COVID Vaccination and Attendance Policy

Return To: 2023 Handbook

ECOSOC COMMISSION: Commission on Population and Development (CPD)

A functional commission of ECOSOC, the Commission on Population and Development (CPD) monitors and studies population trends and the interrelationship of those trends with development issues. Established in 1946 as the Population Commission and renamed in 1994, the CPD’s primary mandate from ECOSOC is the monitoring, analysis and follow-up of the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). CPD is composed of 47 Member States elected every four years by ECOSOC.

In its review of the Programme of Action of the ICPD, the CPD directly reviews policies and implementation of the Programme at local, national and international levels. CPD is also tasked with arranging studies about and advising ECOSOC concerning the following: integrating populations with development policies, strategies and other programs; providing population assistance to developing countries and those economies in transitions upon their request; or addressing other population or development questions that arise from United Nations organs.

Members Members

  • Argentina
  • Australia
  • Belarus
  • Belgium
  • Botswana
  • Canada
  • Chad
  • China
  • Comoros
  • Costa Rica
  • Cuba
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo
  • Denmark
  • Dominican Republic
  • El Salvador
  • Ethiopia
  • Honduras
  • India
  • Indonesia
  • Iran, Islamic Republic of
  • Israel
  • Jamaica
  • Japan
  • Kenya
  • Lebanon
  • Libya
  • Malaysia
  • Mauritania
  • Mexico
  • Morocco
  • Netherlands
  • Pakistan
  • Philippines
  • Portugal
  • Republic of Moldova
  • Russian Federation
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Somalia
  • Togo
  • Türkiye
  • Turkmenistan
  • Ukraine
  • United Kingdom
  • United States of America
  • Zambia

Top ↑

Sustainable cities, human mobility and international migration Sustainable cities, human mobility and international migration

Sustainable cities play a crucial role in managing and accommodating human mobility. As urbanization increases, cities become destinations for migrants and internally displaced persons seeking economic opportunities, better living conditions and access to social services. By 2030, the share of the population living in cities is expected to rise to 60 percent Simultaneously, human mobility—including international migration—has a significant impact on sustainable development. Migration patterns can be influenced by social, economic and environmental factors. By addressing the root causes of migration, such as poverty, inequality, lack of opportunities and climate disasters, sustainable development efforts can reduce the drivers of forced migration and displacement. Conversely, migration can also contribute to sustainable development bybringing in skills, knowledge and remittances that stimulate economic growth, create job opportunities and contribute to social development in both countries of origin and destination. Climate change is expected to displace over 200 million people by 2050. As the world continues to urbanize rapidly and face complex challenges caused by climate change,the United Nations has recognized the need for comprehensive and sustainable solutions to ensure the well-being and prosperity of both cities and individuals affected by migration and displacement.

In 1992 the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was established to address climate change and its impacts by providing a framework for global cooperation, policy development, and action to mitigate the effects of climate change. The UNFCCC recognized that climate change impacts, such as sea-level rise, extreme weather events and environmental degradation, affect human mobility. It acknowledged the need to address displacement and migration linked to climate change through appropriate adaptation and resilience measures. Under the purview of the UNFCCC, the 1997 Kyoto Protocol was established. It recontextualized sustainable development with a new emphasis on environmental sustainability in the face of global climate change. The 2015 Paris Climate Agreement took a similar approach. It supports initiatives that promote sustainable urban development, acknowledge the impacts of climate change on human mobility, and call for global cooperation to address these challenges. 

In 1994, the International Conference on Population and Development adopted the 20 Year Programme of Action with 179 signatories, which addressed a variety of topics related to people-centered development progress, including issues in achieving sustainable development and promoting the well-being of individuals and communities. The Programme recognized the likely shift of rural populations to urban areas as well as continued high levels of migration between countries  and the serious new challenges likely to face the world in the next twenty years. The Programme was extended indefinitely in 2010 and in 2014, the ICPD Beyond 2014 Global Review was conducted to assess progress made since its conception. The review highlighted the importance of addressing urbanization and migration within the context of sustainable development. The Nairobi Summit on ICPD25 was held in 2019 to commemorate the programme’s 25th anniversary. The summit reaffirmed the commitments made in 1994 and 2014 and acknowledged the need for urban planning that integrates migration and emphasized the importance of addressing the rights and needs of migrants in urban areas.

By 2015, all United Nations Member States adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Within this landmark document were 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to provide a framework for addressing various global challenges, including those related to migration and sustainable cities. SDG 11 specifically focused on making cities inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable, acknowledging the critical role of cities in managing human mobility. Other SDGs, such as SDG 1 (No Poverty), SDG 8 (Decent Work and Economic Growth), and SDG 10 (Reduced Inequalities), also intersect with migration and sustainable cities, as they address issues of poverty, economic opportunities and social inclusion. 

In 2017, CPD adopted sustainable cities, human mobility and international migration as its annual theme for 2018. At the conference, the report of the Secretary-General recommended focusing on well-managed urbanization including providing access to safe water and sanitation, healthcare and housing for all people. The Secretary-General also recommended improving data collection on urbanization and the impact internal and international migration has on urban growth. However, the 2018 conference ended with no final declaration due to lack of consensus from Member States. Despite the lack of action from CPD, the United Nations adopted the Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration (GCM). The GCM provides a comprehensive framework for future international cooperation on migration, addressing human rights, labor rights and the integration of migrants. It also recognizes the importance of sustainable urban development and the role of cities in supporting the well-being and inclusion of migrants. It emphasizes the need for inclusive urban planning, provision of services, housing and infrastructure to create cities that benefit both migrants and host communities. Several Member States have initiated efforts to implement the GCM at the national level, but as the GCM is a voluntary framework its implementation varies widely across Member States based on their individual priorities and capacities. The scope and progress of implementation will continue to be a challenge for Member States as the effects of climate change worsen and more people are displaced across the globe.

Sustainable cities, human mobility, and international migration are interrelated and mutually reinforcing and thus require a comprehensive and multilateral approach. Sustainable cities can enhance the integration and well-being of migrants, while effective urban planning and development can create favorable conditions for both residents and newcomers. The Natural Resource Defense Council recommends building infrastructure that encourages both the use of electronic transportation such as fleet vehicles and trains, but also creating spaces where biking and walking are both accessible, but also affordable options. The International Organization for Migration also recommends offering migrants opportunities to build innovative solutions and engaging within the industry to drive policy development in cities.

By approaching these areas through holistic strategies that recognize their interconnectedness, the United Nations can foster a more equitable and prosperous future for all.

Questions to consider from your country’s perspective:

  • How can the impacts of climate change on human mobility be effectively addressed, including planning for climate-induced displacement, supporting affected communities, and ensuring the protection and resilience of migrants in the face of environmental challenges?
  • In the context of international migration, how can Member States enhance cooperation and establish comprehensive frameworks that protect the rights of migrants, combat human trafficking and smuggling, and promote safe, orderly, and regular migration?
  • How can sustainable urban planning and development foster inclusive cities that accommodate the needs of both residents and migrants, ensuring equitable access to affordable housing, public services and employment opportunities?
  • What policies and measures can be implemented to address the challenges faced by migrants and internally displaced persons in urban areas, including ensuring their access to basic services, protection from discrimination, and opportunities for social integration?

Bibliography Bibliography

Top ↑

United Nations Documents United Nations Documents

Top ↑

Population, food security, nutrition and sustainable development Population, food security, nutrition and sustainable development

Food insecurity is an ongoing systemic issue that affects 720 to 811 million people. High costs and low affordability of nutritious food has resulted in over 3 billion people who are unable to afford to eat nutritiously. Despite progress being made in reducing the number of undernourished persons, economic slowdowns, armed conflicts and disease outbreaks have all contributed to the stall in global progress. With the global population expected to reach nearly 10 billion by 2050, current food systems will be unable to meet the nutritional needs of people as they are already vulnerable due to the pressure on natural resources, the ever-increasing aging population and the changing diets of people. Population, food security, nutrition and sustainable development are all interrelated as the United Nations grapples with reducing hunger, bearing in mind that any solutions should be sustainable in the long term.

In 1945, the United Nations established the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) as a specialized agency dedicated to ending world hunger. FAO endeavored not only to promote scientific, technological, social and economic progress relating to food and nutrition, but also to improve the production, marketing and distribution of food to all peoples. By 1961, the United Nations recognized that developed countries were producing surplus food while developing countries were struggling to maintain adequate food supplies, but that there was not a system in place that effectively enabled bilateral and multilateral agreements for the purpose of distributing food among Member States. The United Nations established the World Food Programme which created procedures for Member States to request emergency food assistance. 

The United Nations reaffirmed its commitment to furthering Member States’ development through the International Development Strategy for the Second United Nations Development Decade in 1970. The strategic plan established goals for developing countries, including the development and production of high-protein foods in order to meet nutritional needs of their population, while also encouraging developed countries to expand genetic research to attain this goal. In accordance with the strategy, the United Nations established the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) in 1976 in order to fund programs that sought to expand or improve food production systems in developing countries and improve the nutritional level of the poorest populations. Since 1978, IFAD has provided 23.2 billion US dollars in grants and low-interest loans to Member States.

In 1992, the United Nations held the International Conference on Nutrition, where it recognized that nutrition was a necessary precondition for the development of all societies. As a result of this conference, the United Nations adopted the Plan of Action for Nutrition to provide a technical framework to improve nutrition. The plan included several objectives ranging from continued access to safe, nutritious food for people to ensuring the development of programs and policies to improve food security for both current and future generations. 

As a new millennium began, the United Nations adopted the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which set targets to promote health while reducing poverty and hunger, among other goals, by 2015. MDG 1.C aimed at halving hunger from 1990 levels by 2015. By 2014, undernourishment decreased from 23.2 percent in 1990 to 12.9 percent in developing countries. As the initial time frame to achieve the MDGs came to an end, the United Nations introduced the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), an urgent call to action for both developed and developing countries to achieve peace and prosperity under a shared blueprint. Amongst these goals, SDG 2 sets out to end hunger, achieve food security, improve nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture by 2030. Target indicators in achieving SDG 2 include ending malnutrition, increasing food production and developing infrastructure in rural areas to diversify plant and livestock products. 

For the 53rd session of the Commission on Population and Development (CPD), CPD designated Population, food security, nutrition and sustainable development as its special theme for the year. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the commission was unable to meet formally. However, the theme was used during CPD’s 54th session in 2021. The Secretary-General brought to Member States’ attention to the ways in which a lack of food security and poor nutrition can cause long term developmental delays and increase mortality rates from diseases. To remedy this, the Secretary-General recommended Member States take action to transform food and agriculture systems to make them more sustainable and create programmes that encourage both increased food security and nutrition. The Commission was able to come to consensus on a final declaration and encouraged Member States to find innovative ways to promote food security and nutrition while at the same time providing technical assistance to developing countries in order to improve the resilience of their agriculture programs.

Food security and nutrition are essential to ensure the equitable development of people globally. Without proper nutrition, people are unable to meet their dietary needs and therefore cannot live active, healthy lifes. One of the main challenges remaining is sustained access to food. One Planet Network recommends creating a Public Food Procurement (PFP) system that allows countries to decide what kinds of food to purchase and who to purchase food from while still fostering local employment and opportunities for domestic food production. The Union of Concerned Scientists also recommends engaging with more sustainable food production practices by diversifying farm landscapes by including uncultivated prairie strips, having multiple crops in the same field and closely integrating crop and livestock management. These practices encourage biodiversity and improve the overall health of the farm ecosystem at the same time encourages diverse diets for people. 

Questions to consider from your country’s perspective:

  • How can the United Nations harness programs like the International Fund for Agricultural Development to assist developing countries in improving their food security and food systems?
  • What actions can the United Nations take to achieve Sustainable Development Goal 2 by 2030? Are there steps Member States can take to make achieving this goal more likely?
  • Are there ways the United Nations can ensure programs like Public Food Procurement will be effective in ensuring developing countries receive adequate and nutritious food supplies?

Top ↑

Bibliography Bibliography

Top ↑

United Nations Documents United Nations Documents

Support AMUN to accelerate the development of future leaders

AMUN is a non-profit that continues to grow with the help from people like you!