghana has never produced, transported, harbored, assisted with, or been otherwise associated with anti-personnel or anti-vehicle mines, Ghana has remained a vocal and proactive supporter of these conventions and related disarmament efforts. Ghana’s priority in mine action is to encourage international cooperation via the universal adoption of the Convention on Cluster Munitions. In 2012, the Accra Regional Conference on The Universalization of the Convention on Cluster Munitions was held in Ghana’s capital Accra and was attended by 34 African states with the end result of establishing an action plan to attain a cluster munition-free Africa with universal adherence to the Convention on Cluster Munitions. The conference was attended by mine- affected nations and directly resulted in the accession of the convention by Mauritius. Ghana will continue to work closely with the African Union and the United Nations Mine Action Service to implement ongoing decisions regarding mine action.

Country:Ghana
Topic: Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
Paper text:
The Republic of Ghana prides itself as a leader of the African continent, and thus recognizes the substantial history of colonialism that is a part of the vast majority of African nations. Ghana itself was formerly colonized by the British, one of the largest colonial powers in the region. Since its independence, Ghana has worked to strengthen its ties to its former colonizer and encourage the independence and subsequent development of other African nations. However, Ghana also recognizes the significant need for regional and international assistance for previously colonized nations in their establishment and development in the effort of reaching full self-determination.
On the 6th of March, 1957 the Republic of Ghana became the first sub-Saharan African nation to gain independence from colonial rule. Since its establishment, the Republic has become a beacon of democratic success and a strong proponent of the importance of self- determination around the world. Ghana is dedicated to supporting the United Nations’ decolonization efforts and has been an observer of the Special Committee for Decolonization (or C-24) as well as taken other proactive steps to bolster self-determination wherever possible. In Africa, Western Sahara is one of 17 territories on the C-24’s list of non- self governing territories. Priding itself as an example of democracy in Africa, Ghana is committed to finding a peaceful resolution in Western Sahara. In 1991, Ghana co-authored a draft resolution on the Question of Western Sahara reaffirming its commitment to the territory and its peoples. Additionally, Ghana works closely with the United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara.
Having voted in favor of the adoption of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples, Ghana fully supports and encourages the implementation of this declaration worldwide in order to eradicate colonialism. The Republic also emphasizes its wish for peaceful resolutions to conflicts around the world.

Country:Guatemala
Topic: Assistance in mine action
Paper text:
The Republic of Guatemala seeks to take action in banning landmines and cluster munitions. It is essential that these landmines are safely removed and destroyed in a proper manner. In 1997 Guatemala signed the Ottawa Treaty that prohibited the use, stockpiling, production and transfer of anti-personnel mines. The only minefield reported in Guatemala, located at Tajumulco Volcano, was cleared in 1997 by demobilized insurgents under the supervision of the United Nations Verification Mission in Guatemala prior to the initiation of Guatemala’s National Demining and UXO Destruction Plan in 1998.
The Union of South American Nations (UNASUR) helped with the removal of landmines in Guatemala and also helped with the process of educating civilians on landmines and their destruction. The Organization of American States (OAS) had worked in Guatemala in the 1990s to get rid of landmines. In 2010 OAS established the Program of Assistance for Control of Arms and Munitions (PACAM). PACAM uses the following approaches for munitions destruction: open detonation, open burning and closed incineration. Guatemala asked the Golden West Humanitarian Foundation, a non-profit foundation with experience in weapons and munitions disposal, to supervise the safe removal and destruction of these munitions. Approximately 8,000 landmines were destroyed.
The Republic of Guatemala is seeking to work together with other Member States to help with victim assistance from landmine destruction. Guatemala wants a safe and sustainable way of ammunition management and destruction. The Republic of Guatemala looks forward to the continuation of supporting conventions against landmines and cluster munitions.

Country:Guatemala
Topic: Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
Paper text:
Guatemala has a long history of colonization and indigenous civilians being slaughtered by colonizers. In 1521 Guatemala was taken over and colonized by Spain. This led to political, economic, social and religious domination by the Spanish who viewed the ancient indigenous practices as primitive and inferior. The eradication of colonialism has been one of the goals of the United Nations for many years. The UN declared that the time period 2011-2020 would be known as The Third International Decade for the Eradication of Colonialism.
Guatemala supported Resolution A/RES/74/95, Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples, In November 2019. The existence of colonialism is not acceptable with the Charter of The United Nations. The Republic of Guatemala looks forward to working with other Member States on this issue.

Country:Hungary
Topic: Assistance in mine action
Paper text:
The European Union has erroneously brought in thousands of refugees from countries all over the world. Many are failed states that currently are filled with unexploded ordinances from leftover wars across modern history. In order to lighten the load of this refugee crisis we need to support these nations directly by taking action with trade and governmental support such as assisting in mine action.
As previously mentioned much of the developing world particularly the Middle East and Africa are filled with landmines that are undetonated. This leaves potential bodily hazard to innocent civilians making their homes inhospitable. Hungary has repeatedly supported assistance in this problem by supporting a world-wide ban on mines in warfare. As recently as 1997 Hungary signed the Ottawa Anti-Mine Ban treaty in putting an end to the use, stockpiling, and manufacture of landmines. This was a great step and this brought much international recognition to this problem but unfortunately little has been completed since the treaty and many in the West still do not understand or know that this is a daily reality for many refugees. Landmines kill thousands indiscriminately each year reaching their tragic peak in the 1990s with over twenty six thousand dead a year. Landmines destroy futures of civilization for innocent civilian populations because during wartime nations will plant thousands of these weapons and it takes very skilled and well trained teams to remove them. Developing nations simply do not have access to these trained individuals. Assisting in the removal of these landmines will incredibly ease the burden of the refugee crisis and allow refugees to remain in their own countries.
In summary, greater action must be produced in the removal of landmines because problems such as these are not just detrimental to innocent lives, refugee crises caused by conflict hurt receiving countries, like those in Europe.

Country:Hungary
Topic: Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
Paper text:
Colonialism still exists in our modern day which creates global instability for developing countries. Many developed countries benefit from economic colonialism in prior colonized countries. Colonialism turns nations into non-self governing territories that have limited self- determination which negatively impacts their ability to solve domestic problems such as natural disasters. Hungary wishes to see greater action completed in order to end colonialism. Such as furthering education to local political leaders on possible steps and actions they could take. Another action could be negotiating with the host nation on how to effectively guarantee independence. Hungary believes colonialism is harmful to both parties because when a host nation does not act swiftly enough to support their non-self governing territory it will create instability that creates a refugee crisis which will put strain on the host nation.
Hungary acknowledges the need for increased response to guaranteeing the economic, social, and political independence of developing nations like we have done historically. Such as just recently when Hungary sent aid to countries in Africa to improve their agricultural output and strengthen their economic standing. This is common precedent because Hungary has historically believed in the right to self-determination and sees the ability for a nation to decide their own destiny to be a critical right. Hungary encourages other developed nations to recognize the moral and economic benefit of ending colonialism. Colonialism stops developing nations from not just self-determination but also innovation. The innovation will bring many economic opportunities for increased international trade and reduce the potential disaster of refugees arriving at the borders of developed nations such as Hungary.
In summary, Hungary supports increased response to the needs of non-self governing territories. There are several obstacles that must be addressed to accomplish this goal but with international cooperation a Fifth International Decade for the Eradication of Colonialism will be within our time.

Country:India
Topic: Assistance in mine action
Paper text:
India the world’s largest democracy, has for decades, fought for the preservation of life and protection of civilians in conflict. We have championed and fully committed to the convention on certain conventional weapons, we have fought for and protected the rights of the disabled within our bordered through the rights of persons with disabilities act, which includes victims of land mines, as well as leading in aiding in international mine recovery with the” India for Humanity” initiative we have distributed over 6000 prosthetic limbs in 12 countries, and this initiative is being expanded with an increased duration with a new renewal of 2023. We are also heavily involved in countering Improvised explosive device proliferation as well as taking part in large-scale counter-terrorist activities around the globe, including bilateral discussions with the US on the stability of Afghanistan and information sharing, on top of taking leading roles in united nations peacekeeping operations. we will back any action to help support the victims of land mines domestically and abroad. As well as continued our current support of the conventional weapons ban.

Country:India
Topic: Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
Paper text:
As the world’s largest liberal and internationalist democracy, we stand with any group’s right to self-determination, the right to vote, the right to be heard, and the right to gather in support or opposition to your government. It is a shame, our border nations continue to this day to violate the international rights and freedoms of their citizens to self-determination. Their use of fear and coercion to deter citizens from practicing their rights is disgusting and should be taken into consideration when you listen to their position paper as well as their proposal for a resolution. India has a rich history having come from a colony and rose to a prominent position on the world stage. We believe that every person has the right to decide what they think is best for them and the future of their people, both china and Pakistan have separatist movements that are actively being suppressed and systematically being discriminated against, Muslims in China are forced to be re-educated under the guise of counter-terrorism as they fight for their right to be independence from their Chinese oppressors and in Pakistan, the suppression of the media distorts the public opinion of voters based on lies sold to them by the government. You cannot have democracy, self- determination and ultimate freedom while your government distorts the information you are being fed and your people are being pushed to the wayside and being detained on the basis of ethnicity, a country is only as free as your most oppressed group. These issues must be addressed in today’s resolution and we consider taking an important look at these actions and holding these nations accountable for their disturbing human rights violations.

Country:Indonesia
Topic: Assistance in mine action
Paper text:
Our stance on the assistance to mine action is like that of most member states. As a signatory of and as a nation who has ratified the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on their Destruction, it is in our interest to promote the universal adoption of this convention. Even prior to our ratification of the Ottawa Convention, we have engaged in UN peacekeeping demining efforts in Lebanon and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. As the largest nation in Southeast Asia, we hope to use our influence to lead by example in demining efforts and see other ASEAN members, such as Laos, Vietnam, Myanmar, and Singapore, follow. Because Southeast Asia is a region deeply affected by landmines, we recognize the importance of the UN’s efforts to promote the universal adaptation of the Ottawa Convention. Despite there being 164 UN member state signatories of the Ottawa Convention, we believe this issue can only be resolved once all UN member states decide to partake in this convention. We also hope to see the permanent members of the United Nations Security Council, the United States, China, and Russia, become signatories of this convention and use their influence and power to promote assistance to mine action throughout the world.

Country:Indonesia
Topic: Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
Paper text:
We are in favor of enhancing in any way possible to fully implement the granting of independence to these territories. As we approach the fourth international decade for the eradication of colonialism, there has been a slow progression of decolonization. Out of the 17 territories, American Samoa, French Polynesia, Guam, New Caledonia, Pitcairn, and Tokelau remain on the pacific territory list. Among these territories, the majority are Indigenous communities. They struggle against imperialism, federal regulations, and the violation of constitutional rights. Due to this, these territories push for their independence from the United kingdom, United states, New Zealand, and France. As noted in Resolution 75/123 and 55/146, member states need to intensify their efforts to further the progress of decolonization. Under the special committee of decolonization (c-24) and article 73 of the United Nations charter, we aim to ensure these marginalized views and voices are heard to further the progress of decolonization. However, under the c-24 these territories must obtain self determination options to make sure that they can fend for themselves as an independent territory. Unfortunately, these territories have limited knowledge of these options. In addition, natural disasters, rising sea levels, and the COVID-19 pandemic have caused these territories to lack self determination. We are in favor of the general assembly resolution 75/123 and 55/146 to work with other member states to intensify the decolonization process. Furthermore, we need to recognize the universal declaration of human rights and the international covenant on civil and political rights for indigenous communities. We also recognize that under c-24 these territories must show full self determination to go through the decolonization process but we would like to propose these territories with more options to help them show full self determination. We hope to work with the United Kingdom, United States, New Zealand, and France to further this process. Not only will this decolonize the pacific territories but all 17 territories.

Country:Iran, Islamic Republic of
Topic: Assistance in mine action
Paper text:
Starting in 1980, one year after our nation’s founding, we were engaged in a costly war to defend our Islamic Revolution against Sadamm Hussein’s Republic of Iraq. While the conflict ended just over three decades ago, scars of this war still remain. For example, a substantial amount of landmines placed on our Iraqi border by the invading Iraqi army are still active. This has led many international observers to declare the Islamic Republic of Iran the second most landmined nation in the world, with the vast majority of these mines lying on our border with the Republic of Iraq. Since the conclusion of the war, 4,000 Iranian civilians have been killed by these mines. For instance, the province of Ilam, one of our nation’s most agriculturally fertile regions, is littered with countless numbers of these landmines. As such, these mines pose not only a humanitarian threat but an economic one as well, rendering much of Iran’s arable land useless.
So far, we have had little success in locating and removing these landmines. This is due to the sporadic placement of these weapons by the Iraqis. Lacking sufficient mapping of said placement, we have procured the purchase of IMSMA equipment and software to locate these landmines. However, economic sanctions imposed on us by the Western imperialists have severely impaired our ability to fund the purchasing of additional IMSMA equipment. The Islamic Republic of Iran asks the delegations of this body to remove these counterproductive restrictions and to aid us in our commitment to cleaning up our war-scarred provinces.
While detractors to this position will argue that our lack of support for the Ottawa Convention of 1997 brands us as an aggressive nation deserving of said economic sanctions, we would like to remind our fellow delegates that even nations on the UN Security Council have refused to sign the Ottawa Treaty. In addition to refusing to sign this landmark treaty, these nations have hypocritically installed landmines in territories outside their jurisdiction. In contrast to these imperialist powers, the Islamic Republic of Iran would only implement the use of landmines within our borders for the protection of our population from Iraqi terrorists and smugglers. Not only that, we would keep track of these landmines so that should hostilities cease in the border provinces, we could easily remove them. We firmly ask this body to hear our concerns. We desire safety and stability not only for the Iranian nation, but all nations located in this war-torn region.

Country:Iran, Islamic Republic of
Topic: Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
Paper text:
In 1953, popular politician Mohamed Mosadegh was elected prime minister of Iran after running on a platform of nationalization of Western-controlled Iranian oil fields. This program frightened Western imperialist nations, who then initiated a coup d'etat to replace Mosadegh with the brutal Shah. This Western puppet ruled over our people for multiple decades until our glorious Islamic revolution of 1979. This revolution finally allowed the Iranian nation to produce and export our vast petroleum reserves solely for our benefit, as opposed to the benefit of faraway corporations and businessmen. While Iran has been fortunate in its ability to toss off the shackles of Western economic neo-colonialism, many developing nations in this world have been unable to do so. As such, while they have been granted political independence in the 20th- century, they have entered the 21st-century merely as economic subsidiaries of more prosperous nations. Much like what happened to our beloved Mosadegh, many leaders of developing nations have been met with violence when they try to exercise their nation’s economic independence.
Iran’s history should demonstrate to this body that having political sovereignty does not in itself guarantee true economic and social independence. As long as some nations remain economically dependent on more powerful nations, the UN will be unable to achieve its long- sought goal of granting independence to all colonial countries and peoples. In recognition of this fact, the Islamic Republic of Iran calls on the delegations present in this body to set forth parameters for the procurement of economic, as well as political independence for colonized territories and their peoples.

Country:Iraq
Topic: Assistance in mine action
Paper text:
One of the residual consequences of war are the often-misplaced armed ammunitions that have outlast the conflict they were produced for, making them unstable. Even when landmines are properly installed during a current conflict, roughly 80 percent of the victims of their destruction are civilians, and 43 percent of whom were children. These armed explosives pose continual threats against humanitarian and the victims of the blasts require medical care and social support by their communities. Iraq has adopted the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on their Destruction and signed the Convention on Cluster Munitions. Iraq is continuing to make progress to meeting the goals set forth by the United Nations and continues to support resolutions that oppose such weapons in all countries. Iraq is not on track to meet the current deadline along with many other countries. We believe that there needs to be more funding and training allocated to these countries in order to meet the already extended deadlines and prevent further causalities. There also needs to greater resources to those who have been affected by the use of anti-personnel weapons. In order to gain support by those states not yet signed on to the Ottawa Agreement, there needs to be greater understanding of how few anti-personnel weapons successfully affect their desired target and how much more of them injure and kill civilians, including children. There needs to be an understanding that these weapons are not worth the cost of installing, if they don’t even reach the desired target and that these weapons are more costly than effective.

Country:Iraq
Topic: Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
Paper text:
Decolonization is one of the United Nations’ greatest successes, however progress in recent decades has seemingly stalled. The lack of government representation leaves colonies limited on their political, economic and social futures and dependent on governments that are distant and apathetic to the needs of their colonies. While decolonization is a timely and fickle process, there needs to be more resources and information administered to these colonies so that they can be aware of their options and be better empowered to become self-governing and fully pursue their potential. Iraq has consistently voted to support of Independence of Colonial Countries. Iraq believes that colonial territories should be given better information about the options for self-determination and other resources for successfully staying independent. Iraq understands that these colonial territories are entitled to their own self-determination and understand that their needs to me education and resources provided to them in order for them to be successful. There should be an office put in place to support these colonies and provide outreach so that they can become aware of their options and better make decisions for themselves. There also needs to be accountability set in place for even powerful countries like the US who still have colonies and understand that there needs to be rights given to the people that live on these colonies. These lack of rights such that lead these colonies high susceptible to external events have become particularly evident during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Country:Ireland
Topic: Assistance in mine action
Paper text:
The nation of Ireland’s position on landmines is, and will continue to be, to strive closer to a global society free of landmines. Ireland has continued to support and contribute to a solution to the issue that appeals to everyone. We are large supporters of the Mine Ban Treaty and all of its endeavors to abolish any kinds of use, production, or transfer of antipersonnel mines. Ireland is leading the charge in the fight of banning land mines. Ireland was one of the core supporters and contributors to the negotiation of the Anti-Personnel Landmine Convention (APLC), which led to the prohibition of anti-personnel landmines and committed states to the removal of mines from affected lands.“The magnitude of the humanitarian tragedy caused by mines - with 500 people being killed and mutilated by them every week - "requires that every nation have the moral courage to explore and seize every opportunity to promote a total international ban," says the general secretary of Pax Christi Ireland, Mr. Tony D'Costa as he states his stance on landmines. We believe that the morality of this movement is higher than ever and that the United Nations should capitalize on this matter by facing this issue as it stands.

Country:Ireland
Topic: Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
Paper text:
Ireland, a now healed victim of colonization, gained its independence from Britain back in the early 1900s. Under British rule, Ireland experienced limited freedom and lived extremely demanding lives. Ireland is a supporter of decolonization as they found their freedom through this act. We hope that Ireland becomes a role model for other countries facing similar forms of oppression and exemplifies the decolonization process. We find it extremely important that countries find within their own borders for the sake of human rights across the globe. We understand the delicate process of finding independence for related territories. We also understand that this is an imperative and unique experience to each potential state. Ireland is fully committed to the process of aiding territories in gaining independence. We support decolonization because it allows us to rule our country the way we see best and to have control over our present and future.

Country:Israel
Topic: Assistance in mine action
Paper text:
The State of Israel invites assistance and cooperation between the United Nations Mine Action Service and independent national mine action services. While recognizing mine action as a necessity both domestically and internationally, Israel would like to reiterate its position regarding the hierarchical structure between UNMAS and national mine action services. Israel supports any resolution that reaffirms the superiority of national mine action services over UNMAS; Reiterating Israeli support for state sovereignty. We support UNMAS working side-by- side in nationally-led mine action missions.

Country:Israel
Topic: Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
Paper text:
Israel remains firm on its stance of one's right to self-determination; However Israel would like to make clear that it does not support any act of infringement upon any state's sovereignty. Defining colonialism further would be of best interest, to define exact situations of which this policy could be implemented; As Israel does not wish for states to infringe on one's sovereignty in the name of decolonization, when that claim is disputed. We also seek to expel claims of “settler colonialism” in the West Bank, and seek to realign the struggle of decolonization back to its roots.

Country:Italy
Topic: Assistance in mine action
Paper text:
The Italian Republic is in support of the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on their Destruction (Ottawa Treaty of December 3, 1997) that states the disarmament and removal of landmines throughout regions of conflict. Italy has legislation limiting the production and use of landmines as stipulated in domestic laws 185/90 and 374/97. The Italian Republic also supports Resolution A/RES/72/75, which encourages all states to contribute, and countries with landmines should lead the initiative for removal. Italy has committed and will continue doing so to the mine action, including The Oslo Action Plan of 2020-2024 with 2,696,698 US dollars of financial support to the United Nations Mine Action Service (UNMAS) in the past year. Recognizing 80 percent of the casualties in 2019 were civilians, the Republic of Italy is deeply concerned with the safety of the people in countries afflicted with land mine placement, and emphasizes the Declaration of Human Rights, specifically the Preamble stating that people have the freedom from fear. Along with the European Convention on Human Rights Article 5 which states that everyone has the right to security, Italy calls for action to remove all landmines and to provide related humanitarian support with all deliberate speed.

Country:Italy
Topic: Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
Paper text:
The Italian Republic believes in the self-governing of individual states and believes that each state and person have the right to self determination. Italy believes in the call of decolonization as mentioned in the General Assembly Resolution 1514 (December 14, 1960) with respect to the Declaration of Human Rights and the United Nations Charter Chapter I which notes sovereign equality of all Member States. Taking note of the stagnation of recent progress in implementation of the declaration, the Italian Republic supports the Fourth International Decade for the Eradication of Colonialism (75/123 of December 21, 2020). Along with the European Union, the Italian Republic also believes that all people should be represented fairly and justly by their respective states, and that all states respect the rights of their citizens. Concerning the current situation of over 1.7 million people in those 17 Non- Self-Governing Territories under the COVID-19 pandemic, Italy also recognizes the significance of needed humanitarian action as mentioned in the Declaration Regarding Non- Self-Governing Territories of UN Charter Chapter XI.

Country:Japan
Topic: Assistance in mine action
Paper text:
Wars and conflicts have brought upon numerous deaths to every country. Soldiers go off and fight for their country, most of these soldiers end up maimed or even dead. However, remnants from these battles such as live bombs and mines have also involved innocent civilians. Each year thousands of civilians are seriously injured or killed by these remnants of war and conflict. If not continuously supported, these deaths will only continue.
In October of 1997 the United Nations founded UNMAS, which stands for United Nations Mine Action Service. UNMAS is a service that is located within the United Nations Department of Peacekeeping Operations. Over the continuous years UNMAS has done demining procedures. Japan has also recognized the vital threat these remnants leave and have taken steps to address the problem. In September 2001, the Japan Mine Action Service or JMAS was established. JMAS specializes mainly in the demining process. JMAS provides disaster relief support and local safe activities, such as activities that protect human rights and peacebuilding. JMAS also specializes in international cooperation activities, these forms of activities are in landmines and other explosive ordnance disposal support.
Japan believes the steps they have taken will continue to aid in the demining processes that are vital for those affected to live peaceful lives. Japan has proposed their plan with JMAS, and it has proved effective. Japan will continue to seek out volunteers and teach them demining so that they can continue to rid past battlefields now homes from live bombs. For the demining process to be effective on a global scale all member states need to take a similar approach to help the global process if one has not yet been taken.

Country:Japan
Topic: Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
Paper text:
The international community has long struggled with decolonization. The UN has been demonstrative in addressing this problem especially post World War II with resolutions such as the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples.
Japan has signed a number of treaties including the Treaty of San Francisco also called the Treaty of Peace with Japan (8 Sept. 1951). Japan signed this treaty in order to take steps to reallocate resources and assets to colonized states and pay reparations.
​The efforts by the international community to address decolonization have been successful as 80 territories have been granted independence and 750 million people are now free to exercise their rights. As always, there is more that can be done.
​Japan recommends that in contentious conflicts such as Japan's involvement with Taiwan, the international community must practice case by case enforcement of decolonization. Second, fair litigation on the reallocation of assets in occupied states should be pursued. In the event of Japan’s exodus from Taiwan, much of the resources used to support Taiwan should be allocated back to Japanese power.

Country:Kuwait
Topic: Assistance in mine action
Paper text:
Kuwait has had an ugly experience with land mines since being the victim of a brutal invasion from Iraq during The Persian Gulf War. Following this instance, we have cleared our land mines, created a Mine Ban treaty, and although we are not performing any mine action in our country, we are a strong influencer of the Ottawa treaty. We wish for this war technique to be banned internationally after seeing the horrors they can cause long after war in our very own country. During the Persian Gulf War in 1990-1991 involving the invasion of Iraq, mine fields had been planted throughout Kuwait, while Kuwait has never created nor exported land mines. Although we have formally stated that there are no mined areas left in Kuwait, and Article 7 of our Mine Ban Treaty declared no known or suspected mine areas, there has continued to be few incidents of mine explosions since. Under Article 5 of the Mine Ban Treaty, Kuwait is required to destroy all antipersonnel mines in mine areas under its jurisdiction or control as soon as possible. The Ministry of Defense coordinates all demining operations while The Engineering Corps of the Land Forces handles mines, cluster munition remnants, and other ERW in desert areas. These services are also only used when a private or public organization contacts them. on top of that, there have also been deaths and injuries among the soldiers who clear these minefields. Kuwait is working diligently with the International Community to uphold and strengthen the Ottawa Convention. Our Country wants to establish a safe, professional, and formal mine action that can allow the people of Kuwait to walk on the beach, drive on the sand, and to not fear when their children run off from beside them. We want to once and for all destroy the remnant of the Persian Gulf War that still haunts our people today.

Country:Kuwait
Topic: Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
Paper text:
The Charter of the United Nations has expressed the fundamental right to human rights, to better the standards of life and freedom. The United Nations has assisted and promoted implementation of the declaration on the gaining of independence to the colonial countries and peoples, which was enacted in 1960. Kuwait, like any other nation, has had troubles concerning our peoples rights. Kuwait however will continue to allow Human Rights Watch access to our country and will regularly engage with the organization on a wide range of human rights issues. We recognize our detriments in governing and will continue to improve and correct our wrongs. After receiving reports of political prisoners, restrictions on free expression, censorship, trafficking and assault, we have taken major steps to prosecute and punish those who committed those offenses.
Kuwait has and will continue to express its full support of the right to self-determination for all countries. We have expressed concern over the UN’s failure to end all forms of colonization. We are calling on the UN to now enforce the articles of its “Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples”, as put into place in 1960. We feel that full cooperation by countries who still control autonomous regions is extremely important and that to end colonization, said countries should provide the UN detailed reports on the conditions within the region. Kuwaiti officials have called on the UN to enact stronger efforts to end the Israeli occupation of Palestine. Palestine is independent yet it has had numerous Israeli violations. We feel that Palestinians must be granted full political rights. We are also invested in aiding struggling countries to help them with sustainable development. Without full cooperation and transparency the world will not be able to achieve welfare for all people. We hope all nations along with the UN will come together to help enforce and enact the granting of independence to colonial countries and peoples.

Country:Latvia
Topic: Assistance in mine action
Paper text:
The use of land mines in the modern world is a big concern to our nation, and the continuance of exchange must be put to an end. The use of land mines across the world has caused an excessive number of fatalities in many actively warring and post-war countries. Many of these deaths are not the casualties of war, but rather the spilt blood of civilians. This would lead the Ottawa Treaty being enforced on March 1, 1999, stating that all Anti-Personnel Landmine (APL) stockpiles be destroyed in 4 years, and all holdings, including planted mines, be demolished in 10 years. On January 6, 2006, we signed and joined the Ottawa Treaty, declaring that the production and use of land mines shall no longer occur within Latvia. While we did not have any problems within regards to production, we did go through the process of safely dismantling our stockpile of over 6,000 APL’s left over from the former Soviet Union. This cooperation with the UN is a shining example of the kind of cooperation we wish to see within our fellow member nations. Through our example, we wish to show that all nations, no matter how big or small, should give up any unnecessarily brutal weapons of destruction for the benefit of all. We as a planet can only cooperate when 100% of all nations cosign this treaty. With transparency, we can successfully dismantle these cruel weapons of war, to create a world in which all people can live safely without the fear of death.

Country:Latvia
Topic: Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
Paper text:
We understand the plight of the colonial nations in the quest for true autonomy and independence. That is why we believe that a new push in efforts amongst former colonizers is necessary to ensure a more interconnected and stable world stage. While the UN has made significant progress since the very beginning of decolonization, stagnate progress and continued instability cannot be tolerated. Under Article 73e of the UN charter, nations that hold territory must cede all information regarding the economics and education status of said held territories. In addition to this, resolution 1514, voted on December 14, 1960, pushed independence for many colonies. Despite these efforts, there has been no progress since regarding the decolonization. While there have been 2 more Decades of Eradicating Colonialism, no progress was made there either. That is why we support a new Decade of Eradication of Colonialism, along with the cooperation of all colonial powers to concede independence. We have felt the oppression and depression of larger powers that have ruled over us and stand firmly against any new and opportunistic ones as well. The continuance of decolonization guarantees a freer and more autonomous world for all.

Country:Luxembourg
Topic: Assistance in mine action
Paper text:
Upon the creation of the Ottawa treaty in 1997, the prohibition of the use of, production, transfer, and stockpiling of anti-personnel mines was agreed upon by 133 member states. According to the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), "More than three-quarters of the world's countries have now joined the Anti-Personnel Mine Ban Convention." Still, there data shows that the remnants of anti-personnel mines(APM’s), and other undetonated ordnance remain, some dating back to the first and second world wars. These APM’s have been found in many member states across the globe, Luxembourg included. In times of peace, this poses a great threat to the civilian safety, as of 2013 the casualties as a result of these undetonated ordnance has increased. As recently as 2019, victims of APM’s were approximately 80 percent civilian, and of those civilians, 43 percent were children. The delegation of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg believes that the Ottawa treaty is important as the solution of this global issue. Luxembourg takes great pride in being in accord with the treaty since its creation. As per the agreement of the Ottawa Treaty, Luxembourg has worked to destroy the stockpiled supply of APM’s. On April 29th, 2003, Luxembourg completed the destruction of all APM’s, a total of 9,522 mines were destroyed. The destruction of APM’s globally, as a goal of the UN, and all member states, would greatly diminish the public safety issue, and their removal has been a priority of Luxembourg. It is the belief of the Luxembourg delegation that the ratification of the Ottawa treaty is necessary in maintaining peace and ensuring civilian safety. Total ratification would ensure that all party states are in accord with civilian safety and maintaining peace, and if not peace, in times of conflict, ensuring the ethics of warfare. The delegation of Luxembourg believes that member states that have not ratified the treaty pose a greater threat to the peace of the world, and should be held accountable.

Country:Luxembourg
Topic: Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
Paper text:
In 2010, then Secretary-General of the United Nations Ban Ki-Moon said of the Decolonization Declaration "“The process of decolonization is not complete." The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg understands that state sovereignty must be protected through the independence of colonial states and their people; however, only after international bodies and larger states can ensure independence is economically feasible. Independence is far too often associated with economic downturns, and the deconstruction of trade routes. When in actuality the independence of current and former colonial countries can result in the economic freedom and growth within smaller, less-established states. Luxembourg also understands that the process of decolonization is no walk in the park. Often, newly independent states can't immediately come up with the resources required to establish infrastructure, nor can they protect themselves from anti-libertarian groups and civil unrest. The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg would like to see international bodies such as the UN and NGOs take steps towards the protection and preservation of independence in smaller newly-liberated States.

Country:Malaysia
Topic: Assistance in mine action
Paper text:
At this moment in time, there are still 110 million landmines that litter our nations. Landmines can be found in many places where civilians live, making life that much more complicated and oftentimes, violent. One landmine costs $3 to $10, but to remove them, it costs anywhere from $300 to $1000. Landmines and other un-detonated explosives are an issue that plague many states, and this needs to be addressed and remedied.
The United Nations Mine Action Service (UNMAS) was created in 1997 in order to help coordinate efforts to eliminate landmines and other un-detonated explosives that could potentially harm civilians. This organization oversees many aspects of “de-mining” across many countries. “...‘de-mining’, includes surveying, mapping and marking, as well as detecting and destroying mines, ERW and IEDSs." In addition to what the organization is doing in the field, it is also striving to eliminate stockpiles and to help victims of previous detonations return to society.
In 1999, Malaysia ratified the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on Their Destruction. One year later, in 2000, Malaysia stated that it owned a stockpile of anti-personnel mines. Within a year of this, in 2001, Malaysia reported that it had successfully destroyed this stockpile. “In total, Malaysia reported having destroyed 94,721 mines." Malaysia has demonstrated its concern disposition in regards to de-mining.
Malaysia calls on other countries to follow suit and to destroy their stockpiles. In addition to the destruction of stockpiles, assistance for those who have been impacted by the detonation of such explosives is needed. Victims that have suffered from these weapons need help in returning back to normal life, healthcare and reintegrating into society. Landmines have plagued countries all over the world. Malaysia encourages other countries to work to provide mine-free places for citizens to live, as well as assistance for those impacted by mines.

Country:Malaysia
Topic: Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
Paper text:
Since the formation of the United Nations, the treatment of Colonial Countries and Peoples has been foundational to the international community. When the original Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples was signed, Malaysia was only three years into independence. The parts of our nation in Borneo was still a colony. As such, it is our prerogative to fight and argue for those who are still contained in the chains of colonization.
The United Nations has been committed to the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples ever since its initial passing. Even as recently as this past year (2020), The United Nations (with Malaysia’s support) has previously given support in the past year to the draft resolutions over “Dissemination of information on decolonization”, “Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples” and “Fourth International Decade for the Eradication of Colonialism”. There has also been various work on the topic in 1988, 2001 and 2011 between the original document and modern changes.
Malaysia is putting effort into protection for non-Self-Governmental Territories. With our colonial background, we see the importance of fighting for marginalized and unrepresented territories. The Malaysian background advocating for the Palestinian cause and work with non-Self-Governmental Territories (such as the Malaysian support for Resolution 2285 on Western Sahara), demonstrates goodwill in dealing with this issue.
The nation of Malaysia has a number of recommendations for the committee to consider. Malaysia recommends expanding the policies supporting Non-Self-Governing Territories to other colonized nations without former designation such as Palestine. There is nothing separating the Palestinian people from the people of Western Sahara or Guam. Additionally, we recommend the continuing of negotiation and work between the committee and the colonial power.

Country:Marshall Islands
Topic: Assistance in mine action
Paper text:
We firmly support the United Nations effort to take mine action in regards to preventing the creation and use of landmines and explosive devices, following the International Mine Action Standards, and protecting civilians from harm as outlined in Security Council Resolution 2365. We encourage member states currently involved in violent conflict to avoid the use of explosive devices and to reach a peaceful end to such tensions for the benefit of their citizens in accordance with humanitarian law. We support the actions of the United Nations Mine Action Service (UNMAS). Mine action is a crucial component of voluntary state efforts to end conflict and protect the lives of civilians. In order to further these efforts, we prioritize the creation and further development of ground-level mine action committees funded by the United Nations to aid in local mine action efforts. We advocate for the training of mine action specialists in areas most affected by conflict and possessing live mines. However, we emphasize the importance of voluntary state involvement in these efforts. In light of our own experiences with the harmful effects of explosive weapons during and after WWII, we condemn the use of explosives and the failure to address them with respect to their negative impact on humans and the environment. We therefore suggest that this assembly create guidelines to approach and fulfill mine action in accordance with the International Mine Action Standards to hold all member states accountable for any potential negligence of mine action or for the use of such weapons. These guidelines should clearly outline the resources available to states to assist in mine action and exact recommendations for action in order to make mine action more achievable and effective for all. We firmly believe in the possibility of eliminating the danger that mines pose to all our citizens.

Country:Marshall Islands
Topic: Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
Paper text:
We firmly believe that imperialism and colonization has had a tremendous negative impact on colonized states and native peoples and lands. Furthermore, we believe that asserting such nations’ independence and sovereignty through decolonization is the responsibility of this assembly moving forward. The Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples affirms this mission and encourages all member states to end “alien subjugation” and “exploitation” which cause violations of basic human rights and further economic and social divides between the developed and developing worlds. Since our own nation became subject to colonial powers in the 1500s, we have experienced environmental degradation, cultural erasure, human rights abuses, and have been passed between the hands of foreign nations with little care to our own needs and political will. As our own esteemed President David Kabua said, “the most vulnerable are failed when the UN becomes clouded by politics,” as the citizens of the Marshall Islands were when we became the testing ground for nuclear weapons during our time as a Trust Territory of the UN in the mid-twentieth century. We thus believe that “result-oriented cooperation” is essential to the process of further decolonization, as suggested by President Kabua.
We acknowledge that the inequalities created by colonialism have made developing nations largely dependent on economic support from colonial powers. We therefore prioritize the creation of economic treaties and agreements facilitated and supported by the UN as colonized countries are granted their independence and external powers retreat their influence in order to foster growth in such repressed systems. We ask that member states work together to achieve both independence and practical economic development in colonial nations as we take steps to foster global peace and support human rights. To this end we call for a decolonization task force to monitor the exit of colonial powers from colonized states and to ensure the implementation of economic ties from colonial states to the rest of the global economy that will support that state’s future development.

Country:Mexico
Topic: Assistance in mine action
Paper text:
México is deeply concerned with the issue of mines, despite being one of few states to have never used landmines, viewing it as an imperative that all are protected from the devastating harm landmines can cause. In 2019 alone, at least 5,554 casualties due to landmines were reported worldwide, and the affected areas included 55 countries. The Republic of México was one of the founding members in 1997 of the Core Group of governments that spearheaded the Ottawa Process, which led directly to the United Nations’ Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on their Destruction, the Ottawa Convention, that aims to eliminate anti-personnel landmines globally. México was one of the first nations to call for a total ban on antipersonnel landmines and has continued to work on the cause as the coordinator of the Working Group on Victim Assistance for the United Nations Inter- Agency Coordination Group on Mine Action and recently co-hosted an Arria-formula Meeting on the Threat of Improvised Explosive Devices against Peace Operations. México has continued its role as a regional and global leader on mine action by leading the Organization of American States to create The Americas as an Anti-personnel-Land-Mine- Free Zone Resolution in 2004.
The Republic of México strongly believes that an essential step to eradicate the use of landmines is for the Ottawa Convention to be ratified by the thirty-two hold-out Member States. The Ottawa Convention not only indicates a Member State’s commitment to eradicating the use of landmines, it also paves the way to action plans to address the harmful effects of landmines already in place. Anti-personnel landmines are often left in areas of fighting, even after a war has ended, which can have major impacts on the current inhabitants. The Republic of México proposes a renewed effort by the United Nations Inter-Agency Coordination Group on Mine Action facilitated on victim aid and resources. México emphasizes a need for a strategic effort that involves outreach as well as funding coordination to facilitate increased victim aid and resources. México endeavors to achieve significant progress in the context of aid to landmine victims and hopes that Member States will work together to develop rapid and effective responses to the threat landmines pose.

Country:Mexico
Topic: Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
Paper text:
México has always been sympathetic to the concerns of colonized nations, and its past actions reflect this. Partaking in the Declaration on the question of the Malvinas Islands, adopted by the General Assembly of the Organization of American States on June 5, 2018, Mexico reiterated its importance to recognizing both the legal and historical validity of sovereignty as well as the importance of achieving a peaceful, just solution to the question that be mutually accepted about the Malvinas. Mexico continually reaffirms its support of efforts to achieve a solution that is peaceful, just, and long lasting in the solution regarding the Western Sahara, calling to take necessary measures to allow the United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO) to operate at full capacity under the scrutiny of security to fulfill its mandate effectively. In addition, Mexico has stated on behalf of the Community of Latin America and Caribbean States (CELAC), that member countries “are committed to continue working, within the framework of international law, particularly General Assembly resolution 1514 (XV), to rid the region of colonialism and colonies.”
Mexico, having once been a colony itself, advocates for the independence of colonized nations and promotes the right of peoples to exercise their rights in self-determination. The most important aspect of decolonization involves the instability of postcolonial political systems, which entails other lasting consequences such as deep-rooted economic problems, inhibition of growth, and widening disparities between Northern and Southern areas of the globe, much of these reflected on the African continent. Mexico proposes that advocates work alongside the CELAC to rid regions of colonialism and colonies, and to facilitate necessary measures to sustain and balance growth of fragile economies to ensure the success of the decolonized nation.

Country:Mongolia
Topic: Assistance in mine action
Paper text:
As noted in the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on their Destruction, the right for states to choose their own means of warfare is limited. The Ottawa Convention emphasizes that principles of international humanitarian law prohibit the use of weapons and methods that cause “superfluous injury or unnecessary suffering” and that the distinction between civilians and combatants is essential. Anti-Personnel Mines cause excessive harm, and they primarily affect civilians. For these reasons Mongolia is committed to reaching the eventual goal of eliminating landmines. However, we also recognize the importance of a gradual approach to what is a difficult and expensive process. Mongolia has historically voted in favor of resolutions calling for universal implementation of the Ottawa Convention, though we find it essential that all resolutions regarding the topic of landmine elimination take into consideration that states need time and resources to implement change. Destruction of already existing landmine stockpiles requires funding for safe procedures, materials and tools, and trained experts to carefully perform the procedures. It takes even more time and resources to eliminate stockpiles in a way that is environmentally conscious. Mongolia believes that it is important to only use the most environmentally friendly methods of landmine destruction, even if this means giving states more time to make this possible.
Mongolia believes that acceptance for the need of step-by-step approaches will make it easier for more states to agree on this important goal. Furthermore, we hope that states implementing these phased processes will not utilize their current stockpile or create more mines, so that the issue will not worsen in the meantime. Additionally, Mongolia encourages states that are concerned with the expeditiousness of a phased procedure for landmine removal to offer financial and technical assistance to states that are working on this endeavor. We hope to support resolutions that balance the importance of urging states to work toward landmine elimination while recognizing the challenges involved and offering support.

Country:Mongolia
Topic: Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
Paper text:
Mongolia strongly supports the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples and the C-24's efforts in implementing its pillars, particularly its regard for non-self-governing territories individual culture. Colonization actively harms non-self-governing territories by creating governments that do not prioritize the locals and by draining territories of their natural resources. Article 1 of the United Nations Charter requires that Member States protect the freedoms and rights of all people, and colonization jeopardizes these principles. Mongolia was a non-self-governing territory prior to gaining our independence in 1921, and because of this we understand the harmful effects of colonization. Mongolia is committed to not only granting independence to non-self-governing territories, but also to aiding states who have gained independence so that they successfully remain self-governing. We believe that helping states to remain independent is just as important as granting independence to non-self- governing territories. Without support, territories may such as French Polynesia experience the instability of being removed from the United Nation’s list of non-self-governing only to be readded. This lack of permeance creates political instability to no benefit of the citizens— decolonization efforts need to go beyond nominal changes in status.
We hope to work with other Member States, particularly those who also have a history of non- self-governance, toward resolution language that provides assistance to non-self-governing territories in moving toward self-governance, but also calls for essential support to help these territories to remain independent. We plan to encourage all states to support decolonization, and to respect the cultural norms of non-self-governing territories while granting them their freedom. Our hope is that we can work towards a resolution that prioritizes the development of previously non-self-governing territories as well as aids territories that are currently non-self- governing.

Country:Myanmar
Topic: Assistance in mine action
Paper text:
The Republic of the Union of Myanmar urges the elimination of existing landmines as well as the reduced use of landmines by the government and armed forces. Hundreds of civilian casualties occur every year along with dozens of deaths. Countless internally displaced persons are too afraid to return to their village due to the presence of landmines. As a country and a republic, we seek to decrease the number of casualties and eventually end them entirely. We will do this by increasing mine risk education across the country, especially in the 9 states with active land mines. We will also attempt to diffuse and destroy existing mines that remain from war using a safe and environmentally stable method. We will guarantee our people’s safety by joining the Mine Ban Treaty, which over 80% of the world’s countries have signed and agreed to. Doing so will prohibit landmines for anti-personnel use and will result in help for the victims, identified danger zones, and the termination of mine warfare. The Republic of the Union of Myanmar supports reducing and protecting against all mines within the country. We look forward to meeting with countries and discussing the reduction in our state as well as others, while also respecting the value of sovereignty on the international stage.

Country:Myanmar
Topic: Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
Paper text:
Following our colonial history, we urge a response from our fellow nations to diverge from the dangers of colonialism and support the current 17 non-self governing territories in their efforts on following the same path we have. Since our inception as a state in 1948 from under the control of the British, we have felt the impact of decolonization. We have continued to theoretically support the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial countries and peoples since its original implementation in 1960, and hope to see a continued effort as the international community continues to consider colonialism. However, we continue to respect the sovereignty of states and anticipate that the members of this body will continue to respect it as well. We do not feel that as sovereign nations we have the ability or right to act solely in defiance of colonial rulers, and do not intend on proceeding with this as our top priority despite our historical quest for independence.

Country:Nepal
Topic: Assistance in mine action
Paper text:
We as the delegation from Nepal truly understand the impact that the mine action has on the global nation today. Nepal started the removal of the mines in our country in 2007 and as of 2011 has officially completed the removal of all mines from our sovereignty. Mine action is an important component of peacebuilding and development efforts. Through targeted measures – Such as taking swift action, removing all active mines, and fostering educational programs to inform all imperil civilians, we can truly fulfill the United Nations objective to build a world free of mines. With everything said we, The Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, endorse the mine action efforts that our fellow delegations have initiated, and are open to discussions regarding aid to this issue.

Country:Nepal
Topic: Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
Paper text:
However with regards to the issue of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples. We, the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, believe that all Countries should have the right to self-sovereignty if they so choose. According to a previous session of the United Nations, we collectively stipulated that in article 1 of the charter of the united nations we came to the realization of “Equal rights and self-determination of peoples.” Nepal realizes the need to allow for decolonization since the colonial histories and politics of South Asia have left a deep wound in our nation’s history. We express our support and solidarity for all of the non-self-governing territories that are struggling for their independence. We, The Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, are open to the idea of discussions and cooperating in regards to the implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples. We solicit my fellow delegates to take up the responsibilities and eradicate colonialism. Thank you for your time and attention. We look forward to further discussing the pressing issues with our fellow delegates.

Country:New Zealand
Topic: Assistance in mine action
Paper text:
New Zealand strongly opposes the proliferation and deployment of landmines. Our armed forces have renounced the use of anti-personnel mines since New Zealand becoming a signatory on the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on their Destruction in 1997. Shortly after, nearly all of New Zealand's mines were decommissioned. The ones not decommissioned are only employed when training our armed forces. New Zealand has also historically been a staunch supporter of both the Convention for Certain Conventional Weapons and the Ottawa Convention, according to our own Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. New Zealand has also participated in action clearing landmines in Afghanistan, Iraq, Kosovo, Laos, Lebanon, Cambodia and Mozambique. We have also supported the Convention on Cluster Munitions, and have been the coordinator of National Implementation Measures. However, New Zealand recommends reconsidering the definition of cluster munitions to only include munitions that detonate and release explosive submunitions. New Zealand hopes to assist in demining efforts around the globe, as it has done historically. New Zealand also strongly condemns the opposition to many of the aforementioned treaties by Israel and the United States. New Zealand recommends sanctions against these countries by the international community, as well as against Israel Military Industries, Israel Weapon Industries, Elbit Systems, Rafael, Raytheon, Northrup- Grumman, and Lockheed-Martin. Sanctions against these countries and corporations will be far more effective in promoting mine action worldwide than pure action by signatories.

Country:New Zealand
Topic: Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
Paper text:
New Zealand has taken a progressive stance after signing onto the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Peoples in 1960. Since the second referenda on Self-governance held in Tokelau, 2007, New Zealand has played a less active governing role in the region, devolving many government powers to the region. New Zealand has invested in the region to improve transportation, health care, and internet service. In an address to the United Nations in 2018 by a representative to the Administrator of Tokelau, it is stated that "Tokelau had attained a substantial degree of self-government [when it] was ready to hold a referendum on becoming self-governing in free association with New Zealand." He also stated that "in practice [Tokelau] exercises a substantial degree of self- government already". However, New Zealand affirms the previous statement that "Tokelau [should] consider how best to balance the needs of its individual villages with those of the entire nation". We must ensure that both Tokelau and New Zealand remain in good economic standing as Tokelau's capacity for self-governance increases. New Zealand remains critical of the Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Peoples. Abstinence from the 2018 vote was on the basis of already facilitating colonial independence at home. It must also be facilitated abroad New Zealand therefore strongly condemns the United States' vote of NO on the 2018 resolution. New Zealand urges action on US imperial occupation of Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, and the Marianas Islands. The United States is the largest colonizer in the world today. The Fourth Committee should be focused primarily on the United States as it has been the main party to defy the 1960 Declaration, and the resolution concerning the Implementation thereof. Not only in the aforementioned colonies, but US occupation and foreign capital establishes it as a hegemon. This interferes with the "autonomous development of economic resources on a fully regional basis" far more than any action previously taken by New Zealand.

Country:Niger
Topic: Assistance in mine action
Paper text:
Mines are apt metaphors for their own representation in discussions over disarmament. While firearms, bombs, and biochemical weapons are at the forefront of many conversations, ERWs lie beneath the surface, causing unnecessary harm when they go ignored, often to those never involved in conflict. While many UN resolutions and protocols, as well as independent treaties like the Ottawa Convention, have made significant progress in mine action, there is still much ground to break. This is particularly true due to increasing concerns over IEDs and other related devices used by non-state actors who have no qualms about violating international law. Niger is particularly at risk. While we have very few traditional wartime remnants in need of clearing, extremist terrorism has led to many instances of civilian casualties from IEDs and mines. Therefore, when it comes to participation in the 4th Committee, it is important to us that we focus on legislation addressing this threat. In particular, as one of the world’s most economically vulnerable nations, Niger would like to advocate for policy related to support from other member states. Our mine record is considered “poor”, primarily because of lack of adequate resources and funding. If we are to truly begin to rid ERWs from the world, developed nations need to contribute to the assistance of developing nations with equipment, personnel, training, and more. Recognizing the purview of this committee, we hope to focus on political action that would allow for these improvements.

Country:Niger
Topic: Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
Paper text:
As history has shown time and time again, the process of transitioning to state independence is not an uncomplicated one. The fact that the United Nations has declared 2021-2030 as the fourth International Decade for the Eradication of Colonialism shows quite clearly that despite what progress has been made, former colonial powers are hardly “former” and have not done enough to politically separate from many territories. Of even more concern in the view of Niger is lack of post-colonial support. Having been at one point a colony of France, we understand intimately the turmoil that can result from sudden self- governance. Unfortunately, we are not unique. Many if not most of the world’s most struggling developing nations are former colonies, and by no means coincidentally. Removal of colonial structures does not guarantee that newly independent structures will immediately take their place with equal strength. Former powers often have many more resources available to them than do their former colonies, and when they separate, those resources disappear in ways that are difficult to recover from even in the long term. Systems need to be in place that guarantee powers are not only responsible for reporting conditions in current non-self-governing states, but also states they formerly governed. This will improve accountability, and incentivize these nations to contribute more to the states they historically victimized. Of course, attention will also need to be paid to continued total autonomy. If we are truly united as nations, this should not be as difficult a conversation as it has proven to be.

Country:Norway
Topic: Assistance in mine action
Paper text:
Having witnessed the effects of anti-personnel mines (APMs), anti-vehicle mines (AVMs), improvised explosive devices (IEDs), and explosive remnants of war (ERW), the nation of Norway recognizes the that additional assistance is needed regarding mine action. Acknowledging the many factors that make mines and IEDs accessible forms of weaponry, Norway reaffirms that action regarding mine assistance is necessary to stop preventable deaths from ERW. Norway underlines its own commitments toward assistance in mine action, including its commitment to the Ottawa Treaty, and strongly encourages the engagement of other UN nations regarding this issue. Noting with deep concern that APMs, AVMs, and IEDs are some of the most inexpensive weaponry for nations to acquire, the nation of Norway draw attention to the dangers they pose for civilian populations in areas where they are deployed. Having examined the ramifications of deploying mines and IEDs, Norway is alarmed by that the danger they pose to civilian populations, particularly in the increasingly urban setting most combat now takes place within, and reiterates that it believes increased effort needs to be directed towards assisting with the removal of ERW from combat zones, as well as solutions aimed at decreasing access to mines and materials used to create IEDs. Keeping in mind that civilians in combat zones still face significant threats to their safety and livelihood, Norway stresses the need for immediate action and assistance regarding mines and ERW. Underlining the terms in the Ottawa Treaty, Norway urges UN nations to adopt resolutions aimed at clearing mined areas, destroying stockpiles, and preventing further proliferation of mines. Encouraged by the broad support the Ottawa Treaty has received, the administration of Norway calls upon wider adoption and expansion of the policies that are represented in the treaty to encompass other forms of mines and ERW.

Country:Norway
Topic: Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
Paper text:
Recognizing the numerous challenges facing the international community regarding the decolonization of non-self-governing territories, the nation of Norway endorses the pursuit of self-determination for all people and territories. Noting with deep concern the stagnation of decolonization in recent decades, Norway reaffirms its commitment to seeing self- governance for all colonized territories. Observing that there still remain many obstacles to self-determination for non-self-governing territories, Norway urges member nations to reaffirm their commitment to decolonization as well. Norway observes that lack of access to information regarding self-determination for non-self-governing-territories to be a significant barrier to progress regarding decolonization. The country of Norway considers the free exchange of ideas to be imperative for the mission of decolonization, and denying any territory or people access to information regarding self-determination creates further difficulties to the process of decolonization. Furthermore, Norway has observed the benefits of insuring that colonized territories and people have a voice during the decolonization process yields better results when non-self-governing-territories achieve self-governance. The administration of Norway commends the work that has been done to this point regarding decolonization, while recognizing that there is still much work to be done. Encouraged by success in the past, Norway looks forward with hope that the United Nations can continue to be champions of self-determination and decolonization world wide.

Country:Pakistan
Topic: Assistance in mine action
Paper text:
The Islamic Republic of Pakistan prides itself on its military arsenal and self-defense capabilities. In the eyes of the international community it is evident that our nation struggles with key areas of contention such as Kashmir and our frontiers with Afghanistan, and that was the exact reason why our delegation has not signed onto the Ottawa Convention, and abstained on every General Assembly resolution reaffirming the universal appeal of the Anti-Mine Treaty.
However, we stand by our claims at the 16th Meeting of the Member State Parties of the Ottawa Convention, our nation “supports the humanitarian objectives of the Ottawa Convention and is guided by humanitarianism and respect for International Humanitarian Law and protection of civilian life.” Our thoughts are with those civilians whose lives are impacted by exposure to landmines and explosive remains of war (ERWs.) This commitment stretches to our state-wide policies to clear landmines from non-disputed areas around our nation. Our usage of such weapons is strictly used to guard and protect our disputed borders from foreign invaders and terrorists.
The Islamic Republic of Pakistan also condemns the production of landmines and explosive devices by private companies, and similarly to the recommendations set by the Ottawa Convention, we have completely limited the export and import of such weapons. The use of landmines is exclusive to the military for defense purposes. Moving forward, this body should reinforce such policies. It is of utmost importance to continue our efforts to destroy unserviceable antipersonnel mines, demine all IEDs and landmines armed by terrorist groups, curb the international trade of explosive devices and crack down the black market. All these actions must be hastily taken while also offering a support network for those civilians affected by ERWs, supporting these victims of war monetarily and assisting in the anti-mine infrastructure. Ultimately the Islamic Republic of Pakistan will never sign onto the Ottawa Convention as we believe it is a violation of our national sovereignty and a threat to national security. We urge this body to consider the defense capabilities of a nation when discussing the landmine situation, while also being humane in our efforts to aid the humanitarian causes surrounding the issue at table.

Country:Pakistan
Topic: Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
Paper text:
At the time of the creation of 66(I), Pakistan and India had not yet declared full independence from British colonial power - in the context of this discussion, both fundamentally identify as former colonies. However, unlike India’s disinterest in addressing the breadth of the current list of colonial territories, Pakistan’s focus in this debate has largely been to address the right to self- determination for the Kashmir region of the subcontinent. This is in line with statements made our Permanent Mission in response to Special Rapporteur questions encouraged by India.
The repeal of Indian Constitutional Article 370 marks the end of the acceptable period for the international community’s passivity towards Indian claims of Kashmir and Jammu being an “internal” governance issue. Pakistan is strongly in support of the tenants and recommendations supported by the Declaration of the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples and has voted consistently in favour of accompanying information and acknowledgements, but is thoroughly uncomfortable with the United Nations’ inconsistency in the matter of self- determination for all despite its stated values.
The cooperation of self-administering bodies and United Nations bodies has been lackluster and incomplete in the past, which is one of the largest barriers to decolonization in the Territories. While Pakistan thoroughly supports the establishment of other measures, such as encouragement of the stability of living and political conditions in the Territories, we would be amenable to no solution excluding the reiteration of the value of self-determination and recommitment to the issue by earlier mentioned organizations and governments. The international timidity surrounding the issue of independence in these Territories is the foremost point of blockage for improvement; the time for progress via massive change and bold recognition of the failures of colonial powers is now, for the sake of ever shortening the existing Territory list.

Country:Palestine (Observer)
Topic: Assistance in mine action
Paper text:
The State of Palestine seeks to reaffirm its commitment to mine clearance and bring grievances to the slow progress in the illegally occupied West Bank by Israel. Israel has refused access to Palestine mine clearance teams, forcing us to rely on the generosity of the HALO Trust. Palestine is well on track to meet its 2028 mine clearance goal, whilst occupied territories lags behind and the 90 minefields UNMAS reports as active lie in the occupied zone. Palestine wants the occupation to end so that we can resume to fulfill our obligations of de-mining our territory to make it safe for civilian populations, in accordance to resolution 74/61 and Protocol V of the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, which requires the land to be cleared of explosive ordinance once hostilities have ended. Palestine wishes to see the UN reaffirm its commitment to mine clearance and explosive ordinance removal. States should also be urged to join Palestine in banning the use of mines globally. There should also be a special investigation into what state have the capacity to remove ordinance and what is preventing them, and leverage UN action against any state that is preventing any state from removing explosive ordinance.

Country:Palestine (Observer)
Topic: Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
Paper text:
The Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples, adopted in 1960, declared in the first line that “The subjugation, domination, and exploitation constitutes a denial of. Fundamental human rights, is contrary to the Charter of The United Nations and is an impediment to the promotion of World Peace and co- operations.” And yet Israel continues its occupation of. The West Bank and other territories and are actively settling people in rightful Palestinian land, despite UN Security Council Resolution 2334 demanding them to cease settlement. This is nothing short of an effort to colonize and subjugate the Palestinian people to their rule and is an act that runs contrary to the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples. Palestine fully supports the independence of every territory on the list of “Non-Self- Governing-Territory” list and seeks to encourage the states that are ruling over them to take more steps toward self-government. Palestine would like to see the territories on the Non- Self-Governing-Territory list reduced by 50% by 2035. This gives many of the territories a significant amount of time to build up governing infrastructure and the ruling states to complete a safe, secure withdrawal.

Country:Panama
Topic: Assistance in mine action
Paper text:
In 1997 the United Nations took significant action to end the devastation caused by landmines with the creation of the United Nations Mine Action Service which coordinates projects globally to prevent the lasting impact of and landmine use. In 1991 the Mine Ban Treaty was implemented requiring all signatories to destroy all landmine stockpiles and landmine fields and aid all victims impacted by landmines. Panama is a proud supporter of both these of both the UNMAS and the Mine Ban Treaty. However, while these actions have helped significantly in the prevention of landmine use, and in preventing arm to communities impacted by landmines, landmines still injured or killed over 5,000 people in 2020. Also, the lasting impact of landmine use on post war areas can create massive loss and devastation for surrounding communities. Not only do landmines kill and injure thousands of people annually, but the impact of having landmines near the community can also cause road closures spreading people from their community, prevent reconstruction after a war, and have an overall negative impact on the economic and social growth of the community. This means that more action must be taken. Panama supports the international community not only rededicating itself to the mission of UNMAS but also urges for stronger support for the Land Mine Treaty going forward, encourage all non-signatories to join the treaty, and ensuring that all signatories are meeting the

Country:Panama
Topic: Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
Paper text:
The right to self determination is one of the founding principles of the United Nations. As stated in its charter one of the purposes of the organization is “To develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples, and to take other appropriate measures to strengthen universal peace.” However, self-determination is not yet a reality for individuals living in Non-Self-Governing Territories, where they still have most of their sovereignty controlled by a colonial power. To assist the people in these territories to obtain the self-determination they deserve the United Nations adopted the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples which required all states to end colonialism by granting any sovereignty to all Non-Self - Governing Territories by either granting them full sovereignty, by entering a free association with a sovereign state, or by fully integrating with a sovereign state. Panama is a proud supporter of this resolution, and a strong supporter of self-determination for all Non-Self- Governing Territories. While actions like this have reduced the total number of Non-Self- Governing Territories from the 33 that existed when the United Nations formed, there are still 17 remaining. Panama would like to encourage the United Nations to pledge more political and financial assistance to these territories to help them reach sovereignty and would like to see the international community put more pressure on countries holding Non- Self-Governing Territories to grant them the self-determination they deserve.

Country:Peru
Topic: Assistance in mine action
Paper text:
The use of landmines as weapons of war presents a serious issue to global health. Mines are indiscriminate in whom or what they destroy when triggered, leading to severe civilian casualties. Indeed, in 2019 approximately 80 percent of victims were civilians, 43 percent of whom were children . The use of landmines, and anti-personnel mines in particular, is seen by the international community as unacceptable, as reflected by the adoption of the principles of the Ottawa Convention in 1997, prohibiting the deployment or stockpile of landmines, as well as requiring signatories to provide health and education services to mine victims and civilians who live in mined areas.
As a signatory of this Convention, Peru encourages other states to continue efforts to eliminate the manufacture, deployment, and stockpile of mines, and for countries with mined areas to remain on schedule in investing in their removal, as we have ourselves in our northern regions. However, we are concerned by the recent rise in casualties caused by landmines and improvised explosive devices (IEDs), often placed by reckless non-state actors, and the threats that they pose to efforts to eliminate indiscriminate weapons of war. Furthermore, we are concerned by the lack of funding towards healing wounds, both physical and in communities, caused by landmines, particularly those by wealthier countries yet to reconcile and officially ratify the Convention.

Country:Peru
Topic: Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
Paper text:
As a concept, colonization runs counter to the United Nation's basic belief in the right to self- governance and self-determination for all peoples. Since the founding of the UN and the 1960 Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples, much progress has been made by the UN and the C-24 in decolonizing many regions of the world, however, recent years have seen little progress, with no positive change in the list of non-self-governing territories in decades.
With full adherence to the UN Charter and particularly as a former colony ourselves, Peru has an institutional memory of colonialism and empathically believes in the right to self-governance. In particular, we support the Falkland Islands (Malvinas) in their quest to break free of British rule.
We are concerned, however, by the lack of support that newly independent states receive. Peru encourages members to collectively support new states before and after they gain self- governance. Furthermore, we hope that the remaining nations with non-self-governing territories, such as the United Kingdom, will commit to helping these regions towards self- governance, allowing them to determine their whole future for themselves, whether that be independence or a form of home rule.
Many have criticized the lack of desire for self-governance as a lack of knowledge of the options available for self-determination, so countries with and without non-self-governing dependents should work to educate states on the options available. This Fourth Decade for the Eradication of Colonialism must yield results for the exploited nations that need it.

Country:Poland
Topic: Assistance in mine action
Paper text:
The dangers that landmines and explosive remnants of war (ERW) pose is deeply terrifying and one that all countries should be working towards eliminating. Unfortunately, despite these weapons being implemented and intended for military use, it is civilians who are paying the price and facing the consequences. It has been noted that civilians make up the greater part of casualties from landmines and ERWs. This includes children and women. It is for this reason that the Delegation of Poland is proud that in 2016, Poland reached its goal of destroying the entirety of its personal stockpile of antipersonnel mines. In order to encourage this achievement from other Member States, this delegation calls upon this committee to build upon the ideas and goals established from Draft Resolution A/C.4/74/L.5. Poland urges other Member States that have either not signed onto the Ottawa Convention or who have not yet reached their goal of destroying their stockpiles. It is understood that some of these Member States may not fully recognize the all encompassing threat these weapons pose. This is why Poland suggests for these Members to come to realize these dangers and look upon the past successes of others as well as utilize programs already in place to help aid in these endeavors of eliminating these weapons. The delegation of Poland believes that in order to most effectively adapt the United Nations mine action programs to mitigate the growing threats of IEDs and ERWs due to urbanized conflict is to provide more funding towards established programs such as the United Nations Mine Action Service (UNMAS). In recent years, The Republic of Poland has donated vital funding and resources to UNMAS that have enabled this program to carry out its goal of eliminating the threats posed by mines and other explosive remnants of war. It is through donations like these that UNMAS are able to successively decrease military escalations in current conflict heavy areas. If funding to programs such as this were to receive more donations and other resources, it is undeniable that adaptations necessary to reduce urbanized conflict from mine action will be accomplished.

Country:Poland
Topic: Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
Paper text:
Considering Poland’s gaining of independence in 1918, division between the east and west due to the occupation by Soviet and German forces during World War II, and then falling under Soviet communist control post WWII until 1989, Poland recognizes the importance of granting independence to non-self governing countries and peoples. Poland believes that the freedom of being self-governing is a fundamental human right and that colonialism prevents international peace. Since the making of the Special Committee on Decolonization (C-24) in 1961, Poland has supported C-24’s mission of giving independence to territories who are under the partial or full political and economic control of another country. While not being a member of the committee, Poland commends them for their work as the number of colonial territories has, according to Chapter XI of the Charter of the United Nations, dwindled from 72 territories to 17 today. Poland supports Draft Resolution A/75/23 on the Dissemination of information on decolonization to non-self governing countries in expanding and administering the material on decolonization and self-determination to make it more accessible. That being said, Poland believes that decolonization is less significant than other consequential issues that the world faces today and abstained from voting on the Draft Resolutions on the Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples and the Fourth International Decade for the Eradication of Colonialism.

Country:Republic of Korea
Topic: Assistance in mine action
Paper text:
The United Nations works to safely identify landmines and explosive remnants of war (ERW) that injure and kill thousands of people each year through the United Nations Mine Action Service (UNMAS). The UNMAS is actively supporting 19 operations around the world. The Republic of Korea supports the safe removal of mines, cluster munitions and explosive remnants of war. Recently, the Korean Agency for International Cooperation (KOICA) funded ($2.6 million) the UNMAS efforts to help the Democratic Republic of Congo protect their citizens from dangerous explosive devices from 2018-2019. This allowed for the UNMAS to conduct threat mitigation activities that benefitted local communities, displaced persons and refugees currently living in mine contaminated areas.This project supports the fifth and sixteenth Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): “Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls” (5) and “promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive” (16). This year, the Republic of Korea committed a grant of $10 million through the KOICA to Cambodia's Mine Action sector from 2021-2025. This is a six year project that will be implemented by the Cambodian Mine Action and Victim Assistance Authority (CMAA) and the United Nations Development Programme to clear the landmines, help victims and increase mine risk education. Domestically, the Republic of Korea, has worked to remove mines placed during the Korean War. In 2017, 142 mines were destroyed over 102,828m^2. The Republic of Korea will continue to support efforts to safely remove landmines. The Republic Korea supports efforts to remove landmines and ERW and the work of UNMAS to keep everyone around the world safe.

Country:Republic of Korea
Topic: Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
Paper text:
Article 1(2) of the UN Charter declares “equal rights and self-determination of peoples.” The Charter of the Declaration Regarding Non-Self-Governing territories also establishes the principles that guide decolonization, including a UN issued trusteeship. (MORE) In 1960, the UN established a declaration that called for the end of colonization everywhere, that all people have the right to self-determination. Colonialism is defined specifically as the enforced occupation of a region or control of a population, subsequently maintained through either direct coercion or cultural and ideological hegemony. Korea was colonized by Japan and has since developed into a Global Superpower. In 1910, Japan annexed Korea and essentially erased all semblance of Korean culture. Speaking Korean was forbidden and authorities burned over 200,00 Korean historical documents. As the war progressed Japan forced hundreds of thousands of Korean people into labor and women into lives as “comfort women '' or sexual slaves within military facilities. Japan commited ecological, cultural, laborious, and linguistic genocide against Korea; anti-colonization efforts in Korea started with the Korean independence movement, many say the movement started in 1910 with the annexation of Korea. In 1919, a declaration of independence was passed by seperatist movements. This descended into an American Russian conflict which separates the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and the Republic of Korea. They were liberated by 1945. This implies questionable values about external intervention regarding colonization. Korea follows Buddhism and Confucianism both are staunch anti-colonial belief systems that propagate the right of all people to self-determination.

Country:Russian Federation
Topic: Assistance in mine action
Paper text:
The Anti-Personnel Mine Ban Convention ratified in 1999 made great leaps forward in stigmatizing the use and stockpiling of anti-personnel mines. It fostered cooperation among the international community that has focused efforts on clearing vast swaths of minefields. Three permanent members of the security council have not entered into the convention; however, they have significantly reduced the size of their stockpiles since its implementation. Given the current inability to accurately calculate the amount of land still contaminated, the mission of UNMAS and the international community is still incomplete. Despite the successes of the mine ban treaty, it has failed in one key area. Article 6 Section 7 of the treaty specifies that States Parties lend assistance to mine victims. Anti-personnel mine contamination creates a disparity in food, water, lodging, education, health care, and employment. Landmines are justifiably referred to as "victim-activated weapons" because they often remain dormant for long periods before finally being set off by a bystander. In 2019 a staggering majority of victims were civilians; this epitomizes the importance of assisting the victims and communities affected. The spirit of cooperation and positive competition instilled since the treaty's enactment twenty-two years ago must be converted by the states parties to help the victims of landmines. Financial and medical relief to the victimized citizens and communities is necessary. Given their situations, in which they live in areas contaminated by landmines, they are subject to difficulties acquiring proper medical treatment and rehabilitation. Therefore, due to their injuries, lack of viable transportation options, and land deprivation, citizens' employment and financial security are inhibited. Deriving Funds from the recycling of ERW's, APM.s, and AVM’s from which member states are already collecting, the reallocation of funds, and independent donations will supplement costs. With the continued destruction of minefields, stockpiles, and a renewed focus on supporting the victims of these heinous weapons, we as an international community can enable complete and equal input within their communities.

Country:Russian Federation
Topic: Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
Paper text:
There are seventeen colonies, or NSGT (Non-Self Governing Territories), remaining in our world. Sixteen of these are located in the Caribbean, and one in Africa. These NSGT’s are all completely dependent on their administrative nations, and they have limited ability to make their own decisions in the global field due to them remaining under the authority of another country. These 17 NSGTs are under the the collective administration of The United States of America, The United Kingdom, France, Morocco, and New Zealand. The current policy in place is that these administrative countries are required to submit reports on the decolonization processes of their respective NSGTs. However, this has sparked little action in these administrative countries. This has allowed the people of these NSGTs to remain in a limbo state, where they are promised freedom but are never given it. Our policy is that serious action needs to be taken against countries that are refusing to make any progress in the act of decolonization. We as the 4th Committee of the United Nations cannot continue to allow these countries to have full populations of people under their control, who have no direct control of their future. Since the United Nations’ founding, fifty-five NSGTs have been freed from their administrative countries countries, however progress has stalled since 1984. Three of the remaining administrative powers are permanent members of the security council, and must be held to a higher standard. Whether the United Nations applies incentives for these five countries to comply, or penalties to countries who refuse; action must be taken.

Country:Saint Vincent & the Grenadines
Topic: Assistance in mine action
Paper text:
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is fully committed to upholding the provisions set forth in the Ottawa Convention on removing landmines, improvised explosive devices, and other explosive remnants of war along with preventing the stockpiling and production of anti- personnel mines throughout the world. Action on removing mines allows for the freedom of movement of citizens in affected areas and promotes socio economic activities, most importantly agriculture and trade. Mine action also allows humanitarian assistance and United Nations peacekeeping efforts to help in affected areas, while also allowing for the movement of refugees and displaced persons freely. Despite the progress the world has made since the Ottawa Convention was signed in 1997, 33 countries have still not signed this treaty banning anti-personnel mines.
First and foremost, it is important for the United Nations to put pressure on the remaining 33 countries that have not signed the Ottawa Convention to sign it. By doing this, the world can hold those countries to a level of responsibility to help end the use of anti-personnel mines around the world. To ensure all signatories of the treaty are held to their word, the United Nations must survey all countries and potential stockpiles around the world. Furthermore, the United Nations must focus its money and resources on clearing affected areas of mines. This can be through mapping mine fields and supporting NGOs that remove landmines. Another important aspect of this should be education to people living in affected areas. This will help stop fatal accidents.

Country:Saint Vincent & the Grenadines
Topic: Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
Paper text:
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is fully committed to ensuring the decades long goal set forth in resolution 1514, otherwise known as the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples, is fulfilled. Because of the unique position of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines as a former colonial entity as late as 1979, our government and people sympathize with the seventeen jurisdictions around the world which lack the right to self-government and their ability to choose their own policial, economic, and social destinies. Moreover, seven of the seventeen jurisdictions lacking self-government are located in the Caribbean, making it even more of a pressing concern for the success of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and our island neighbors.
The long term goal of the United Nations must be to continue aiding non-self-governing territories in their progress towards self-government by negotiating with and putting pressure on administering powers to hold referendums to allow the people of these territories to determine their political future. Referendums on political status must be held in an unbiased way, where educational opportunities on the pros and cons of each choice for political status are presented to the populace. The UN should fund campaigns within these territories to educate citizenry on their options. In the meantime, the United Nations must ensure administering powers are protecting the health and safety of non-self governing territories. People in these territories must be ensured a maximum level of economic self- reliance, environmental protection, and social and educational development by the administering power. In addition, it is paramount that the administering power provides equal access to the Covid-19 vaccine to all non-self-governing territory. Continued UN surveillance of non-self governing territories is necessary to ensure basic freedoms such as these are guaranteed for people living in these areas.

Country:Serbia
Topic: Assistance in mine action
Paper text:
The Republic of Serbia has a long history of seeing the widespread use of landmines and other antipersonnel explosives in our country’s history from times of the second world war to our Balkan neighbors in Croatia and the former Yugoslavia using mines frequently in their civil war. While the Republic of Serbia’s lands are relatively heavy in mines deployed on combination of the Republic of Serbia and Montenegro there is a combined 39 million square meters contaminated with mines and UXO (unexploded ordinance) with mines making up 10 million square meters of that contamination according to the Helsinki Committee for Human Rights in Serbia. The Republic of Serbia and Montenegro have also come to an agreement to reveal both of their stockpiles of landmines as well as the type of ordinance and amount of each in accordance with the mine ban treaty from the 2003 UN General Assembly Resolution 58/53. In February of the following year the Republic of Serbia’s ministry of defense stated that “its antipersonnel mine stockpile could be destroyed by the four-year deadline set by the Mine Ban Treaty.” With this progress in the Republic of Serbia expresses hope that the other countries in the Balkan region take note of this progress and begin their decontamination of their lands who have been plagued with landmines through the conflicts of the last century. While the Republic of Serbia has made progress within our own boarders to destroy the landmines both in the stockpile as well as those deployed throughout the country the Republic of Serbia still has much work to do in this regard though but with the cooperation of the Republic of Serbia’s official neighbors of sovereign countries it is believed that these landmines throughout the Balkans could be dismantled and taken out of use by any country to further stabilize the region and make it safe for the future generations of the Republic of Serbia’s Balkan brothers.

Country:Serbia
Topic: Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
Paper text:
The Republic of Serbia is aligned with the United Nations General Assembly resolution 71/292 where it was pledged to end colonialism in all areas of the world. The Republic of Serbia is fully committed to the peaceful granting of independence of any colonial nation who should want to become free to progress for its own future as a sovereign nation. However, the separatist government of Kosovo in our rightful southern lands is a issue of national unity no longer are all Serbians untied together under a single flag but splintered into two separate nations the Republic of Serbia’s with international recognition that has brought stability and prosperity to the Balkan region and the unlawful breakaway state of Kosovo, which despite the Republic of Serbia’s best intentions for all peoples, has refused to rejoin peacefully back into the rightful owner.

Country:Somalia
Topic: Assistance in mine action
Paper text:
The federal republic of Somalia has an ever increasing problem with the presence of land mines in our area. Since our war with Ethiopia, there have been increased incidences of land mines going off. Estimates say that more than 70% of all land mines exist between our border to Ethiopia. Even more cynically these mines are strategically placed in areas like water sources and fertile land that further harm innocence Somalians. Estimates say that there could be upwards of one million land mines in our country.
The federal republic of Somalia is appalled by the lack of international assistance that we and other countries have received to help remove these land mines. There are so many nations whose history is full of war and devastation and we want to discontinue this horrible cycle of killing innocent civilians. we believe that action must be taken immediately. This should be in the form of groups NGOs and other nations helping us remove these land mines. This issue is one of great concern to us and believe that by helping other nations we will be protecting the lives of hundreds if not thousands innocent civilians around the world. We have been working closely with projects with HALO to remove these land mines, and we propose that other countries help fund these organization to help remove land mines and remove UXO radiations.

Country:Somalia
Topic: Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
Paper text:
Since our freedom from our colonizers, the Federal Republic of Somalia has felt as though we have been left for dead. The constant conflicts between tribal groups and other neighboring nations is something that the international community has ignored for too long. Besides that the vacuum that these colonizers created in our country has created a political turmoil that has affected the lives of millions of people.
The Federal Republic of Somalia believes that we should receive reparations from our colonizers for the heinous actions that they have committed against us. For all the countless lives lost and for the abuse of our resources. These reparations should come in the form of direct investment from these countries into infrastructure education and other necessities. We recognize that we are not the only country that has been terrorized by the affects of colonialism. That is why the Federal Republic of Somalia is in favor of creating a subcommittee of colonized nations in order to help one another as well as hold our western colonizers accountable.

Country:South Africa
Topic: Assistance in mine action
Paper text:
The nation of South Africa has been dedicated to prohibiting the use, stockpiling, production, and transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and their destruction since 1997. The Anti- Personnel Mine Ban Convention opened for signature in Ottawa, Canada. The treaty was largely successful with the elimination of 87 countries’ landmine stockpiles. The nation of South Africa was one of the first to sign this into action. South Africa was and still is committed to a ban on anti-personnel mines. Of all the regions in the world, Southern Africa was the most mine-affected at the time of the convention. For over forty years, landmines have continued to kill the civilians of this region. A conservative estimation approaches twenty million mines in southern Africa’s soil. South Africa allows for mines when it is strictly "a very limited and verifiable number...solely for training specific military personnel in demining techniques and for research into assisting the demining process."
The nation of South Africa held the “Plan of Action on Landmines” First Continental Conference of African Experts on Landmines. Ourselves and committed member states created a plan of action committing ourselves to eliminate all anti-personnel landmines in Africa and establishing the continent as an Anti-Personnel Landmine-Free Zone. The nation of South Africa affirmed and will continue to warrant the removal of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) and Explosive remnants of war (ERW). Removing the threats posed by mines, IEDs, ERW’s, creates a safer environment for our citizens and the global community.

Country:South Africa
Topic: Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
Paper text:
The nation of South Africa supports the government implementation of the declaration on the granting of independence to colonial countries and people. The nation of South Africa knows firsthand the importance of decolonization. South Africa gained independence from Britain in 1934. After the union of South Africa, parliament enacted the Status of the Union Act. This Act declared the country to be “a sovereign independent state.” South Africa wants this to be the case for all territories that require decolonization. Decolonization allows for territories to make their own decisions regarding economic, political, and social destinies. Without becoming self-government, these territories are forced to rely on international powers that, more often than not, are miles away and are not affected by the issues that affect these territories, making them indifferent. The nation of South Africa has continually shown support for the implementation of decolonization. This can be seen in their actions on resolutions like “dissemination of information on decolonization,” “implementation of the declaration on the granting of independence to colonial countries and peoples,” and “fourth international decade for the eradication of colonialism.” Adopting the implementation of the declaration on the granting of independence to colonial countries and people.

Country:Thailand
Topic: Assistance in mine action
Paper text:
Humanitarianism demands the destruction of anti-personnel mines (APMs) and the explosive remnants of war (ERW). Thailand enshrines humanitarian principles as central to its policy on anti-personnel mines (APMs) and the explosive remnants of war (ERW). Thailand recognizes that ERW/APMs are a persistent foe to economic development and sustained peace. Affirming commitments made in the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on their Destruction, Thailand has boldly acted to reduce mine-affected areas from 2,500 km2 in 2001 to 410 km2 in 2017. Thailand is committed to a Land Release-centered approach to demining efforts with an emphasis on Non-Technical Survey (NTS) training in accordance with the International Mine Action Standards (IMAS). Reflecting on Thailand’s national priorities, the Royal Thai Government has committed significant resources to demining activities within our borders. Nevertheless, Thailand remains grateful and welcomes all forms of support, especially technical equipment such as mine detectors, body armor, vests, and helmets. In turn, Thailand views international cooperation on Mine Action as vital, especially with its neighboring countries, and hopes to share its knowledge and expertise with the international community. Thailand adheres to the principles espoused in the Convention on Cluster Munitions (CCM) and Mine Ban Convention. Accordingly, Thailand firmly believes that victim assistance is the cornerstone of the CCM and Mine Ban Convention; Member States must be responsible for victim assistance in accordance with their respective international obligations. Thailand integrates its national plans, policies, and legal frameworks with its victim assistance program to holistically address the needs of landmine victims. In accordance with Thailand’s stance on international cooperation, victim assistance programs have been extended to stateless and alien landmine victims. Thailand views ERW/APMs as an international threat to peace and prosperity requiring a unified, international response. Thailand urges the implementation and universalization of the CCM and Mine Ban Convention.

Country:Thailand
Topic: Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
Paper text:
When the UN began its mission to decolonize the 72 “non-self-governing” countries in 1946, the issue was taken seriously and the UN’s tactics were widely met with success. However, due to the fragile nature of decolonization, each specific non-self-governing country needed to be handled uniquely, as even well-handled decolonization can end in conflict. During the 1960s, there was a decline in non-self-governing territories finding some form of independence. In response to this decline, the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples was created in 1960. The decades following this declaration were determined “International Decade for the Eradication of Colonialism.” As we are entering the Fourth International Decade for the Eradication of Colonialism, Thailand believes it is imperative that the UN assists the 17 territories that are still non-self-governing find some form of independence. These 17 territories have been affected heavily by the recent COVID-19 pandemic and their lack of economic independence has proven to be a terrible weakness during these times. Thailand disagrees with colonialism and believes that it does not belong in the twenty-first century. Thailand urges that plans be immediately created and implemented for each of the 17 non-self-governing territories that will guarantee their independence by 2030.

Country:Togo
Topic: Assistance in mine action
Paper text:
The presence of residual anti-personnel mines (APMs) have greatly impacted the lives of millions across the globe, most evidently in the neighboring West African nations of Nigeria and Senegal. In the 1990s, landmines were responsible for over 25,000 deaths annually. An end to this crisis was sought after with the introduction of the Ottawa Treaty in 1997, a document by over 160 nations that banned the use or production of landmines, as well as holding nations responsible for the removal of those residual landmines that may remain embedded in their soil. Although Togo has not fallen victim to extensive APM casualties, we officially recognize and endorse the UN Mine Action Strategy of 2019–2023, and emphasize the support of nations currently dismantling their remaining active landmines. As a nation that has dealt with internal ethnic conflict, a refugee population increase, and seen our region fall victim to remaining landmines, we support UN action to uphold the obligation of nations to maintain the Ottawa Treaty. We further request United Nations support to our fellow West African countries and the globe at large, as the removal process continues to press on. While the majority of the world has expressed similar sentiments, the landmine crisis persists, whether through these residual landmine deaths which still claim the lives of thousands each year, or through active terrorist organizations such as Boko Haram, which has continued the use, production, and sale of APMs, which have killed hundreds to date. We extoll the United Nations to participate in the elimination of APMs as a global threat jointly with the World Bank in order to sufficiently fund the governments of countries responsible for the removal of landmines within their territory. We also call for increased UN ground support and manpower to aid in the practical application of the treaty in nations that may lack this internal support.

Country:Togo
Topic: Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
Paper text:
In spite of the longtime elimination of European colonization throughout the modern world, 17 territories still exist as non-self-governing states. These nations continue to find themselves peacefully governed by their colonial rulers, the nations of the United Kingdom, France, and the United States. While Togo condemns colonization in principle due to our background of fighting to gain independence from the French, we also recognize the importance of democracy and self-determination for the citizens of these remaining colonial territories. Consequently, we affirm the ideas and values posited by the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples, and we assert that the Declaration should be implemented in order to prevent developed countries from exploiting the people and resources of non-self-governing countries and developing nations as a whole in such a direct and inhumane fashion. At the same time, we uphold the desire of citizens of non-self-governing territories to remain a part of the aforementioned developed countries. We refute any efforts to colonize nations and land, but also do not support the forced decolonization of modern colonial states without the general desire of those citizens to liberate themselves. Togo also calls for vocal UN support ifor those nations that have decolonized, and provide the necessary aid to these nations to ensure smooth transition from dependency to full independence. The UN also must give NSG territories the option to seek out their own independence through referendums, for without such processes the will of the people in these territories cannot truly be executed.

Country:Tunisia
Topic: Assistance in mine action
Paper text:
Landmines--and other Explosive Remnants of War-- have caused over 122,000 casualties between 1999 and 2017 across the globe. In 1997, the United Nations came together to finally address this deadly issue plaguing the world at the Ottawa Convention. The Republic of Tunisia has been a long-standing supporter of not only the removal of these dangerous weapons, but also the continued education of citizens to safely navigate existing areas known to harbor them. Tunisia was a signatory on the Mine Ban Treaty, and we ratified it into action the minute it was produced. We support the continued existence of A/RES/52/38. Historically, Tunisia has fought a personal battle with landmine casualties. However, we have made progress in the years since the Ottawa Convention. In 2003, Tunisia announced the deconstruction of over 18,000 anti-personnel mines in our stockpile (Landmine Monitor Report 2004). We also have an unwavering commitment to the continued removal and deconstruction of ERW, amounting to ~200-300 of these devices removed in Tunisia annually. The delegation of Tunisia supports any and all resolutions pertaining to the removal of these explosive devices, and we plan on continuing this policy internally and supporting external assistance. We would also like to state the renewal of our dedication to implementing these resolutions, and recommend that the body commits to creating resolutions that provide step by step action plans that address the geographical differences in landmine locations according to separate regions, and produce resolutions that best fit per location. The existence of a weapon that always has the potential to kill our innocent has no place in our lands, and we hope to find agreement with other member states in this sentiment.

Country:Tunisia
Topic: Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
Paper text:
For 75 years (1881-1956), the Republic of Tunisia was under the repressive rule of France. On March 20th, 1956, Tunisia officially gained its independence brought by the resilient effort of nationalist movements. Since then, we have made significant progress as a formerly colonized state and transformed into a leader of the middle east-north African region. Our delegation has a long history of holding peace and positive neutrality as a priority in our foreign and domestic policy; we have also seen the devastating effects that arise from conflict over the issue of decolonization. Because of fears of increasing tensions and the potential outbreak of armed conflict ever increasing in the Western Sahara, we believe that this is a topic that requires careful discussion within this committee. The delegation of Tunisia has a unique position geographically that sticks the country between two opposing forces--Morocco, and Algeria. With Morocco’s annexation of the Western Sahara, and Algeria’s staunch support for the Polisario Front, the Tunisian position has stayed strictly neutral as best as possible to avoid further conflict at all costs, as both countries provide essential support to the Tunisian state. To reflect the sentiments made by resolution A/46/634/ Rev. 1 and all renewed resolutions, the delegation of Tunisia recognizes that all non-self-governing territories have the right to self-determination and the unwavering right to independence. We hold the position that it is the obligation of the United Nations to continue efforts to encourage negotiations between Morocco and the Polisario Front and de- escalate the tensions that have significantly grown in recent months. Tunisia also reiterates that a position of neutrality in all cases of decolonization efforts will be a priority, and that the continued efforts of the United Nations to act as a mediator is essential to achieving peaceful solutions.

Country:Turkmenistan
Topic: Assistance in mine action
Paper text:
As a signatory of both the Ottawa Convention and the Protocol on Explosive Remnants of War, we firmly believe in the importance of limiting unnecessary civilian casualties that are caused by the careless abandonment of landmines, bombs, and other conventional urban explosive devices. These munitions, along with today’s prevalent devices, such as IEDs, result in mass civilian casualties; disproportionately affecting developing nations. Despite the steps that have been made, there is still room for improvement. Thirty-two of the nations seated here have yet to adopt the Ottawa Convention that was signed in 1997 and acts as the baseline for mine action within the United Nations.
Once the situation is thoroughly examined, there fails to be any logical rationale for states to continue to implement Anti-Personnel Mines (APMs) in their war-fighting capabilities. Four in five casualties attributed to mines are civilians, and two in five deaths are children. Statistically, nations do far more damage to their own population than to their adversaries. States that provide monetary aid to members that have not yet signed the Ottawa Convention need to make absolutely certain that their aid is not being used in the development or production of APMs. In addition to the outright elimination of APMs, there are measures that should be taken in the meantime that would severely limit the number of casualties that occur on a yearly basis. High emphasis must be placed by nations that have not yet joined the Ottawa Convention on tracking their APMs and retrieving them once a conflict or skirmish has concluded. Since it is not just member states that utilize APMs, it is also increasingly important for states to educate their civilian population on what they should do if they find an armed APM. APMs that are used by non-state actors – such as IEDs- are on balance much more volatile and rudimentary in design than those used by state actors. Educating the civilian population on correctly identifying and responding to the finding of unexploded munitions can greatly reduce civilian casualties worldwide.

Country:Turkmenistan
Topic: Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
Paper text:
The country of Turkmenistan whole-heartedly supports the Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples. Our people are proud of their self-government free from the conniving influences of the west. We wish other peoples to experience the same self-government we have been blessed with by our president Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow. President Berdimuhamedow keeps our country self-reliant, for which we are thankful. We believe that the economic interests of powerful nations should not trump the rights of developing nations to self-determine their government. Since gaining our independence in 1991, our country’s economy has greatly improved. Previously, our natural resource reserves were exploited with little benefit to us. We wish to see other nations gain the same economic benefits we have since our independence. Turkmenistan is grateful that we remain important trade partners with our former countrymen of the Soviet Union, the bond between our nations is strong. It is remarkable that only 17 territories remain non-self-governing today. Although, we are remiss that progress on decolonization has slowed significantly in the last few decades. Our delegation urges further progress on decolonizing the world and fully upholding the Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples.

Country:United States of America
Topic: Assistance in mine action
Paper text:
The United States recognizes the issues member states are facing around the world in light of United Nations (UN) peacekeeping operations. With the daily lives of general citizens being hindered due to the spread of landmines and other explosive hazards, the United States calls upon the UN to act. The United States is dedicated to humanitarian aid by relieving human suffering and pushing the UN Peacekeeping operations to be available to member states. Within the last 30 years, the United States has not and will not employ the use of landmines in war stricken areas. The United States has not used landmines since 1991, and has not sold any landmines since 2002. Throughout history, The United States has shown support for the cause by ratifying all five protocols in the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, participating in the United Nations Mine Action Service (UNMAS), hosting the International Day of Mine Awareness and Assistance in Mine Action in New York City on April 4th each year, and utilizing the US government's Humanitarian Mine Action Program called the Office of Weapons Removal and Abatement (WRA) to showcase the United States’ dedication to this prominent issue.
The United States has dealt with issues on landmines in the past and has never encouraged their use. The support of humanitarian aid will never be deterred, and the United States is open to any solutions cultivated to stop the use of landmines authored by member states. The tactical advantage of using landmines in combat has been debunked as statistics prove that they detonate for civilians at a higher rate than those of combatants. Additionally, after combat has ended, more mines are detonated after their intended blast time. The United States pushes the UN to come to a mutually beneficial solution for the topic of mine action that does not hinder the sovereignty of any member state.

Country:United States of America
Topic: Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
Paper text:
The United States was built on the ideals of self representation and sovereignty from national entities that work to exploit and oppress less developed economies. Evidenced throughout history, economic freedom is directly correlated with personal freedom. With over 60 territories around the world still considered colonies, the United States believes that regardless of the economic ties a colony has to a state that controls them, they should still have every right to declare their independence. The United States then calls upon the United Nations to be open to reviewing the status of any and every colony owned by any state. Should any of these territories become states, they should have the ability to participate in the global market as sovereign, independent states. By doing this, they will help bolster not only their economies, but the economies of states they choose to do business with. Regardless of their ability, these colonies should have to exercise their independence on the looming threat of terrorism that endangers any hope of fully participating in an open market.
In the past 30 years, terrorism has proven to be the leading deterrent in not only the creation and maintenance of a strong economy, but also the expression of fundamental human rights. For this reason, it would be hard to suggest that the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples could truly be implemented should colonies not have the necessary and proper tools to be able to cultivate a sense of security. Should a colony declare themselves as independent, the United States would assess each and every situation in earnest to potentially provide the necessary aid and would call upon the United Nations to do the same.

Country:Uruguay
Topic: Assistance in mine action
Paper text:
With the adoption of the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women in 1979, the UN recognised the importance of complete disarmament in achieving full equality between men and women, as armed conflict so disproportionately affects women. Following this, in 2003, Uruguay’s Office of Disarmament Affairs adopted a Gender Action Plan in order to further the exploration of the unjust connection between disarmament and gender equality. Importantly, the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals in 2015, and, in particular through, Goal 5 on gender equality and eliminating gender-based violence, and Goal 16 on reducing illicit arms traffic, the UN has demonstrated continued commitment to marked progress in this complex area. Thus, in line with the Sustainable Development Goals, as well as Article 1(2) and Article 8 of the UN Charter concerning respect for the principle of equal rights, Uruguay accepts the pressing need to create effective infrastructure for this prevalent issue immediately. Uruguay indeed affirms the commitment to Goal 5 of the SDGs demonstrated through its declaration of a national emergency on gender-based violence in 2019, however, unfortunately, within the timeframe of the Covid-19 pandemic, Uruguay has seen this issue to be exacerbated to an extent. Ultimately though, as a result of previously being praised internationally for its adoption of a plethora of progressive policies in recent years, Uruguay is confident this issue can be tackled with efficiency and commits to perseverance in the resolution of this extremely important issue of inequality. In light of the goals set out in the Preamble of the UN Charter Preamble, Uruguay also assures the UN of its commitment to ‘saving succeeding generations from the scourge of war’ and uniting the strength to maintain peace and security through nuclear disarmament, as demonstrated in its 2015 statement on behalf of the Member States of the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR). Uruguay wishes to further raise concerns caused by the lack of legislation prohibiting nuclear weapons, resulting in diminished security, thus indicating the need for such arms to be banned entirely. Uruguay recognises this is a tentative issue though and therefore implores the need to at least ‘significantly reduce’ illicit financial and arms flows by 2030, in line with Target 16.4 of the Sustainable Development Goals. Uruguay thus welcomes the introduction of a resolution similar to that of the 2019 UN ‘Silencing the Guns in Africa’ initiative under the guidance of the UN Coordinating Action on Small Arms with particular reference to the ramifications on women and girls.

Country:Uruguay
Topic: Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
Paper text:
As there remain seventeen territories deemed not to be self-governing, Uruguay commits itself to furthering the push for sovereignty amongst those colonized peoples and solidifying companionable relations in the aftermath. Continued colonialism runs in stark contrast sustainable development goal sixteen and its commitment to universal justice peace, as well as the UN Charter (chapter one) and its dedication towards achieving self-determination. Colonization is inherently a violation of said peace and justice, though Uruguay freely admits the possible solutions offered will take severe time and effort to implement, as decolonization must be applied on a case-by-case basis after a thorough examination of the status and history of the parties in question. Consistent with prior UN goals as outlined in meeting GA/SPD/632, Uruguay supports Western Sahara in its desire to adopt self-sufficient sovereignty and would continue to press for a resolution to its colonial state. A particular cause for concern is the Malvinas dispute. Currently, the Malvinas (the Falkland Islands) are still considered a British territory stemming from its illegal occupation/annexation by Britain. Uruguay continues to press resolution A/AC.109/2017/L.26, concerning the need for peaceful talks between Argentina and Britain with the hopes of acknowledgement of the illegal occupation of the Malvinas, and a lasting end to the sovereignty dispute with stressed consideration of Argentina’s claim of sovereignty. Uruguay aligns itself with the interests of the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States. On the whole, Uruguay fully supports continued efforts towards self-determination for all of the remaining territories which have not achieved that goal. Uruguay continues to urge an emphasis on the peaceful and companionable renegotiations of those territories which still lack sovereignty.

Country:Uzbekistan
Topic: Assistance in mine action
Paper text:
After a spike in deaths by land mines in the 1990s, the United Nations began to dedicate resources and energy to demining in order to mitigate future tragedies. This included the creation of the United Nations Mine Action Service (UNMAS) in 1997 following the Ottawa Convention in the same year. UNMAS has pledged to not only to clear mines currently embedded in the ground, but educate civilians of the dangers of mines, assisting victims, advocating for state actions, and stockpile destruction.
Since the creation of UNMAS, Uzbekistan’s stance has evolved. Initially, security interests inhibited commitment to the accords created through the Ottawa Convention. Terrorist groups from neighboring nations and within forced certain precautions, this included the placement of mines along our borders. Our past actions were absolved by the Tashkent attack of 2004. However, Uzbekistan is in the midst of an era of change, and demining has been a part of that change. In 2020 Uzbekistan cleared the territory along the Tajikistan border. This is cause has opened the door for our country to rethink its approach on the issue.
The recent developments in the liberalization of Uzbekistan yields opportunity for cooperation amongst Central Asian states much to the delight of the international community. It is not unreasonable to believe that joining with UNMAS is one of those opportunities. Uzbek commitments to demining have started with the border of Tajikistan, but they do not have to end there. Mines still lie on the border of Kirgizstan, and focus should shift to a bilateral commitment to demining along the respective territories. Such a commitment should be extended to all of Central Asia to further break down the barriers of Soviet rule and usher in a new era of cooperation. Furthermore, Uzbekistan can begin adherence to UNMAS directives towards education, victim assistance, advocacy, and the destruction of the remaining stockpiles within Uzbek borders.
We hope our regional neighbors join us in our new commitments to help facilitate further cooperation and atone for past difficulties and disagreements. This in turn, shall help bring prosperity back to Central Asia.

Country:Uzbekistan
Topic: Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
Paper text:
Article 73 of the UN Charter includes a list of non-self-governing territories. In 1946, there were 72 territories, as of 2021 there are 17 territories. Since 1994, the only country to be removed from the list was Timor-Leste, but French Polynesia was added in 2013 keeping the number of territories at 17. Article 73 defines non-self-governing territories and directs colonial powers to help support territories in the process of achieving some form of self- determination. This introduced an agenda to allow former colonial territories to establish self-determination and home rule. This would also include the three ways to establish independence being 1.) emergence as a sovereign and independent state, 2.) free association with an independent state, and 3.) integration with an independent state. The Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples was written in 1960 and considers that the continued existence of colonialism prevents the development of international economic cooperation, impedes the social, cultural, and economic development of the dependent peoples, and militates against the United Nations adoption of universal peace. In 1961, the General Assembly established the C-24 which is responsible for reviewing the progress of the Declaration. The special committee, C-24, is the working body to implement the protocols of the Declaration. Furthermore, since 1990, member states have renewed their commitment to decolonization with the first, second, third, and fourth decade of decolonization. While in 2021, the Fourth International Decade for the Eradication of Colonialism is in effect until 2030 and calls on the international community to continue implementing the plan of action towards eradicating colonialism.
Uzbekistan remains a young Member State among the United Nations, in which recognizes the instability that has been seen in the transition towards self-determination that has made it difficult to grant independence to the remaining non-self-governing territories. To assist the non-self-governing territories, Uzbekistan proposes an education program for civilians to learn the individual freedoms of human rights are and how they can attain those freedoms. The C-24 must adapt a universal publication indicating the universal freedoms granted to all peoples and devise a plan to deliver this publication to non-self-governing territories worldwide. This strategy may be able to eliminate the need for peacekeeping forces which requires resources that places burden on Member States. Addressing the transition of governments calls on the current governments of these non-self-governing territories to acknowledge the individual rights and freedoms of all peoples, and to consult the United Nations Special Committee C-24 regarding transition of power. More groundwork within non-self-governing societies must be established to ensure a peaceful transition that alleviates this burden. The Fourth International Decade for the Eradication of Colonialism calls for the international community to support and participate in the implementation of decolonization and Uzbekistan acknowledges the importance of this proposition.
Uzbekistan can relate to non-self-governing territories from its past under foreign incursion and semi-colonial forms of rule. Through realizing our own independence, and establishing our identity as a nation, we should extend our empathy and understanding to states that continue to rely on a colonial power. The plan to educate the civilians can reduce the amount of fallback in the nation while adjusting the government for self-determination. This education program would greatly benefit the civilians and the building of a new sovereign state. When people know their freedoms, and why those are their freedoms, the more agreeing they are to a self-governing government and changing some simple ways of life. Respecting the current governments of non-self-governing territories, a prominence on individual rights and freedoms is essential to creating the UN ideal of universal peace.

Country:Venezuela
Topic: Assistance in mine action
Paper text:
The Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela maintains recognition of resolution 74/80 and all previous resolutions on assistance in mine clearance and mine action. It is important that these resolutions are upheld, as mines and explosive remnants of war impose lasting social and economic consequences for the civilian populations, refugees, displaced persons, and persons residing in conflict and post-conflict regions where these mines continue to pose threats. Venezuela will continue to uphold and support the UN General Assembly’s stance and further initiatives in mine action, as this affair is imperative in ensuring humanitarian assistance and development activities. Between February and March of 2013 three demining operations were successfully carried out in the naval posts of Isla Vapor, San Fernando de Atabapo, and Cararabo with all 658 mines being removed from seven different mined areas. Humanitarian demining has been a process of great importance within Venezuela and is an issue we hope to continually address both at home and abroad.

Country:Venezuela
Topic: Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
Paper text:
The Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela is against the subjection of peoples to alien subjugation, domination and exploitation, or any other forms of denial of fundamental human rights, as it is contrary to the Charter of the United Nations and is an impediment to the promotion of world peace and cooperation. The Government believes that all peoples have the right to self-determination; by virtue of that right, they freely determine their political status and freely pursue their economic, social, and cultural rights. We believe that all armed action or repressive measures of all kinds directed against dependent peoples shall cease in order to enable them to exercise peacefully and freely their right to complete independence, and the integrity of their national territory shall be respected. Finally, any attempt aimed at the partial or total disruption of the national unity and the territorial integrity of a country is unacceptable and will lead to actions against such initiatives. As Venezuela was once a colony of Spain, it is of extreme importance that efforts of decolonization persist, especially in instances such as Western Sahara where the International Court of Justice has reaffirmed the right for the people of West Sahara to self- determination. However, the United States has blocked the UN Security Council from implementing resolutions to this affair. The Venezuelan government has taken initiatives domestically in efforts of decolonization in the past, and we will continue to be a voice for future efforts at the international level for disputed territories such as Western Sahara. We of course hope to proceed with these resolutions in accordance with the UN Charter.

Country:Viet Nam
Topic: Assistance in mine action
Paper text:
Armed conflicts throughout the world leave behind an often-unrecognized, painful legacy of ongoing death and maiming. Landmines and other unexploded explosive remnants of war (ERW) continue to be responsible for one serious injury or death every 22 minutes globally. Since the end of the Vietnam War in 1975, the Socialist Republic of Vietnam continues to be reminded of the tragedies that took place as landmines and other ERW continue to detonate across the country. In fact, it is estimated that more than half of Vietnam’s provinces and cities are impacted regularly by ERW. After decades of military oversight on decontamination efforts, Vietnam’s National Mine Action Program (VNMAP), also known as Program 504, was established in 2010 with civilian oversight and nationally coordinated de-mining efforts. This program has been a successful development project, but has struggled with funding, which it receives from the government and private investors. The recession the year after its founding, in 2011, stagnated public investments into VNMAP, and private investments remained low due to international hesitancy to invest in Vietnam’s Ministry of Defense (of which VNMAP is a sub- program). The United Nations Mine Action Service (UNMAS) has leveraged its resources to assist in the removal of mines and other ERW in Vietnam in the past, which was incredibly impactful. As such, the Socialist Republic of Vietnam urges the United Nations to consider how private funding may be improved for such programs as VNMAP, given hesitancy to do so in Vietnam. Perhaps UNMAS should halt the practice of earmarking donations for certain countries (as is common practice, at the donor’s request), and distribute the funds more fairly amongst nations which critically need them to protect the wellbeing and safety of their citizens. Vietnam also urges the members of this body, as well as private donors, to look beyond political differences and consider the humanitarian crisis posed by undetonated mines and other ERW.

Country:Viet Nam
Topic: Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
Paper text:
Colonialism by western nations around the world has historically threatened the international standing of colonies, while bulldozing local culture, politics and natural resources. As a former colony of the French Republic, Vietnam knows these struggles all too well. The imperialist colonialism exhibited by western nations throughout Vietnam’s history has led to painful abuses of the Vietnamese people, and an ultimate failure to allow for a peaceful transition to self- determination after Vietnam’s independence. As such, Vietnam frowns heavily upon those nations which continue to maintain colonies, effectively denying their wards the right to self- governance. It is critical that these nations immediately and effectively take steps to allow their colonies to transition safely and in a way that allows them to partake in domestic and international politics. Though the Socialist Republic of Vietnam was not a member of the United Nations at the time, it was disappointed by the immediate unwillingness to endorse the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples (A/Res/1514(XV)) by colonial powers during its consideration in 1960. Even more concerning is the lack of change since the passing of that document. While the transition to self-determination is no easy task, the United Nations should take a larger role in aiding former colonies to complete this transition as smoothly as possible, perhaps through the establishment of peacekeeping programs focused specifically on transitioning former colonies. Yet, without the cooperation of the western colonial powers in releasing their colonies, there is little to be done. In addition to colonialism, Vietnam is alarmed by the vast practice of economic imperialism by western nations on weaker nations, many of which were colonies at some point in their history. While they may seem free, the economic imperialism by facetious western nations keeps them from attaining their full, self- reliant, economic potential. Thus, Vietnam believes strongly that the end of colonialism cannot be effectively achieved without resolving to limit the effects of economic imperialism.

Country:Zimbabwe
Topic: Assistance in mine action
Paper text:
Landmines and unexploded bombs have left a horrific impact on many countries, families and communities around the world. Landmines have killed and injured hundreds of thousands of civilians, hugely limited access to: water sources, cross border movement, and arable land for agriculture. All of these consequences of post war weapons like landmines have a negative effect on the economies of these affected areas and the quality of life.
Zimbabwe supports the clearance of all landmines and the aid that is needed to get there. Zimbabwe is one of the most affected countries by this post-war issue with over 11.3 million square miles of it’s land covered with landmines. There are organizations in Zimbabwe like, The Zimbabwe Mine Action Centre (ZIMAC), that are responsible for ensuring Zimbabwe is fully compliant with its obligations under the Anti-Personnel Mine Ban Convention and for the clearance of all landmines. The ZIMAC, is also responsible for managing, executing and coordinating all mine action activities: removal and destruction of landmines/explosive remnants of war scattered around the country, Mine Risk Education, and Victim Assistance and Advocacy. Zimbabwe has had many extensions to the clearance obligations timeline for the Mine Ban Treaty, but with Zimbabwe's fourth extension to article 5, Zimbabwe is on track to destroy all landmines by December 31, 2025. Zimbabwe has not been in an economic position, or had proper equipment, to meet this deadline, but with financial help from aiding countries, Zimbabwe will see many major improvements with mine action.
Zimbabwe believes that landmines are an issue that needs to be addressed because of the death, destruction, and missed opportunities landmines have caused. The affected countries may not have the resources, funding, or equipment to destroy all landmines, so it is the fourth committee's responsibility to make sure that each and every country is provided with these key resources. Mine action assistance is a top priority for Zimbabwe and ZIMAC. To reach the needed goal of clearing all landmines, Zimbabwe more than wants but rather needs, along with other countries that have been experiencing the consequences and aftermath of the landmine crisis. The people of Zimbabwe have suffered enough and it is more than time for the international community to play its part to alleviate this suffering. It will be misleading for the world to claim the success of the implementation of the Anti Personnel Mine Ban Convention when it denies one of its members support to ease the suffering of its people.

Country:Zimbabwe
Topic: Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
Paper text:
In 1960, the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples was passed which called for the immediate decolonization of many previously colonized states. Following this, many states gained their independence; however, there are still 17 Non-Self-Governing Territories colonized. Zimbabwe has suffered the long- lasting impacts of colonialism in the form of illegal sanctions which have set it back in Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and economic growth. President Mnangagwa has called for negotiations under the World Trade Organization which would foster economic growth. Decolonization is an international issue, specifically in Western Sahara. This issue is important to Zimbabwe as it supports self-determination and continues to support the 1960 Declaration of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples. Until 1980 Zimbabwe was a colony, for this reason Zimbabwe stands with the Sahrawi people in the attainment of self-determination. As stated by President Mnangagwa on the 25th of May 2020, “Zimbabwe continues to reaffirm its position on the right of Western Sahara to self- determination”. Zimbabwe has long stood on the side of colonized lands and peoples, voting in favor of the Dissemination of information on decolonization, draft resolution XIX of the Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples, and draft resolution XX for the Fourth International Decade for the Eradication of Colonialism.
Zimbabwe stands in line with Trinidad and Tobago in acknowledging the accomplishments of the United Nations in decolonization efforts, but the current state of the process is virtually inert. Only two years remain of the Third International Decade for the Eradication of Colonialism. Little progress has been made in the remaining 17 Non-Self-Governing Territories. Zimbabwe affirms its support for the self-determination of the people of Western Sahara and other Non-Self-Governing Territories. Zimbabwe welcomes a Security Council Resolution similar to the 2018 Resolution 2414 on the continuation of negotiations under the United Nations. Zimbabwe urges Member States to achieve the outstanding goal of eradicating colonialism because a world in which “no one is left behind” cannot be achieved if colonialism continues to exist.

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